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AUGUST, 1905 


A WORK by my friend, Professor Michaelis, needs 
no introduction to archaeologists, among whom 
for forty years he has held a distinguished place. And it 
should need no introduction to English scholars, who 
owe to the writer admirable works on their treasures, 
the Parthenon, and the Nereid Tomb of Xanthus, as 
well as a great Catalogue of the Ancient Marbles in 
English private houses. 

In the present book Professor Michaelis gives an 
account of archaeological discovery during the last 
century. It is a work showing intimate knowledge ; 
but it is no dry summary ; rather, a record of what the 
writer, watching all with the greatest interest, learned 
as the scroll of excavation and research was gradually 
unrolled. This infusion of a personal element has made 
the book more interesting to the reader. At the same 
time it has had the effect of preventing the treatment 
from being quite even on all sides. Excavation and 
discovery which has especially come under the notice 
of Professor Michaelis, and especially, as he says in his 
Preface, the work of German explorers has been treated 
of at greater length, often with graphic details which 
dwell in the memory. Other discoveries which he has 
not watched with the same closeness, or which have 
been published in a form less accessible to him, are 
spoken of, comparatively, with brevity. In the former 



category come the discovery of the tomb at Trysa 
(Giolbaschi) in Lycia, of which the reliefs are now re- 
moved to Vienna, and the excavations at Pergamon, 
which have so greatly enriched the museums of Berlin. 
In the second category come the recent activities of the 
British and American schools at Athens. Professor 
Michaelis has done ample justice to the brilliant series 
of English discoveries in Greece which began with Cockerell 
and ended with Newton. But more recent excavations 
such as those of the British School at Megalopolis and in 
Melos, and that of the American School at Corinth, have 
scarcely come in for their fair share of notice. 

This failure in complete impartiality is not to English 
and American readers a great disadvantage. For in the 
"Journal of Hellenic Studies," the "Annual of the 
British School of Athens," the " American Journal of 
Archaeology," they can read full accounts of all that 
their countrymen bring to pass in Greece. And now 
the very useful " Year's Work in Classical Studies " 
gives every year a summary of the results reached. With 
us it is the French and German discoveries which are 
less well-known ; and thus the present work will serve 
well to fill a gap in our literature. 

Since the foundation of the British School at Athens 
in 1883, and that oi the American School a little earlier, 
these two institutions have become the centres of con- 
tinuous archaeological work on a number of Greek sites. 
Among the sites which have occupied English scholars 
may be mentioned Naucratis in Egypt, Paphos and 
Salamis in Cyprus, Phylakopi in Melos, and Praesus and 
Palaikastro in Crete. Light won from most of these 
sites has been thrown on the prehistoric age in Greek 
lands, rather on what is really Hellenic. It is a 
Darwinian age, when the search for origins seems to 
fascinate men more than the search for what is good in 


itself : and the fact is that our eyes are somewhat dazzled 
by the brilliant discoveries of Schliemann, Dorpfeld and 
Evans. Of these we have heard much, but strange to 
say, there is no book which gives a comprehensive 
account of the epoch-making discoveries at Olympia. 

The most recent task of the British School, the excava- 
tion of Sparta, is one which will satisfy every Philhellene, 
and we may hope thus to be able alike to verify and to 
vivify phases of Greek history. The feat of Mr. Dickins 
in recomposing the colossal sculptural group by Damo- 
phon at Lycosura, sheds a fresh light on the Macedonian 
age in Greece. Many other such tasks await the students 
of those British Universities which still keep Classics in 
the front line of education. 

The work of the American School has been carried on ' 
at Eretria, Icaria, and Thoricus, and in Bceotia. It has 
made a memorable excavation on the site of the Argive v 
Heraeum. But it has especially devoted itself to the 
digging up of ancient Corinth, a task rendered very hard 
by the depth of earth which has accumulated over the 
old city. Dr. Hill, Director of the American School, 
writes to the translator of this book : "At Corinth we 
have found and excavated Peirene, located the Agora 
with its long Greek and Roman colonnades, identified 
the famous old Doric temple as that of Apollo, found the 
Theatre, the Odeum, and the fountain of Glauke, dis- 
covered in the Agora the ' Old Spring,' a simple Greek 
fountain-house dating from about B.C. 500, and near it 
the foundations of a small temple." 

It would not be suitable in this place to write more 
as to English and American discovery in Greece ; what 
I have said is intended only to prevent undervaluing of 
the zeal and success of our English-speaking colleagues. 

The year 1875 marks an epoch in the history of Greek 
excavation. Up to that time the object of the excavator 


had been, in the first place, to recover for the museums 
of his own country some of the admirable works of art 
of ancient Hellas. Between 1800 and 1875 untold riches 
of art flowed into the British Museum, from Egypt, 
from Koyunjik, from Athens, Phigaleia, Lycia, and 
Halicarnassus. The museums of Paris, Berlin, Munich 
followed suit ; and if they grew more slowly it was only 
because they were served with less enterprise. But 
when the Germans undertook to excavate at Olympia, 
it was stipulated that all that was discovered should 
remain in Greece ; and, in fact, it has remained at 
Olympia itself. Nothing since discovered in Greece, 
in the great excavations of the Athenian Acropolis, of 
Delphi, Delos and other sites, has left the country. 
Turkey and Crete are copying the laws of Greece in such 
matters. All that the western nations are now allowed 
to gain by work in the East is knowledge. We have 
reached the scientific stage of discovery. And since 
knowledge has thus been put in the place of actual spoil, 
it is natural that excavation has been conducted in a 
more orderly and scientific way, find spots and circum- 
stances of finding being recorded with great exactness. 

It is necessary to confess that since 1875 the share of 
England in the work of discovery has diminished, while 
the shares of France and Germany have increased. 
The circumstances of the time fully justified the removal 
to London of such remains as those of Phigaleia and 
Halicarnassus; and all impartial persons, including 
Professor Michaelis, allow that by carrying away the 
sculpture of the Parthenon, Lord Elgin rescued what is 
really the property of the civilized world from certain 
injury and probable destruction. Still, we cannot blame 
Greece and Italy for being determined in future to keep 
the works of art, the possession of which constitutes the 
great distinction of those countries in the eyes of the 


educated world. And we must now accept the changed 
circumstances, and do what we can for historic and 
artistic progress, without hope of results in the form of 
works of ancient art for our museums. We must learn 
to work for science, not for reward. This fact throws 
the more emphasis on what Professor Michaelis has to 
say in his last chapter, which is one of the most important. 
It is a sketch of the recent scientific progress of archae- 
ology, progress furthered as much by methodical study 
in museums and libraries as by actual excavation. The 
sketch is by necessity brief, and of course many of 
Professor Michaelis' views may be disputed ; but the 
great point is to have an outline, however slight, drawn 
by so experienced and so sane an authority, in true 
perspective and proportion. 

To the translator, as I know, the work has been a 
labour of love, done " for science, not for reward." I 
have read the proofs and suggested a few alterations. 



' A RCH^OLOGY of the spade" and its results form 
-/~\ the subject of this volume. By the term archae- 
ology is meant the archaeology of art ; the products 
of civilization in so far as they express no artistic 
character will only be mentioned incidentally. Thus 
Epigraphy has been excluded, nor are coins and gems 
included, for they can hardly be regarded as discoveries. 
Another limitation is due to the fact that my own 
studies have been confined to Classic Art, and that 
my knowledge of the art of other lands has, for the 
most part, only come to me at second hand. Hence 
the difference in treatment. My main object has been 
to give an account of the rise, the diffusion, and the 
deepening of our knowledge of Greek art. No com- 
prehensive treatment of this interesting subject having 
yet appeared, I have felt impelled to fill this gap. 
Although I have not taken part in any excavations, 
yet for the last fifty years I have followed the work 
of others with close interest and have moreover fre- 
quently had opportunities of acquiring direct knowledge : 
this, it seems to me, is a qualification for the task. 

The modest work of the sheaf-binder must follow 
that of the reaper. 

If most space has been devoted to the German 
excavations and investigations, it is mainly because my 
facilities have been greater. 



The readers, whom I am addressing, are not mainly 
the archaeologists by profession to whom I hardly offer 
anything new but rather archaeological students, and, 
above all, the great circle of readers who have preserved 
an interest in and a love for ancient art. 

In this new edition, I have made use of many sugges- 
tions by friends. I am indebted, above all, to M. S. 
Reinach, Dr. Borchardt, and Dr. Messerschmidt. And 

1 wish to express my sincere thanks to my friend Sidney 

In closing may I quote from Sir C. Newton's letter, 

2 Feb., 1877, in which he expressed his thanks to the 
Faculty of Philosophy at Strassburg, for the degree of 
Doctor of Philosophy : " It is from Germany that I always 
sought that sound and thorough information on every 
branch of archaeological and philological study which 
no other country has produced in this generation ; it 
is to Germany that I have always looked for encourage- 
ment and for appreciation of labour which has occupied 
me for many years, and which I now feel not to have 
been in vain." 


February. 1908 


I AM indebted to Professor Gardner for the suggestion 
to translate Professor Michaelis' admirable book. 
Professor Michaelis generously granted the desired per- 
mission, and it affords me great satisfaction to be able 
to lay the book before English readers. The selection 
of illustrations has been rather difficult, inasmuch as 
Professor Michaelis' horizon is so extended. Choice 
has largely been confined to classic lands, and Mr. Murray 
has exercised great care to procure the best. 

May the " Century of Archaeological Discoveries " 
prove of service, as Professor Michaelis desires, " to 
archaeological students and, above all, to the great circle 
of readers who have preserved an interest in, and a love 
for, ancient art." May it awaken in the student and 
reader a desire to see and study glorious Hellas ! 

My sincere thanks are due to Professor Gardner for 
constant advice and assistance. Although his time is 
of utmost value, he has been good enough to read the 
translation and help in the selection of illustrations. 
For all his kindness I can only express my deep gratitude. 

B. K. 






Antiquities of Medieval Rome Collections of the sixteenth, seventeenth, 
and eighteenth centuries Distribution of Roman antiquities The 
Capitoline Museum Winckelmann Herculaneum Psestum The 
Society of Dilettanti Stuart and Revett The Pioclementi Museum I 


The opening of Egypt Pompeii The Musee Napoleon . 13 



Lord Elgin and British travellers in Greece /Egina and Bassse The 
British Museum Sicily Aphrodite of Melos Greece gains its 
freedom . . -27 



The Roman Hyperboreans Eduard Gerhard Wall paintings in Etrus- 
can tombs Greek vases The Alexander mosaic and other single 
finds The Campana Collection The Archaeological Institute 
The Catacombs ....... 5 6 






Egypt-Assyria-Lycia-Charles Newton The Mausoleum Cnidos 
Branchidai-Ephesos-Napoleon III : The Rock Reliefs in Asia 
Minor, Macedonia, Thasos Southern Russia .... 85 



New aims Samothrace Kabeiri Delos Olympia Dodona Askle- 
pieion Amphiaraion Eleusis Epidauros Kos Tenos The 
Heraion ^Egina Ptoibn Delphi . . . .no 



Pompeii Pergamon >gae Assos Neandreia Lesbos Smintheion 
Myrina Magnesia, Priene Miletos Samos Lycia, Pamphylia, 
Pisidia Ephesos Thera Lindos . . . . 159 



Geometric style Prehistoric research Heinrich Schliemann Troy, 

Mycenae, Tiryns Homeric art Crete . . . .206 



Greece : Ionian vases Tanagra The Archaeological Society in Athens 
The excavations on the Acropolis Various Greek sites Italy : 
Greek temples, old Ionic sculpture Old Italic temples Roman 
discoveries Pompeii Boscoreale Berthouville Lauersfort Hil- 
desheim *.... 233 






Egypt, Abyssinia Babylonia Senjirli Palestine Persia Tombs : 
Cyprus, Sidon, Petra, Nemrud-Dagh, Sanies, Gordion Baalbec 
Northern Africa Spain The northern provinces .... 259 



The older Archaeology Conditions of new views Stylistic analysis 
Examples of recent results in sculpture, painting, and architecture 
Some final reflections ...;... 294 







BRITISH MUSEUM ..... To face page 40 

MUSEUM .......,,,, 44 


MUSEUM ....... ,, 46 


DEMETOER, BRITISH MUSEUM . . . . ,, ,, 100 

PLAN OF OLYMPIA ....... , 126 

OLYMPIA . . . . . . . . ,, ,, 127 






TEMPLE OF APHAIA, ^EGINA . . . . ,, ,, 144 





PLAN OF DELPHI ....... ,, 150 


LION GATE, MYCENAE ...... ,, 216 

TIRYNS ......... 218 

TROY ........ ,, 220 

THRONE ROOM, KNOSSOS ..... ,, ,, 230 



CORINTH ..... ...,,,, 245 






EVEN if, towards the close of the last century, the 
taste of the general public, in Germany at least, 
became somewhat estranged from the study of classical 
antiquities, this change of interest affected archaeology 
only in a minor degree. For decades important dis- 
coveries followed one another in the field of ancient art, 
and succeeded in attracting even a wider circle ; in fact, 
archaeology may be classed among the conquering 
sciences of the nineteenth century. For never had such 
eager and confident efforts been made to win back from 
the earth her treasures of ancient art, and never before 
had the labour of the spade been rewarded with so rich 
and manifold a reward. The present generation still 
retains vivid recollections of the latest phases of this 
activity, but it would be unjust to forget the trials and 
successes of former generations, extending back to the 
beginning of the century. 

The object of the following pages is to bring the work 
of those researches before the eyes of the reader. If not 
all the discoveries of the nineteenth century, at least all 
important ones shall be duly recorded. But stress will 
be laid upon single discoveries only in so far as they show 


definite progress, and advance our knowledge of ancient 
art. For every discovery not only enriches science 
with greater knowledge, but constantly suggests new 
problems for solution. 

To explain this complete change in our knowledge 
and views in consequence of the development and 
change of material during the last century it will be 
convenient to give a short outline of the condition of 
affairs existing at the end of the eighteenth century. 
We must revert to the era of the Renaissance and to 
the early times of the rediscovery of ancient art. Rome, 
in consequence, becomes the main object of our pre- 
liminary consideration. 

From an old description of Rome, which dates from 
the age of Constantine, we learn that in the first half of 
the fourth century, before Rome had been plundered 
to enrich Constantinople and devastated again and 
again by invasions, the city still possessed an almost 
incredible number of public statues. Two colossi of 
unusual height (one measured thirty-four metres) and 
22 large equestrian statues are mentioned, besides 80 gilt 
and 73 chryselephantine images of gods ; to these may 
be added 3785 bronze statues (those of marble are not 
even mentioned). How do these compare with our 
Siegesallee, or any of our cities richest in statues ? 

If, however, at the end of the Middle Ages (the middle 
of the fifteenth century) we question Poggio Bracciolini, 
one of the chief representatives of the Renaissance, he 
laments that five marble statues only remain of all this 
splendour four on the Monte Cavallo and one in the 
Forum. Only one bronze equestrian statue remained 
which was supposed to represent Constantine; the 
learned Poggio, however, more correctly recognized it 
as one of the earlier Roman emperors (Marcus Aurelius, 
not Septimius Severus, as he assumed). To these may 
be added the impressive remains of buildings which 


became the models for the Renaissance ; above all the 
Pantheon, the Colosseum, and the theatre of Marcellus, 
the massive vaults of the Baths of Caracalla, of Dio- 
cletian, and of Constantine, remains of temples, columns 
and triumphal arches, etc. 

In its architecture ancient Rome still retained much 
of its grandeur. But even in plastic art, things were 
not quite as bad as we might be led to suppose from 
Poggio's rhetorical plaints. At this time antique sculp- 
ture had been collected at three different points in Rome. 
Some, in fact, had never been covered by the rubbish 
heaps of the Middle Ages. 

On the Quirinal still stood, on their late antique bases, 
the great marble statues of the Dioscuri beside their 
horses, hence giving to the mount the name of Monte 
Cavallo. Traditional tales of medieval times connected 
these with the names of Phidias and Praxiteles, found on 
the pedestals, and also with a fountain and a female 
figure, entwined by a serpent. At the base of the two 
colossi a hall had been added containing three statues 
of Constantine and his sons these had presumably come 
from the neighbouring Thermae of Constantine. This 
hall had been used as a Court of Justice ; here, as else- 
where, superstition brought about an association between 
works of former times and judicial usages. Lastly, to 
the antiques of value on the Monte Cavallo may be added 
two colossal reclining river gods, probably remains of a 
huge fountain ; to-day they adorn the steps leading to 
the Capitol. These, with the Dioscuri, came to typify 
Rome, and these images are rarely absent from old 
pictures or plans of the city. 

The papal palace of the Lateran was surrounded by 
quite different collections. In the spacious square stood 
the equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius, at times looked 
upon by popular traditions as that of the knight or the 
great peasant who, once upon a time, by a stratagem 


took an oriental prince prisoner before the adjacent gate, 
and thereby saved Rome. Again, at other times, the 
statue was identified as that of Constantine, the first 
political patron of Christianity. This statue likewise 
witnessed judicial proceedings in the tenth century ; a 
rebellious official was once hanged opposite the horse, at 
another time the body of an anti-pope was thrown be- 
neath it. We hear that another bronze of the Lateran, 
the famous she-wolf, placed outside on one of the towers 
of the palace, marked a common place of execution 
during the Middle Ages. Hence an old illustration re- 
presents the she-wolf flanked by two amputated hands. 
The Thorn Extractor, the Sacrificial Attendant (Camillus), 
a colossal head and a globe complete the bronze collection 
of the Lateran, which survived the many vicissitudes of 
medieval times. 

The Capitol likewise possessed a collection of anti- 
quities in the Middle Ages. In the Piazza of the Capitol, 
which formerly served as a market-place, stood the tomb- 
stones of the wife and one of the sons of Germanicus. 
These had been brought from the Mausoleum of Augustus, 
and contained a cavity used henceforth as the standard 
measure for corn and salt. Upon the stairs leading to 
the Capitol with its large Hall of Justice stood the famous 
group admired by Michael Angelo that of a horse torn 
by a lion (now in the upper court of the Capitoline 
Museum) -as an emblem of retributive justice. Sentence 
of death was pronounced here, and as a rule carried out at 
the Tarpeian rock near by. Cola di Rienzi met his death 
near the lion group in 1354. Reliefs of sarcophagi lined 
the stairs as far as the church of Aracoeli. An obelisk 
stood near the side entrance ; below, near the Forum, 
lay the river-god who later as Marforio played a part with 
Pasquino in the life of the people of Rome. 

Thus these three elevated sites recaUed ancient sculp- 
ture. There remained here and there in public places or 


in churches single works of art, and to-day names of 
streets still recall the antiques to which they owe their 
origin. But what was this in comparison with the 
splendour of former times ! 

In Rome the collector's zeal began to manifest itself 
during the last decades of the fifteenth century. It had 
appeared somewhat earlier, although less successfully, in 
Florence. In 1471 Pope Sixtus IV, by transferring the 
bronzes of the Lateran to the Capitol, laid the foundation 
of its collection, which increased rapidly and offered a 
shelter especially to the historical sculpture of ancient 
Rome. Julius II, a nephew of Sixtus, established in 
1506 the Belvedere Court, in the summer palace of the 
Vatican. Here such famous masterpieces as the Apollo, 
the Laocoon, the Ariadne, the Nile, the Tiber, and the 
Torso brought the aesthetic aspects of ancient sculpture 
into prominence. The first to follow the examples of 
the popes were the cardinals (Valle, Cesi, Grimani, Carpi, 
etc.), followed later by other distinguished men. To in- 
crease these valuable possessions private excavations 
were frequently undertaken. In the time of Paul III 
the group of the Bull and the colossal reposing Herakles 
were discovered in the Baths of Caracalla, and acquired 
by the papal family of Farnese. 

Julius III was the last pope to rear a monument to his 
humanistic and antiquarian tastes in the Villa Papagiulio. 
Then the ecclesiastical reaction appeared. The Court of 
the Belvedere was closed, cardinals such as Ferdinando 
de Medici, Ippolito d'Este, Cardinal MontaUo (Sixtus V), 
who had furnished their villas as treasure houses of 
antique art, became rare. The Medici acquired among 
other treasures the Niobe group. Instead, however, 
the collector's zeal had awakened in the middle classes ; 
different members of the Mattei family distinguished 
themselves. Not only were antiques gathered in great 
collections, but many of the treasures that the soil con- 


tinued to yield were distributed throughout the city for 
decorative purposes ; courts, stairs, fountains, galleries, 
and palaces were adorned with statues, busts, reliefs, 
and sarcophagi, applied in such a manner as to become 
incorporated in contemporary art, and thereby to gain 
fresh life. 

The seventeenth century continues to be a time of 
eager searching and collecting. Although the Court of 
the Belvedere remains sunk, like a sleeping beauty, in 
oblivion, and its great treasures hidden behind wooden 
stable doors, yet no reigning pope is now without a 
cardinal nephew, who is a collector. In consequence, 
the palaces of the Aldobrandini, Borghese, Ludovisi, 
Barberini, Pamfili, Chigi, etc., are uninterruptedly being 
filled with antiques. Cardinal Ludovico Ludovisi de- 
monstrated the astonishing power at the disposal of a 
cardinal nephew, when he formed within a year, 1622-3, 
a collection of more than 300 antiques and what 
a collection! Perhaps the finest collection Rome has 
ever seen, comprising Greek originals such as the Dying 
Gaul and the group of Gauls belonging to it. It was 
difficult to compete with the all-powerful papal families, 
but the Giustiniani of Genoa, for example, succeeded in 
establishing three important collections within a short 
time in their palace in the city near the Pantheon and in 
their two villas near the Lateran and outside the Porta 
del Popolo. Pope Innocent X (whose features Velasquez 
has perpetuated in a masterly portrait) founded about 
the middle of the century the new Capitoline Museum, 
and the learned Jesuit father, Athanasius Kircher of 
Fulda, laid the foundation of the valuable collection of 
Italian antiquities in the palace of his order, the Collegium 

During two centuries untold antiquities had been 
gathered in Rome, while outside of Rome very little was 
recorded. On the other hand, Rome had begun early to 


distribute her treasures. Venice, Paris, Madrid, Munich, 
and Prague had acquired some Roman antiquities ; and 
Florence had begun to remove to the banks of the Arno 
the most famous statues of the Villa Medici. f 

But this centrifugal movement gained even greater 
strength in the eighteenth century. The Roman families 
were impoverished more and more, and prized their in- 
herited treasures only as a means of bettering their 
finances. The Giustiniani began, the Chigi and Albani 
followed. The courts of Madrid and Dresden had been 
the chief purchasers, but soon wealthy Englishmen ap- 
peared on the scene, and, with the aid of art dealers, 
formed small or large collections, which in the seclusion 
of their country houses, were practically withdrawn from 
view, and afforded neither pleasure nor profit to the lover 
of art. Other treasures followed their owners into foreign 
lands, the Farnese antiques were removed to Naples, and 
those of the Medici to Florence. 

In this manner acquaintance with antique sculpture 
was extended beyond Rome. However, Rome ran the 
danger of losing her old supremacy. To forestall this 
danger the Capitoline Museum was enlarged, enriched, 
and newly opened in the year 1734, chiefly the work of 
the two popes Clement XII and Benedict XIV and their 
energetic advisers. A generation later the only private 
collection formed during the century was added to it, 
the collection in the villa of Cardinal Albani. Its 
spacious halls had been tastefully adorned with carefully 
selected works of art. 

This nearly completes the list of antiques accessible to 
Winckelmann, when he came to Rome in the middle 
of the eighteenth century to combine the hitherto unor- 
ganized material for his " History of Art." The material 
offered was entirely from Roman collections. But 
what did these collections contain ? A few original works 
of late Greek times, such as the group of the Gauls and 


the Laocoon ; a number of characteristic reliefs, statues 
and busts of the Roman Empire all the others were not 
originals, but Roman copies of Greek works, of the most 
different periods. The major part was the work of 
artisans, in which it is hard to trace the character and 
charm of the originals. Even the famous Apollo Belve- 
dere is only distinguished from others by the comparative 
excellence of the reproduction. All these were scattered 
in the most diverse places, and frequently hidden in 
obscure nooks and corners, so as to render a comparative 
study exceedingly difficult. Nor had the records of 
ancient writers on art been collected or sifted, but had to 
be gathered from all corners ; there only existed for 
artists a catalogue of artists by Junius. If we consider 
all this we forget the imperfections in Winckelmann's 
" History of Art," and are moved with amazed admiration 
for the ardent zeal and penetrating artistic insight that 
enabled the Brandenburg shoemaker's son to discern 
with a seer's eye the true nature of things and their 
historical relations through the specious and distorting 
medium of appearances, and out of such materials to rear 
an edifice destined to endure for many years. 

Winckelmann was, however, able to look beyond the 
Roman horizon at two points. The treasures recovered 
at Herculaneum were now most jealously guarded at the 
) royal palace of Portici. As is well known, after the first 
excavations in 1711 -to which the " Herculanerinnen " 
in Dresden belong orders were given prohibiting further 
work. Not till 1738 did the Government resume ex- 
cavations, which were continued for more than a quarter 
of a century, until 1766. In the discovery of the "Villa 
dei papiri," in 1753, the climax was reached. Not only 
the library of the owner, who had been greatly interested 
in Epicurean philosophy, was discovered, but also about 
one hundred works of plastic art, bronze as well as marble 
busts and statues. Although these again were only 


copies of earlier works, they offered new aspects through 
the hitherto unexampled number of bronze figures 
found, thereby forcibly indicating how inadequately 
the bronze of the originals had been rendered in the usual 
marble copies. Again the vast number of antique 
bronze utensils that were found furnished a glimpse of 
the wealth of beautiful form with which the handicrafts 
adorned the whole life of an ancient city even a second 
or third class provincial town. 

Wall paintings offered entirely new problems for in- 
vestigation; not only purely decorative designs, but 
large pictures as well. For Rome had presented little in 
this respect : some obliterated remnants in the so-called 
Thermae of Titus (more correctly Nero's " Golden House ") 
and the Aldobrandini Nuptials. In this respect the 
antiquities of Herculaneum offered impressions and 
solutions of great variety, thereby widening the limited 
horizon of our knowledge of Rome. 

These new discoveries soon became accessible to many 
through the medium of a series of plates. One thing, 
however, Herculaneum could not offer a complete 
picture of an ancient city. The covering of ashes, 
hardened to stone, had become too compact, and only 
permitted examination of single portions of the ancient 
city, and the bringing forth of its treasures to the light of 
day as from a mine. 

Winckelmann was able to go a step beyond Naples 
southward to Paestum and its ancient temples. Al- 
though visible to all eyes, they had only recently been 
discovered. He found himself here, for the first and 
only time in his life, on Greek soil, and saw Greek archi- 
tecture. With his clear vision and warm sensibility, 
he conceived at once the radical difference between Greek 
and Roman architecture, and what he perceived here in 
one province of Greek art enlightened him in others. For 
the first time the grave creations of earlier Greek art, 


great in their simplicity, entered the realm of historical 

In Goethe's " Italian Journey " we recognize the same 
overwhelming impression on his visit to Psestum, of 
another, until then, only dimly conceived world. Above 
all, in Sicily, which Winckelmann never visited, Goethe 
felt strongly the Greek, even Homeric, influence of his 

The Greek world of art was then already beginning 
to reveal itself. About the middle of the century Asia 
Minor and Greece entered the horizon of cultivated people. 
In both cases the search had been instituted by English- 
men. In the time of Charles I, Lord Arundel had fixed 
his gaze on Greece, and kept resourceful agents busy ac- 
quiring Greek sculpture for his collection. This un- 
fortunately experienced many vicissitudes, until finally 
the greater part of it found its way to Oxford. A century 
later, in 1733, some learned men in London founded the 
" Society of Dilettanti," at first merely to unite travellers 
for the discussion of their recollections of Italy and the 
other countries of the " grand tour " ; soon, however, to 
lend aid to serious undertakings. To the Society of 
Dilettanti belonged nearly all the collectors, who had of 
late been purchasing antiquities in Rome to embellish 
their country houses. 

James Dawkins and Robert Wood, both members of 
the Society of Dilettanti, made known about the middle 
of the century the great ruins of Palmyra and Baalbec 
those great Oriental-Roman creations of the second and 
third centuries A.D., and made them accessible to the 
art-loving and learned world. 

More important still about this time were the results 
of an expedition undertaken in England to rediscover 
Athens. Athens had been practically lost during the 
Middle Ages. In the year 1674 occurred the visit of the 
French ambassador to Turkey, the Marquis de Nointel, 


to whom we owe the so-called Carrey drawings ; and in 
1676 took place the voyage of the Lyons physician, 
Jacques Spon and his friend George Wheler, fortunately 
in time to rescue most valuable records, which otherwise 
would have perished in the unfortunate bombardment of 
the Acropolis by the army of Morosini in 1687. 

Again Athens vanished into darkness, until in 1751 
the painter James Stuart and the architect Nicolas 
Revett arrived there, and remained three years, taking 
careful measurements and drawings of the sculpture and 
architecture, which till then had never been accu- 
rately examined. Many things remained in those days 
which have since disappeared (as the Ionic Temple by 
the Ilissos, the Monument of Thrasyllos by the Acropolis, 
etc.) ; others were in a far better state of preservation 
than to-day. The Athenian enterprise of Stuart and 
Revett was the most eventful and important of all ex- 
peditions so far undertaken, and would have been of 
far greater significance had not the publication of their 
great work, the " Antiquities of Athens," been so ex- 
cessively long delayed. Of the two volumes dealing 
with Athens, the first appeared in 1790, and the second 
not till 1816. It was not surprising that the Dilettanti, 
who had subsidized the publication, became impatient, 
and in 1764 sent out the " Ionic " expedition at their 
own expense. Besides Revett, the scholar Richard 
Chandler and the excellent draughtsman William Pars 
were added to its number. We owe to them, besides 
supplementary notes on Athens, the first survey of the 
remains of temples on the Ionic coast of Asia Minor 
(Samos, Priene, Miletos) considerably extending our 
knowledge of Ionic architecture. The Doric ruins of the 
temples of ^Egina and Sunium became likewise known. 
Thus the " Antiquities of Ionia " supplemented the 
older publication in a most desirable manner, their 
volumes appearing in comparatively quick succession 


(1769 and 1797), and almost eclipsed all interest in the 

Winckelmann, who passed away early in life, was not 
permitted to see the promised land of Greek art as re- 
vealed here by English energy. But his authority was 
so compelling that the following generation preferred 
to remain with him, rather than advance with the newly 
acquired knowledge. Winckelmann 's " History of Art " 
remained for a long time the canon for all knowledge 
and criticism of Greek Art, although it was quite evident 
that it had originated on Italian soil, and betrayed 
certain limitations due to the almost exclusive use of 
Roman material. But how many, at that time, were 
there whose glance reached beyond ? Again the power 
of the Roman spirit prevailed completely when the 
Vatican Museum was formed by the two popes Clement 
XIV and Pius VI. The Pioclementi Museum was a 
splendid enlargement of the old court of the Belvedere. 
The best that could be acquired by purchase, gift, or 
excavation, in Rome and the surrounding country, was 
gathered in these famous galleries, their buildings keeping 
pace with their ever-increasing wealth. 

The Museum, begun in 1770, was completed in 1792, 
when its first catalogue was published. The most 
eminent Italian archaeologist Ennio Quirino Visconti 
issued this superb volume, produced by papal munificence. 
It practically occupied the same position in regard to an- 
tique sculpture as Winckelmann 's life-work in the his- 
tory of art. The Vatican Museum seemed destined to 
furnish a brilliant close to the archaeology founded on 
Italian sources. This position it still maintains to-day, 
and if the general public looks upon it as the noblest 
of all museums of antiquities, it only proves the quiet 
tenacity with which the tradition of Winckelmann con- 
tinues to exist. 



THE man who impressed his great personality upon 
the decades at the end of the eighteenth and the 
beginning of the nineteenth century greatly influenced 
archaeology, so that we may speak of that period as the 
Napoleonic. This influence was directed into three 
distinct channels : the scientific opening of Egypt, the 
excavations of Pompeii, and the foundation of the 
Muse*e Napoleon. 

Egypt had in former times only rarely been visited by 
travellers; of whom Richard Pococke, 1737-8, may be 
mentioned as one of the most distinguished. 

Of Egyptian art only some single statues were known, 
which had mainly been recovered in Rome and found 
shelter in the Capitol ; the splendid lions, which older 
visitors to Rome may still remember adorning the steps 
of the Capitol, some Ptolemies, and a statue of the mother 
of Rameses II, the latter indeed of the brilliant period 
of the New Kingdom. To these may be added some 
reliefs, numerous scarabaei, finally some obelisks with 
hieroglyphics. This formed nearly all the material on 
which Winckelmann was able to base his appreciation 
of the art of the Egyptians. Georg Zoega soon after 
devoted serious attention to the obelisks. He was the 
profoundest archaeologist of the generation following 



Winckelmann, and, like him, a son of the North, who had 
drifted to Rome. For the first time an accurate repro- 
duction of hieroglyphics was offered in his erudite book, 
so that it was possible to recognize broadly differences 
of date, and thereby Zoega was able to demonstrate that 
hieroglyphics had not ceased with the Persian conquest 
of Egypt, as had heretofore been believed. Zoega further 
made a distinction between pictorial and phonetic 
symbols, and established therein one of the chief pecu- 
liarities of Egyptian writing. Finally he confirmed 
Barthelemy's observation that the so-called cartouches 
a kind of linear frame of oblong form contained the 
names of kings, the well-known starting-point for Cham- 
pollion in deciphering hieroglyphics. In consequence of 
this and Zoega's investigation of Coptic the latest de- 
velopment of the old Egyptian language Egyptology 
had advanced as far as possible without a more extended 
knowledge of the monuments themselves. 

Zoega's work appeared in 1797, about the time that 
Bonaparte then twenty-eight years of age after his 
successful campaign in Italy, concluded the Peace of 
Campo Formio. He thereupon began in secrecy pre- 
parations for his campaign in Egypt, aimed at England's 
Indian possessions. Men of science were added by the 
young general to this expedition, to investigate the en- 
chanted world of the Nile, its life, nature, and art, in all 

For the first time since the days of Alexander the Great 
a campaign became at the same time an expedition for 
scientific purposes. Bonaparte departed from Toulon 
19 May, 1798. Desaix, who was not much his senior, 
joined him, coming from Civitavecchia. In spite of the 
pursuit of the English fleet, they succeeded in landing at 
Alexandria on i July, and the army advanced rapidly 
along the edge of the desert to Gizeh, where, on 21 July, 
under Bonaparte's leadership, the great victory was 


gained at the foot of the Pyramids over the Mamelukes. 
The army entered Cairo the following day, and ten days 
later, in consequence of Nelson's destruction of the French 
fleet at Aboukir (i August), found itself completely cut 
off from home. Notwithstanding all this, the Egyptian 
Institute was founded in Cairo, to undertake the scientific 
investigation of the country. Among its most distin- 
guished members may be counted Dolomieu, the minera- 
logist, and Denon. 

Dominique Vivant Denon was at that time fifty-one 
years of age, and, although considerably older than the 
two leaders of the campaign, he equalled them in activity 
and energy. He was not a scholar, but an artist. A life 
of varied experience had led him, partly in a diplomatic 
capacity, to Frederick the Great, to Voltaire at Ferney, 
to Catherine II, and to the Court of Naples ; the former 
favourite of Madame Pompadour later entered into re- 
lations with Robespierre, and finally with Bonaparte's 
wife Josephine. He was just the man to pursue artistic 
investigations in the train of the army. Hardly had 
he arrived in Cairo when he felt irresistibly drawn to the 
Pyramids. He spent the night at Gizeh, and the follow- 
ing morning he hurried to the Pyramid of Cheops, and 
penetrated to its interior. The great Sphinx near by 
stimulated him at once to considerations of style. As 
an experienced draughtsman he recorded all his im- 
pressions rapidly on paper, here, as throughout the ex- 
pedition. Denon, whom Bonaparte had assigned to the 
army of Desaix, found in him a lively appreciation of art. 
Desaix had been commissioned to pursue Murad Bey and 
his troops up the Nile. The description of Denon 's 
journey affords us an admirable picture of this adven- 
turous expedition. Denon, always on horseback, proved 
an indefatigable draughtsman. At times he is inter- 
rupted by skirmishes with the Mamelukes; at times 
studying the old ruins, again his pencil is fascinated by 


the magic of the landscape or the strange scenes of daily 
life; then again he is absorbed in the study of hiero- 

The Pyramid of Sakkara offered something quite 
novel with its ascending steps. At Dendera, a longer 
stay made it possible to study there the extensive re- 
mains of the late period. The small temple of Hathor, 
in good condition, but half buried ; the larger temple, 
not so well preserved, but rich in decorations ; the famous 
representations of the Zodiac all these marvels were 
now revealed to the artistic eye of Denon. The ex- 
tensive ruins of Thebes could only be inspected hastily, 
as the stay there was disturbed by serious fighting, but 
Denon's attention had been attracted by the remains of 
the colossus of Rameses, three metres high. The temple 
of Horos at Edfu offered the first glimpse of a complete 
sanctuary, though again only of the times of the Ptolemies. 

Thus the expedition continued up the river as far as 
Assuan (Syene) and the first cataract. At Elephantine 
there still remained the charming sanctuary, surrounded 
by columns, of Amenhotep III, and as it was destroyed in 
1822, we owe our knowledge of it exclusively to the French 
expedition. The island of Philae, in consequence of its 
situation and its ruins, offered a brilliant ending to the 
expedition. The farthest point reached is recorded here, 
in an inscription dated 3 March, 1799, thus immortalizing 
this event. The return journey down the Nile was now 
undertaken, but frequently interrupted by skirmishes. 
Only at Thebes, the hundred-gated, was a more prolonged 
stay made, and the widely scattered remains of the old 
capital could be studied more closely. The colossi of 
Memnon, already famous in antiquity, formed the chief 
object of interest, and Denon thought he recognized 
therein the images of Egyptian princesses. 

Thus passed the first scientific expedition into the 
inner realm of the Pharaohs. At Cairo the Institute 


displayed, for many years, striking activity, shared alike 
by scholars, officers, and engineers, gathering valuable 
material. Antiquities which could be secured without 
great difficulties were brought together there. Excava- 
tions were not undertaken, but observation and the zeal 
for collecting was perforce confined to gathering objects 
which lay exposed or came to light by accident, such as the 
Rosetta stone, discovered during the building of fortifi- 
cations. Its inscription rendering the same text in 
hieroglyphics, Demotic, and Greek, materially aided in 
the deciphering of Egyptian monuments. In other 
respects the collection of antiquities consisted of twenty- 
seven works of sculpture, chiefly fragments of statues, 
but including some sarcophagi. The fate of this collection 
was strange. 

After Bonaparte had returned to France in October, 
1799, and his successor Kleber had been assassinated, 
14 June, 1800, the French found themselves compelled 
to evacuate Egypt in 1801. The surrender of all these 
works of art to England was the condition of peace most 
unwillingly complied with. They found their way to 
the British Museum, instead of to Paris. But the results 
of their scientific investigations remained to the French. 
An editorial staff in Paris was busily engaged for years 
in compiling and publishing the numerous volumes of the 
" Description de I'Egypte" which constituted for many 
years the main source of our knowledge of the land of the 
Nile. The volumes dedicated to antiquity for the first time 
took into consideration the architecture of Egypt in its 
grandeur and simplicity, which till then had been unknown. 
Sculpture and painting appeared as supplementary arts 
in the service of architecture. Egyptian art had not 
yet been divided into different periods, and the illustra- 
tions given here belonged almost exclusively to the late 
ages. Denon had, however, correctly distinguished 
three different kinds of hieroglyphics (sunk, slightly 


raised, en creux), though chronologically not correctly 
arranged. The contemplation of Egyptian art amid 
Egyptian surroundings and nature formed the main 
result obtained by the three years' expedition. A truly 
historical interpretation was reserved for later times. 

With the excavation of Pompeii the Napoleonic period 
won for itself another great distinction. But here it 
was not Napoleon who took the initiative, but other 
members of his family, his favourite sister in particular, 
the beautiful, clever, and ambitious Caroline. 

The excavation of Herculaneum (p. 8) had been 
abandoned in 1766 in consequence of the insurmountable 
difficulties offered by the thick layer of hardened ashes 
and pumice stones. Pompeii now took the place of 
Herculaneum, as in 1748 its ruins had been accidentally 
discovered. The deposit over Pompeii, as is well known, 
is far less difficult to deal with. At first these attempts 
were only intermittent trials, in the south-east near the 
amphitheatre, and in the north-west in the remains of 
a villa, which was, of course, at once declared to be the 
villa of Cicero, as from one of his letters it was known 
that he possessed a country seat there. Only after 
Herculaneum had been definitely abandoned, in the 
early sixties, was work continued there more seriously. 
In the south-western part of the city excavations were 
begun in the quarter of the theatres ; the two theatres 
and the three-cornered Forum, with its remains of early 
temples, the sanctuaries of Isis and the supposed temple 
of jEsculapius (Zeus Milichios). Besides these, a second 
large villa appeared adjoining the villa of Cicero, which 
received the name of Arrius Diomedes, the model of a 
town villa or summer residence. Thus this work con- 
tinued slowly and deliberately for thirty years four, 
eight, or at most thirty workmen being employed. When 


the Emperor Joseph II visited the excavations in 1769 
he expressed himself frankly in regard to the Neapolitan 
indolence, without, however, producing any effect. Be- 
sides, the evil custom prevailed of burying houses again 
after they had been robbed of their spoil. But even 
after this ceased, the excavations still continued to bear 
the stamp of careless working. Indifference prevailed 
as to architecture and as to the remains as a whole ; 
only what could be carried off and placed in the museum 
excited interest. In this manner paintings were sawn 
out, bronzes and implements carried off, the bare walls 
and their decorations left to decay. Finally during the 
last decade of the century political events stopped all 

Thus matters stood in Pompeii when towards the end 
of 1798 the King of Naples transferred his residence to 
Palermo, and the Parthenopean republic was founded in 
Naples under the guidance of the French General Cham- 
pionnet. He was personally interested in the excavation 
of Pompeii ; some houses excavated at that time still 
bear his name to-day. They are toward the south near 
the theatres, and with several storeys tower above the 
steep south slope of Pompeii. The return of the Bour- 
bons caused a short interruption, but in 1806 Napoleon 
made his eldest brother, Joseph, the most insignificant 
and indifferent of the brothers, King of Naples. The 
king had no scientific interests, but his minister, Miot, 
was more active. He induced the able Neapolitan 
scholar, Michele Arditi, to form new plans for the exca- 
vations. According to these the State was to acquire 
the entire site of Pompeii, and the excavations were to 
be carried on according to well-conceived plans, beginning 
at two points in the north-west, not as heretofore to be 
made in a haphazard fashion by working here and there. 
Finally greater sums of money were to be available, 
500 ducats a month (900 a year), so as to make it possible 


to employ a larger force of 150 workmen. With this 
plan a firm foundation was laid for the work. 

When in 1808 Joseph Bonaparte was transferred to 
the throne of Spain, and succeeded by his brother-in-law, 
Joachim Murat, as King of Naples, these plans received 
a great impetus. The wife of the latter, Queen Caroline, 
exhibited a keen interest in the Pompeian excavations, 
and proved this by appearing frequently at Pompeii, and 
stimulating the workmen to greater efforts. She fre- 
quently spent entire days, during the great heat, at the 
excavations, to encourage lazy workmen, and to reward 
them in the event of success. The funds were increased, 
so as to make the employment of six hundred men pos- 
sible. The Street of Tombs was next uncovered, forming 
a complete and solemn picture, greatly impressing the 
beholder even to-day. For the first time a complete out- 
line of an ancient market-place and its surroundings could 
be obtained ; the market, enclosed and inaccessible to 
wheeled traffic, was surrounded by a colonnade, filled 
with monuments, with the great temple in the back- 
ground, and beyond the arcades were other temples or public 
buildings ; among the principal being the stately Basilica. 
Constant and increased eff orts were thus crowned by 
important results. The Queen did not withhold generous 
assistance ; the French architect, Fr. Mazois, received 
from her 1500 francs while preparing his monumental 
work on Pompeii. Even in those days careful pre- 
parations were made in advance for the visits of dis- 
tinguished guests. While the Congress of Vienna was 
in session in the autumn of 1814, the Queen had been 
expected to appear, although in vain. In April, 1815, 
Prince Achilles came with the King of Westphalia, who 
had in the meanwhile lost his kingdom ; and in June 
King Ferdinand again entered Naples. 

The Bourbon regime continued the work, and its most 
important achievement was the connection of the two 


different points of the excavations at the Street of Tombs 
and the Forum. The climax of these efforts was formed 
by the temple of Fortuna Augusta, and the baths near 
the Forum illustrating graphically the baths of antiquity. 
But the old Neapolitan indolence soon returned, and 
Pompeii sank once more into a long sleep. What had 
been gained during the time of the French remained 
always of importance ; an insight into a Roman pro- 
vincial town showing different centres of traffic, and ex- 
hibiting elegance in her wealth and artistic surroundings. 
Herculaneum may, on the whole, have been wealthier 
and more refined in the arts, but Pompeii first enabled 
us to construct a picture of an entire city. This appeared 
at first as a uniform and complete whole, and it was not 
realized at once that what had been termed Pompeian 
chiefly belonged to the later and decadent period of 
Pompeii. This historical point of view only prevailed 
later ; in the meantime, the beautiful works of Mazois, 
Gau, Zahn, Ternite, as well as the more popular ones of 
William Gell and others, fully prepared the public for 
Bulwer's novel, " The Last Days of Pompeii," in 1834. 

In the establishment of the great museum in Paris 
Napoleon took a more personal part, its origin dating 
even further back than the Egyptian campaign. 

As far back as the Renaissance the French capita 
and its neighbourhood had made use of antiques for 
decorative purposes. To mention only the foremost o 
these : Francis I possessed, besides bronze copies 01 
antiques, the " Diana with the Hind," for which Henry IV 
formed in the Louvre the "Salle des Antiques." Louis XIV 
acquired the " Germanicus " and the " Jason " from the 
Villa Montalto (p. 5). But these antiques were scattered 
to adorn the royal palaces of Fontainebleau, St. Cloud, 
and Versailles ; and the palaces of the Louvre and the 


Tuileries had their share. With these competed the 
Palais Cardinal (Richelieu) in Paris and the Chateau 
d'Ecouen of the Montmorency family. This collection of 
sculpture was, however, greatly overshadowed by the 
"Cabinet des Medailles " in Paris with its coins, gems, and 
bronzes, a collection of the first importance. 

It is to the credit of Napoleon that he created a new 
art centre in Paris for antique sculpture. In supple- 
menting his Egyptian campaign with scientific work 
he followed the admirable example of Alexander the 
Great ; now in acquiring antiquities he followed the less 
praiseworthy custom of Roman generals, who pillaged 
conquered countries and transferred the captured trea- 
sures to Rome. The youthful conqueror of 1796 must 
certainly have had this example in his mind while 
making the conditions of the truce at Bologna, 23 June, 
for Article VIII reads as follows : " Le Pape livrera a la 
Republique Fran9aise cent tableaux, bustes, vases ou 
statues, au choix des commissaires qui seront envoyes a 
Rome, parmi lesquels objets seront notamment compris 
le buste en bronze de Junius Brutus et celui en marbre de 
Marcus Brutus, tous les deux places au Capitole, et cinq 
cents manuscrits au choix desdits commissaires." Charac- 
teristic of the republican is the prominence given to the 
busts of the expeller of kings and the murderer of Caesar. 
In vain the pope resisted ; this severe condition was re- 
corded in the Treaty of Tolentino in February, 1797. The 
antiques selected were the choicest of those contained in 
the Belvedere of the Vatican and in the Hall of the Muses ; 
the Capitol suffered the loss of about a dozen of its finest 
statues, among them the "Dying Gladiator" and the 
" Thorn Extractor." But even this did not suffice ; under 
threadbare pretexts private collections became involved, 
especially that of the Duke of Braschi, a relative of the 
pope, and the rich viUa of Cardinal Albani (p. 7). The 
entire collections 6f antiquities were confiscated; 517 


pieces packed into 288 cases awaited on the shores of the 
Tiber transportation to Paris. In consequence of ne- 
gotiations, however, only 70 antiques shared this fate. 
Those selected were, of course, not the least valuable. 

In November, 1801 the i8th of Brumaire of the IXth 
year just two years after the coup d'etat, the Musee 
Central in the Louvre was opened with 117 objects. 
Two years previously Visconti, who in the meantime 
had been one of the consuls of the Roman republic, had 
removed to Paris, and devoted during the two following 
decades his brilliant scientific attainments to the museum 
there and to French archaeology. He also drew up the 
catalogues of the rapidly growing museum. But the 
actual guiding spirit, here as well as in Egypt, was Denon. 
He accompanied the army, and decided on the works of 
art to be carried off. Florence had to yield her Venus de 
Medici, Venice the four bronze horses on St. Mark's, 
Mantua the famous busts of Euripides and of "Vergil," 
Verona the Augustus Bevilacqua, Modena and Turin 
minor works. At the Louvre one gallery of antiques after 
another was opened, just as the Belvedere had expanded 
into the Museum Pioclementi. The entire Borghese 
collection, which Napoleon had bought of his brother-in- 
law, Prince Camillo Borghese, was incorporated in 1806. 
Very soon German antiquities were added, in all twenty 
or thirty objects ; the "Praying Boy " in Berlin led the way 
for the " Victory of the Brandenburg Gate," an Athene 
from Cassel, the alleged sarcophagus of Charlemagne 
from the Cathedral of Aix-la-Chapelle, and others. In 
Vienna Denon selected, in 1809, twenty-four objects 
from the collection of antiquities, among which the only 
valuable one was the alleged Amazon sarcophagus of 
Ephesos. The precious cameos of the Imperial House 
had fortunately been carried in time into security in 
Hungary. Numerous catalogues recorded the constantly 
growing acquisitions of the museum and the addition of 


new buildings. In the year 1815 its numbers reached 
384. Free admission granted to the public, the establish- 
ment of a foundry for reproduction of the sculpture at 
the museum, the preparation and publication of great 
collections of engravings, all contributed to increase the 
magnificence and usefulness of the Musee Napoleon, and 
to drown the voices of those who took exception to the 
manner in which most of the treasures had been gathered. 
How incensed the educated public would have been if, 
in the conditions of the Peace of Frankfort in 1871, a 
demand had been made for the Venus of Melos and some 
of the more important paintings in the Salon Carre* ! 

The department of antiquities in the Musee Napoleon 
bore an entirely Roman character. With the exception 
of the Ludovisi collection, the different Roman col- 
lections had yielded their best, but the effect produced in 
Rome by numberless works of art offered for contem- 
plation, amid ancient surroundings, could not be attained 
elsewhere. If the unique treasures of Naples could have 
been acquired the museum would have gained, in regard 
to bronzes and paintings, a great advantage over Rome. 
Notwithstanding this, the classical period of Greek art 
was represented by many copies of different degrees of 
excellence, the Hellenistic period, and to some extent 
Roman art, by such excellent originals, that we can under- 
stand Visconti's point of view, when he states that antique 
art retained the same high level from the time of Phidias 
to that of Hadrian. It was the first attempt to replace 
the aesthetic theory of Winckelmann and of his followers 
by another. 

To grasp the historical impossibility of this, one need 
only reflect a moment. Six centuries rilled with migra- 
tions of races, of constant changes in political and civilizing 
influences, but art retaining always the same height, as if 
floating above the clouds ! The great name of Visconti 
produced this iUusion. The Musee Napoleon became the 


training school for the archaeologists of those days, for 
them Napoleon's Court archaeologist, Visconti, was the 
oracle. Friedrich Thiersch, who was then studying the 
antiquities in Paris, became for Germany the apostle of 
this unhistorical theory. 

With the downfall of Napoleon in 1815 his brilliant 
creation fell. It was only just, that what had been ac- 
quired by martial law should now be returned to their 
original owners by martial law. The Secretary of State, 
Cardinal Consalvi, maintained the claims of Rome ; 
Wilhelm von Humboldt and the Duke of Wellington en- 
deavoured successfully to break the resistance of the 
French commission, especially of Denon. The Vatican 
received its property almost intact ; although it showed a 
petty spirit that the Tiber statue had to see his old comrade 
the Nile return alone to the shores of the Tiber. The ex- 
penses of the return journey were so enormous that the 
papal authorities were only able to meet them with sub- 
stantial aid from England. For the same reason the heirs 
of Cardinal Albani contented themselves with bringing 
back only four of the seventy objects carried off, the 
others were sold at auction in Paris, and were either 
returned to the Louvre, or went to the Glyptothek in 
Munich. In the Capitoline Museum a special gallery 
was opened for the restored marbles, where they were 
grouped around the " Dying Gladiator." Only the 
Borghese collection was acquired by purchase and re- 
mained in Paris, forming the nucleus of the present 
Musee Royal. Visconti published, in 1817, its first cata- 
logue and his last work ; he died the following year. 

The Musee Napoleon was the last magnificent example 
of a museum exhibiting a Roman character. It marked 
the end of the old system of conducting museums. The 
Napoleonic empire had represented itself as the heir of 
the Roman Caesars. Philology and Ancient History had 
also for centuries cultivated, in a one-sided manner, Rome 


and Roman literature. But at this moment the History 
of Rome was receiving a magnificent revival at the hands 
of Barthold Georg Niebuhr. On the horizon, however, the 
splendour of another dawn was visible. Simultaneously 
with the Roman Musee Napoleon the British Museum 
in London was developing as the most illustrious centre 
of Greek art. 



IT naturally follows from their old affinity of race 
and their mental characteristics that the Italians 
and French would feel more drawn toward Roman an- 
tiquity and its expression in art than toward the Greek. 
For a long time Greek literature had only been accessible 
to these nations from Roman translations or adaptations, 
and the language of the Church fostered the Latin 
language as well, while the German schools and uni- 
versities, partly under the influence of Protestant 
theology, adhered to the study of Greek. Thus it came 
about that when at the end of the eighteenth century the 
intellectual magnetic needle pointed more and more 
toward Greece, as the central land of antiquity, Germany 
took the foremost place in the reorganization of archae- 
ology, in the Greek humanistic spirit. 

The leaders in Germany were Friedrich August Wolf, 
August Bockh, Gottfried Hermann, and Immanuel Bek- 
ker ; in England appeared at the same time Richard 
Porson and Peter Paul Dobree, while in France Jean 
Franois Boissonade and a Greek residing there, Adaman- 
tios Koraes, distinguished themselves. As in Germany, 
so in England, Greek formed part of the general education, 
and was partly the cause which now led many British 
travellers to Greece instead of Italy ; soon, however, 
political difficulties experienced by British travellers in 
the Italy of the French increased this tendency. At the 



end of the eighteenth century, among travellers and 
collectors may be mentioned Richard Worsley and 
Edward Daniel Clarke. The time in England was noted 
in archaeological literature by the appearance of the 
second volume of " The Antiquities of Athens " (1790), 
dealing with Athens and the Acropolis ; of the "Museum 
Worsleianum" (1794) and the last volume of the "An- 
tiquities of Ionia " (1797). 

Stimulated by these new studies, an enterprise 
was set on foot at the beginning of the century 
which was to prove of the utmost importance. Lord 
Elgin, then hardly thirty - three years of age, a 
member of an old Scottish family, was in 1799 sent as 
British ambassador to Constantinople. His friend, the 
architect Thomas Harrison, aroused by the study of the 
above-mentioned books, had requested him to send 
plaster casts of certain sculptures and of an Ionic corner 
capital, known to be of irregular form. This modest 
request fell on fruitful soil, and the young earl conceived 
the plan of rendering to British art the most far-reaching 
services, by having drawings and casts made. The re- 
quest to Pitt for Government aid failed, a fact which can 
easily be understood if the warlike condition of affairs 
is realized. Lord Elgin was thus thrown entirely upon 
his own resources. W. R. Hamilton, his extremely 
active secretary, who later became President of the 
Geographical Society, succeeded in gathering in Italy a 
complete staff of artists : the painter Tita Lusieri, the 
draughtsman Fedor, a Calmuck, the architects Balestra 
and Ittar, and two workers in plaster. While the am- 
bassador proceeded directly to Constantinople, these 
artists went to Athens, arriving in May, 1800, but were 
prevented from working by difficulties raised by the local 
authorities. On the Acropolis they were merely allowed 
to draw, and this only after paying daily 5 for admission ; 
the citadel still remained a fortress. The artists thus 


lost quite nine months. Ultimately the death of Kle"ber 
occurred, which made England's negotiations in Egypt 
and the withdrawal of the French possible (p. 17), in con- 
sequence of which, the British ambassador to Turkey 
gained greater influence. 

Lord Elgin, in May, 1801, made use of the favourable 
condition of affairs to secure for his artists free access 
to the Acropolis and permission to erect scaffoldings and 
take casts there. But the extortions of the greedy Turks 
did not by any means cease. Lord Elgin convinced him- 
self of all this by visiting Athens, and, while impressed 
with the great beauty of the monuments, recognized at 
once the danger to which they were constantly exposed 
by wilful destruction and by being scattered and reck- 
lessly bestowed on strangers. Lord Elgin bought and 
demolished two houses near the Parthenon ; in the first 
was found a rich harvest of the pediment statues ; in the 
second, however, there was nothing ; all had already 
been consigned to the limekiln. 

This experience and similar observations of Philip 
Hunt, the chaplain of the Embassy, who spent far more 
time in Athens than in Constantinople, induced Lord 
Elgin to secure a new firman permitting his artists not 
only to put up scaffoldings and take casts, but also to 
take measurements and to search for the foundations of 
buildings and for inscriptions ; besides this " no one should 
interfere in case they wished to remove some stones 
having inscriptions or figures upon them." 

This last statement gave the undertaking quite a new 
direction. Hunt knew how to interpret these words 
in the proper manner. By means of bakshish in the 
form of English goods, he received permission from the 
governor to remove one of the metopes of the Parthenon. 
This permission had been granted more than ten years 
before to the French ambassador, Count Choiseul- 
Goufner, in reference to the removal of a slab of the frieze. 


Lord Elgin's first success induced him to have his 
firman extended, so as to gain permission to remove 
other sculptures of the temple. This formed the beginning 
of the widely discussed operations in the citadel, where 
300 to 400 workmen were kept busy for a year carrying 
off the decorative sculpture of the Parthenon. This spoil 
consisted of a dozen figures of the pediments, fifteen 
metopes and fifty-six slabs of the frieze. The latter 
were chiefly collected from the ground around the temple 
or found among the houses ; the statues of the pediments 
were removed without necessarily injuring the archi- 
tecture ; the metopes, however, could only be detached 
after destroying the cornice above them a proceeding 
deserving the severest censure. It was impossible to 
remove without vandalism a column from the eastern 
porch of the Erechtheion and a maiden from the Caryatid 
porch, which was replaced by a clumsy pillar. As it was 
said, "Quod non fecerunt Gothi, fecerunt Scoti" On the 
other hand, parts of the frieze from the Temple of Nike 
and some single sculpture from the lower city of Athens 
were practically saved by their removal from destruction 
or loss. The exploitation was completed by a number of 
plaster casts from the Theseion, and a rich collection of 

All this had been accomplished when Lord Elgin was 
recalled in 1803 and returned home via Athens. Lusieri, 
who remained as his agent, was soon enabled to send off 
this precious load, in 200 cases, filling several ships. 
The brig Mentor was wrecked off stormy Cape Malea, but 
skilled divers from the islands off the coast of Asia Minor 
succeeded in recovering, in the course of three years, all 
the treasures. What remained in the care of Lusieri 
was seized by the French, when in 1807 Turkey declared 
war on England, and taken by them to the Piraeus. The 
want of opportunity for shipment, England's command 
of the sea, and the speedy declaration of peace saved the 


statues from the fate, which had befallen the French 
treasures in Egypt, of falling into the enemy's hands 
(p. 17). Not till 1812 was Lusieri able to dispatch the 
last eighty cases to England. 

Against the questions whether Lord Elgin was justified 
in using his official position to further a private enter- 
prise, whether Hunt's interpretation of the firman was 
correct, and whether the workmen always exercised 
the greatest care and skill, we may set the con- 
sideration that these precious sculptures were spared 
from damage and destruction, and withdrawn from the 
injuries inflicted on the Acropolis, and in particular on 
the western front of the Parthenon by two bombardments 
about twenty years later. We can only ask here whether, 
in consequence of Lord Elgin's action, science has been 
promoted or retarded, and the answer cannot be doubtful. 
Only since these valuable remains have been secured from 
the indifference and covet ousness of the Turks, placed in 
safety and exhibited in an easily accessible spot, have 
these masterpieces of the school of Phidias gained an 
influence over the development of archaeology, and es- 
tablished a fixed standard or scale for the contemplation 
of the history of Greek art which they would never have 
exercised in the then remote Athens, in the enclosure of 
a Turkish fortress, at the inaccessible height of the pedi- 
ments, or scattered and hidden in many secret places. 
The history of Greek art would for another half-century 
or longer have lacked the important stimulus given by the 
Elgin marbles in London. Science therefore has every 
reason to feel grateful to Lord Elgin. 

Work continued at Athens, for, as Lord Arundel (p. 10) 
had expressed it, " to transplant old Greece to England " 
seemed now the desire of many. While the architect, 


William Wilkins, was studying Athenian architecture, a 
number of travellers were preparing to study the country 
of Greece scientifically. The chief among these was 
Captain William Martin Leake, as he then was. He was 
present at the shipwreck of the Mentor (p. 30), and lost 
on that occasion all his papers, which contained a detailed 
description of his travels in Asia Minor. He again re- 
turned to Athens in 1804, to travel on the Greek mainland, 
in the employ of the British Government. He thus be- 
came the founder of the scientific geography of Greece. 
Simultaneously there travelled in Greece the loquacious 
Edward Daniel Clarke, the thoughtful antiquary Edward 
Dodwell, accompanied by the Italian draughtsman 
Pomardi, and the dry but indefatigable William Gell. 
Their guide was Pausanias, the describer of Greece in the 
age of the Antonines, as he had been in earlier days for 
Spon and Chandler. But the eyes of the present travel- 
lers were more free and open to appreciate present con- 
ditions as well as the remains of the past which were un- 
folded before them in surprising number and diversity. 
The remains of prehistoric architecture in the Argolid 
impressed them most forcibly. Tiryns was discovered 
with its cyclopean walls of huge blocks, one towering 
above another, with subterranean galleries and arched 
vaults, as yet of enigmatical character. Mycenae, the 
citadel of the Atreidse, appeared, with the Lion Gate and 
the famous Beehive Tomb or Treasury of Atreus, in 
which experimental excavations had been made by Lord 
Elgin's representative. These travellers had no thought 
of carrying on excavations. Thus there appeared from 
the darkness of antiquity the first palpable remains of 
the sites hallowed by Homeric poetry and primeval 
legends. From the very ancient walls of Mycenae and 
Tiryns interest was naturally extended to the numberless, 
and at times excellently preserved, city walls of later 
times, scattered all over Greece. To these may be added 


the beautiful ruins of Corinth, ^Egina, Bassse, near Phi- 
galia, until then hardly investigated. These remains of 
consummate architecture induced the Society of Dilet- 
tanti to organize in 1812 and 1813 a new expedition to 
Asia Minor and Attica, about the time of Napoleon's 
campaign to Russia, with Gell as its chief, accompanied by 
the architects John P. Gandy and Francis Bedford. Their 
" Unedited Antiquities of Attica " appeared in 1817, soon 
after the publication of the second volume of " Anti- 
quities of Athens," in which the sanctuaries of the Eleu- 
sinian Mysteries and the group of Temples at Rhamnus 
mark a great advance in our knowledge of Greek archi- 

Other British architects were working at Athens along 
the same lines. C. R. Cockerell and J. Foster met Lord 
Byron there in 1810. Technical questions were of ab- 
sorbing interest, in view of the unparalleled technical 
perfection found in all the details of the buildings on the 
Acropolis. Thus Cockerell began measuring the Doric 
column to ascertain its exact entasis, which had already 
been observed by Wilkins. This entasis is a slight expan- 
sion of the outlines, which in the columns of the Parthenon, 
having a diameter in the lowest drum of 1-90 metre, 
amounts only to 17 millimetres on each side, and is of vast 
importance in giving life to the outline. In September, 
1810, these two young men, who were still in the early 
twenties, were joined by a group of older men, who had 
met in Rome, and there decided to come to Greece. These 
were two Danish scholars, Peter Oluf Bronstedt and his 
brother-in-law Koes, the Livonian Baron Otto Magnus 
von Stackelberg, an antiquary, and a man of fine artistic 
taste ; the Nuremberg architect Baron Haller von Haller- 
stein, and the Suabian amateur Linkh, of Canst at t. These 
men were soon united in close bonds of friendship, which 
developed into a special intimacy between the two 
architects, Haller and Cockerell. 


All had the same ambitions, but tried to realize them 
in diverse ways. Stackelberg and the two Danish 
scholars visited Asia Minor, while the two Germans and 
the two Englishmen went to ^gina in April, 1811, to 
examine the ruins of the supposed Temple of Zeus. 
Having established their quarters in a cave near the 
ruins, they found a head with a helmet, near one of the 
pediments, while taking measurements and decided to 
pursue these traces. Thirty workmen were then en- 
gaged, and a great number of fragments were found during 
sixteen days' labour. From these fragments it was 
possible to restore later fifteen statues, five of the eastern 
and ten of the western pediments. The fortunate dis- 
coverers acquired the entire treasure from the city of 
gina for the sum of 30 to 40. The inhabitants of 
^Egina evidently rated the marble fragments only accord- 
ing to their value for the limekiln. These valuable frag- 
ments were conveyed to Athens en route for Zante, at 
that time the trade centre in these regions, but soon they 
were removed to Malta, and placed under English pro- 
tection, in consequence of the warlike condition of affairs 
there. Their public sale had previously been fixed 
in Zante for November, 1812. France and England 
tried to acquire them ; the latter had given unlimited 
powers to its representative, who, however, made the 
mistake of going to Malta, while the sale was in Zante. 
In consequence the Crown Prince Louis of Bavaria was 
able to acquire them for the comparatively low price of 
6000, and thereby to secure a firm foundation for the 
Glyptothek he had planned. 

Thorvaldsen was chosen to restore and reconstruct these 
fragments. Although this restoration long enjoyed great 
fame, yet critical study and strict comparisons have re- 
vealed failures in a scheme carried on without scientific 
advice. The detailed description of the excavations 
recently undertaken by Furtwangler, and his reconstruc- 
tion therefrom, will be considered in another chapter (VI). 


jWhen these discoveries were made they increased our 
knowledge in two directions. Firstly, it was shown that 
pediment groups, of which the only examples then known 
were those of the Parthenon, formed the decoration not 
exclusively of larger temples, as was then supposed, but 
that small temples possessed the same decorations at 
either end. The subject of the newly discovered group 
referred to Homeric poetry, to the battles before Troy. 

Secondly, the composition of the group was of unex- 
pected severity, in a style presenting older characteristics 
than the Attic, and distinctly different ones. It was 
Doric art appearing here for the first time. It seemed 
so entirely strange that the sculptor Martin Wagner, who 
had made the fortunate purchase for his prince, was re- 
minded of Egyptian art. This suggestion has been re- 
peatedly made since in regard to newly discovered archaic 
Greek art. 

The travellers, the two Englishmen and the two 
Germans, were still followed by good fortune. From 
^Egina they crossed over to the Peloponnese. In the 
south-east corner of Arcadia they reached, in July, 1811, 
the temple of Apollo at Bassae, near the town of Phigalia, 
which is spoken of among the natives as "near the 
columns " ('? TOV? (rrvXov?). The temple is distin- 
guished by its exceptionally fine position. It is situated 
high in a mountainous region, commanding an extended 
view toward the south over rich Messene, with Mount 
Ithome as a central point, and the sea far beyond. To 
this must be added the different peculiarities in the con- 
struction of the temple, the unusual ground-plan ; the 
use made of Ionic half-columns in a Doric temple, etc. 
There was abundance of work for the architects Haller, 
Cockerell, and Foster. 

While searching among a heap of blocks they came upon 
a fox's earth, and continuing their search they found a slab 
of a frieze, which had served as its lair. Yet another 


Temple with sculpture! Excavations were not per- 
mitted, but after their success at jEgina these friends 
did not despair of attaining their aim. The Prussian 
painter Georg Gropius, who lived at Athens as the 
Austrian vice-consul, had joined this circle of friends, 
and began negotiations with the governor of the Morea, 
Veli Pasha, at Tripolitza. He succeeded in obtaining 
permission to excavate, by promising him half the treasure 

With this message Gropius joined his friends at Andrit- 
zena in July, 1812. Cockerell was absent, as he had 
gone to Sicily, but instead Stackelberg had joined the 
three travellers, Haller, Foster, and Linkh. Thus a 
party of fourteen persons ascended these lofty summits, 
on which they pitched their tents and huts built of 
branches. The settlement was called the " Franks' 
Town " (<j>payKOV7rd\i$). The number of workmen em- 
ployed varied from 60 to 120. Haller took charge of the 
excavations, while Stackelberg acted as draughtsman. 
Great activity was developed on this elevated site, fre- 
quently interrupted by visitors, wandering musicians, 
or festivals ; even acquaintance with robbers was not 

The search for a pediment group proved vain, evidently 
the Temple had not possessed any. The reward of two 
months' labour consisted (besides some fragments of 
metopes) of thirty metres of frieze, out of which it was 
possible to reconstruct twenty-three slabs. 

The difficulty now arose of settling with Veli Pasha. 
He had heard of the discovery of silver treasures. Some 
freshly broken, coarse-grained marble had given rise to 
this. Great was his disappointment when one of the 
slabs was sent to him for inspection. There was nothing 
for him to do but act the art-lover and admire the work- 
manship of the tortoises, for which he mistook the great 
round shields of the warriors. Under these circumstances 

BASS.E 37 

it was not difficult to buy from the pasha his share, and 
permission to transfer the marbles, for the moderate sum 
of 400, particularly as his recall was imminent. 

The laborious task of removing these heavy blocks and 
countless fragments over mountains without roads to 
the sea, was accomplished in spite of great difficulties 
with the authorities, and they were transferred to Zante, 
like the ^Eginetan marbles. All had been placed on ship- 
board, except a very curious Corinthian capital, the only 
one in the temple, when the soldiers of the new pasha 
arrived to prevent the departure. In this, however, they 
did not succeed, but the travellers had to witness the 
wilful destruction of the capital by the Turks, and there- 
fore it is only known to us from drawings. Martin 
Wagner saw the sculptures in Zante, while concluding 
the purchase of the ^Eginetan statues, and made drawings 
of them, which he published later to the great displeasure 
of their discoverers. Their sale took place in 1814. The 
British ambassador was present this time, and obtained 
the frieze for 15,000, almost three times the price paid 
for the ^Eginetan marbles. 

Science was greatly enriched by the discovery of Bassae. 
The complicated ground-plan of the temple, which had 
evidently been built in reference to an older sanctuary ; 
the strange form of the Ionic columns to which the 
Corinthian capital had belonged, the oldest one known ; 
the combination of the three styles of architecture in one 
temple, was so extraordinary as to excite the utmost 
curiosity, particularly as its builder, Iktinos, the Athenian, 
had laid down a canon for architecture in erecting the 
perfect building of the Parthenon. The frieze likewise 
presented great problems. It had been on the inner 
walls of the main apartment of the temple above the 
Ionic columns how had it received its light ? This 
question of the lighting of the temples, the nature of the 
so-called hypaethral temples, thus became one of the 


questions of the day, not to disappear for many decades. 
All possible and impossible technical solutions were 
offered and eagerly discussed, until finally, thanks to a 
thorough investigation of Dorpf eld's (1891) the conviction 
now prevails that lighting an interior from a brilliant 
upper light was quite foreign to a Greek temple ; there 
is no question at Bassae of a covered apartment, but of an 
open court, such as has been proved to have existed in other 
temples, e.g. Didymaion near Miletos. But the frieze 
demanded an explanation as well. Its frequent Attic 
suggestions, and, on the other hand, a style inclining to 
greater severity, have not yet received a satisfactory 
explanation. Stackelberg, who devoted great care to 
the study of the frieze, and gradually published his studies, 
sought to discover its author in Alkamenes, the most 
talented of the pupils of Phidias. Very few have been 
able to accept therein a solution of the riddle. 

The finds of ^Egina and Bassae were happily placed in 
Munich and London, but what had in the meantime be- 
come of Lord Elgin's acquisitions ? 

Lord Elgin was recalled in 1803. On his return 
journey he stopped in Rome to submit drawings of his 
sculptures to Canova, and request him to undertake 
their restoration. But Canova gained a name for great 
penetration and insight by declining and declaring it 
"not permissible to restore works of such supreme im- 

With this declaration an entirely new standard was 
given to the art-criticism of the time, rather foreign 
to that then existing in Italy. The advice was too 
novel to be accepted everywhere at once, but posterity 
has justified it. Archaeologists will, in consequence, 
forgive Canova many softening transformations of the 
antique spirit. Against all international law Lord 


Elgin was taken prisoner by the French on his return 
voyage, and kept in prison for three years. He offered 
at once, while in prison, his collection to the British 
Government, but without avail. What indeed had be- 
come of these cases ? When Elgin returned home in 1806 
he had to seek them in many ports to which the different 
ships had carried them, and with difficulty secured a 
shelter for them. Before the cases had even been 
opened, their unknown contents received the bitterest 
criticism from Richard Payne Knight, the then acknow- 
ledged art oracle of England. He declared the sculptures 
of the Parthenon to be the work of artisans, and partly of 
Roman times. The influence of the entire Society of 
Dilettanti supported Payne Knight. To counteract this 
spiteful stupidity Lord Elgin undertook to exhibit his 
treasures publicly. 

Only a few grasped the significance of this revelation, 
and no one with deeper conviction or with greater en- 
thusiasm than the young painter Benjamin Robert Hay- 
don. How the contemplation of the Athenian marbles 
inspired him is best revealed in his autobiography. This 
occurred in 1808. The painter David Wilkie, Haydon's 
friend, had received a ticket of admission, and called to 
take him there. 

" To Park Lane then we went, and after passing through 
the hall, and thence into an open yard, entered a damp, 
dirty pent-house, where lay the marbles ranged within 
sight and reach. The first thing I fixed my eyes on was 
the wrist of a figure in one of the female groups, in which 
were visible, though in a feminine form, the radius and 
ulna. I was astonished, for I had never seen them hinted 
at in a female wrist in the antique. I darted my eyes 
to the elbow, and saw the outer condyle visibly affecting 
the shape in nature. I saw that the arm was in repose 
and the soft parts in relaxation. That combination of 
nature and idea which I had felt was so much wanting for 


high art was here displayed to midday conviction. My 
heart beat ! If I had seen nothing else I had beheld 
sufficient to keep me to nature for the rest of my life. 
But when I turned to the Theseus, and saw that every 
form was altered by action or repose when I saw that the 
two sides of his back varied, one side stretched from the 
shoulder blade being pulled forward, and the other side 
compressed from the shoulder blade being pushed close 
to the spine, for he rested on his elbow^ and when, turn- 
ing to the Ilissos, I saw the belly protruded from the 
figure lying on its side and again when in the figure of the 
fighting metope I saw the muscle shown under the one 
armpit in that instantaneous action of darting out, and 
left out in the other armpit because not wanted when 
I saw, in fact, the most heroic style of art combined with 
all the essential detail of actual life, the thing was done at 
once and for ever. 

" I shall never forget the horses' heads the feet in 
the metopes ! I felt as if a divine truth had blazed 
inwardly upon my mind, and I knew that they would at 
last rouse the art of Europe from its slumbers in the dark- 

Haydon spent three months drawing from the sculp- 
tures, and then expressed his opinion in these words : 

" I saw that the essential was selected in them, and the 
superfluous rejected that first, all the causes of action 
were known, and then all of those causes wanted for any 
particular action were selected that thin skin covered 
the whole, and the effect of the action, relaxation, pur- 
pose or gravitation was shown on the skin. This ap- 
peared, as far as I could see then, to be the principle. 

" I consider truly that it is the greatest blessing that 
ever happened to this country, their being brought here." 

But others did not share these thoughts. Disapproval 


continued in influential circles, and the Greek gods re- 
mained almost without recognition in the foggy city on 
the Thames. In spite of all this, Lord Elgin refused 
offers made to him, the first coming from the Mus6e 
Napoleon. In 1811 he began negotiations with the House 
of Commons, but they failed. A new opponent now 
arose, and one of the most dangerous. In the spring of 
1811 appeared Lord Byron's " Curse of Minerva," a 
result of his stay in Athens. And in the summer of the 
following year, in " Childe Harold " he poured out the 
vials of his wrath on the Scot, the Pict, the temple-robber. 
All conspired against the Athenian strangers, who wan- 
dered from place to place begging for shelter. When, in 
1814, the Frieze of Bassae arrived in London, Payne Knight 
raised his voice anew in praise of these reliefs, in contrast 
to the sculptures of the Parthenon. 

The true appreciation of the latter came first from 
foreigners excepting Haydon and a few of his friends. 
The Crown Prince Louis of Bavaria came in the summer 
of 1814 to London, from the Peace Congress in Paris, and 
was so impressed with the beauty of the Athenian marbles, 
as to deposit a sum for their purchase with his bankers in 
case England should refuse to reconsider her decision. 
Visconti, the foremost archaeologist of the time, soon 
followed. He was the first to devote serious study to 
this collection. His unqualified praise was extremely 
disconcerting to the opponents. Lord Elgin, who in the 
meantime had incurred financial difficulties, thought the 
moment opportune to offer his treasures for sale to the 
British nation, for whom he had originally acquired them. 

Delays were caused, rather to Lord Elgin's advantage, 
by Napoleon's return from Elba, the Hundred Days, 
the battle of Waterloo, and the proroguing of Parliament. 
In the meantime not only had Visconti delivered two 
addresses before the Academy of Paris, which Lord Elgin 
iiad printed at once, but Canova appeared in London in 


November, 1815 he had been engaged in Paris with the 
restitution of the stolen art treasures (p. 25). The un- 
reserved recognition he accorded to the Athenian works 
of art finally silenced their opponents and enemies. The 
remarkable spectacle was now witnessed in February, 
1816, of a Parliamentary commission sitting for a fort- 
night, as an Areopagus of art, calling witnesses and ex- 
perts to judge the masterpieces of Phidias. Payne 
Knight still rated the statues of the pediment no higher 
than the frieze, while sculptors (e.g. Flaxman) and painters 
valued them above most, if not above all other, antique 
works. In consideration of Payne Knight and his dis- 
tinguished patrons Haydon had not been called. 

Finally, on June the 7th, 1816, the purchase of the entire 
collection for 35,000 was confirmed by a sparsely at- 
tended Parliament against a feeble protest of the Liberals 
(for this had also become a party question). Lord Elgin 
had renounced all definite demands. This sum, somewhat 
grudgingly conceded, hardly covered his bare expenses, 
and if the loss of interest is considered, he was hardly 
reimbursed for half his loss. Some apology was offered 
for the persecution to which he had been so longjpxposed 
by nominating him as Trustee of the British /Museum. 
A still greater honour is the indissoluble uiAi of his 
name with the " Elgin Marbles." W 

These treasures were acquired for the British Museum. 
This had grown since 1753 from very modest beginnings, 
but as a National Museum and not as a Crown Collection, 
like nearly aU other great collections of antiques. Its 
gradual rise is marked by the following acquisitions : an 
important collection of painted Greek vases of Southern 
Italy formed by the British ambassador at Naples, 
William Hamilton (1772) ; the spoils of Egypt in 1801 
(p. 17) ; the important Roman collection acquired from 
Charles Townley, 1805 ; and finally the Frieze of Bassae 
purchased in 1814. The Museum rose now, at once, to 


the rank of foremost importance with the acquisition of 
the Elgin Marbles. In consequence of the great value 
of these additions, it so far surpassed the Mus6e Na- 
poleon, which was already being dispersed, and the 
Roman museums as to relieve it for ever of all fear of 
losing this position. 

When finally these Athenian sculptures, freed from the 
" Curse of Minerva," took their permanent place in the 
National Museum, they soon became popular, the frieze in 
particular. The cows of the Athenian hecatomb excited 
the admiration of English cattle-breeders ; a riding- 
master decided to bring his pupils, in preference to giving 
them a riding lesson, so that they might contemplate for 
an hour these riders, who sat in so masterly a manner on 
their bare-back horses. 

Across the Channel also the fame of these treasures 
rapidly extended. Quatremre de Quincy came in 1818 
from Paris, a highly esteemed veteran of archaeology, who 
only quite recently had published his learned studies on 
Phidias and the chryselephantine art. In his letters to 
Canova, the most eloquent testimony of the incipient 
change <$f taste, with him as with Haydon, the conviction 
prevails, and is repeatedly expressed, of having received 
an entirely new revelation. He compares the statues to 
the most famous antiques, and always in favour of the 
former. But to him of greater importance still is the 
composition as a whole, a unique group of original works 
of the highest rank, revealing unity in rich variety. In 
some respects he absolutely agrees with Haydon. For he 
says : " The bodies show a thorough knowledge of the 
anatomy of the bones such as is nowhere else exhibited. 
Firm lightness and genuine strength are thus attained at 
the same time. These bodies can move, they seem to be 
moving." Moreover, the partly firm, partly soft flesh, 
the muscles, now strained, now relaxed, the elastic skin 
everywhere adapting itself to them, and that play of 


countless delicate movements of the surface which, 
though inexpressible in words, appeals immediately to 
the senses, true to every detail and filled with life. " Never 
have I seen anything of its kind so much alive as the 
horse's head. It ceases to be sculpture ; the mouth 
neighs, the marble lives, one thinks one sees it move. 
And the river-god, he looks as if he would rise, he is rising, 
and we are surprised that he is still lying there." 

To Quatremere the drapery appears equally admirable. 
Nothing of that supposed stiffness or austere severity, 
but here again an inexhaustible wealth of imagination 
and spontaneous life. The folds cling lightly and deli- 
cately to the bodies, or blown by the wind float behind in 
mighty curves, or again they envelop the body in huge 
folds, forming an endless variety of single rich motives. 
" The charm of these draped figures is as that of the 
Graces. It is the despair of those who continually ask for 
its cause." "E bella perche e bella " is the simple reason, 
and the expert will never know more than the layman. 

Thus the great art critic was influenced by these 
originals. The sculptor Dannecker was only able to 
judge of them by casts sent by Hay don, and wrote as 
follows : " For me, it is the highest and greatest I have 
ever beheld in art. They are as if modelled on nature, 
and yet I have never had the good fortune to see such 

The Sage of Weimar had to content himself with draw- 
ings, but these influenced him so strongly that he ex- 
pressed a desire to go to England instead of Italy (for 
" there alone were united law and gospel "). And he 
conceived a plan for a society of German sculptors, who 
were to make the British Museum their regular place for 
study. It was touching to hear an old man of seventy, 
in whose mental development Italy had always played so 
important a part, call himself " happy to have lived to see 


Taste became completely revolutionized. The land 
of the Greeks, which Winckelmann had sought in spirit, 
now lay open before the eyes of all who had eyes to see. 
Welcker wrote : " The history of art has a new focus, and 
has found for ever the correct standard of the main pro- 
portions." If the Elgin Marbles had remained in the 
Turkish fortress at Athens, would this conclusion have 
been reached so soon ? The Glyptothek in Munich, 
opened by King Louis in 1830, was the only museum to 
compare, even distantly, with the British Museum. For 
here also original works of Greek art gave distinction to 
the collection. But, inasmuch as the royal collection 
retained from the beginning the historical point of view 
which continued to influence the arrangements of the 
Glyptothek, in this respect the Munich collection em- 
phasizes even in a greater degree than the British Museum 
the motive which should govern the future of all museums: 
a visible representation of the development of ancient art. 

More precise explorations of the Greek West were now 
planned at Athens. These regions had in earlier times 
exceeded the mother country in wealth and importance. 
The Greek remains of Lower Italy, scattered along an 
extensive coastline, had so far, with the exception of 
Paestum (p. 9), attracted little interest. At the beginning 
of the century the architect William Wilkins whom we 
have already seen at Athens decided to go there, and 
published in 1807 his investigations in a great work, 
" Antiquities of Magna Graecia." He was followed in 
1812 by Cockerell, who had chosen Sicily for his inquiries 
(p. 36). Of all Greek countries Sicily is the one richest 
in temple ruins. Girgenti, the ancient Akragas, offers 
the most striking ones to the beholder, for no less than 
seven temples, in very different states of preservation, it 
is true, attract the architect. Cockerell began here. 


The ruins of the enormous Temple of Zeus tempted him 
to design a reconstruction. New facts and problems pre- 
sented themselves, as in the closed wall with half-columns 
instead of the customary open row of columns ; the 
equally abnormal construction of the cella wall, with its 
projecting pilasters and the remains of colossal giants 
supporting the entablature, the original position of which 
was only determined with great difficulty. In a supple- 
mentary volume to a new edition of the " Antiquities of 
Athens," in 1830, Cockerell tried to solve some of these 

The ruins of Selinus, the westernmost Greek city on 
the south coast of Sicily, are less conspicuous, for the 
Carthaginian devastations in 409 had been more thorough. 
Notwithstanding this, on two elevations flanking the 
former harbour, the remains of at least seven temples have 
been found, two of which, usually designated as B and C, 
date from very early times it was at first supposed from 
the end of the seventh century. In the winter of 1822-3 
the English architects Samuel Angell and William Harris 
excavated here, and the latter died of the treacherous 
fever. Everything showed an unusual and archaic plan ; 
the great length of seventeen columns and a width of 
six columns ; toward the east a double cross row of 
columns instead of the usual single one ; finally the 
Pronaos was without columns, but had a special chamber 
behind the cella ; all these had never as yet been found 
in Attic or eastern Greek architecture. Special interest 
was evoked by the fragments of the very ancient metopes, 
three of which it proved possible to reconstruct out of 
32, 45, and 48 fragments respectively (Perseus and Medusa, 
Herakles and the Kerkopes, and a Quadriga). 

But this heavy archaic sculpture aroused less interest 
than the many traces of original colouring, which gave 
rise to the question of the painting of sculpture. This 
again led to the question of the painting of architecture, 


which at once attracted great attention. This question 
was eagerly studied the following winter by the architect 
Jacques Ignace Hittorf, born at Cologne, but now working 
in Paris. He travelled to Sicily accompanied by his 
pupils Ludwig Zanth and Wilhelm Stier. The coloured 
architecture of the Norman remains in Sicily may have 
influenced Hittorf, but, be this as it may, he soon came 
to the conclusion that all Greek architecture had been 
coloured. This consideration he tried to demonstrate in 
his " Architecture antique de la Sicile," 1826-30, and 
later in 1851, in an enlarged form in " Architecture poly- 
chrome chez les Grecs." Gottfried Semper, who had 
travelled in the South in 1830-2, had, in the meantime, 
after a careful examination of the ruins, arrived at the 
same conclusions, and expressed the view that painting 
had completely covered Greek architecture. This was 
contrary to earlier traditions, and excited the most ani- 
mated discussions. Many observations of Hittorf 's and 
Semper's have in fact succumbed to more critical examin- 
ations, and the a priori aesthetic claim, that the existence 
of colour on some buildings must necessarily imply that 
all architecture had been coloured, has been refuted by 
convincing evidence. In historical questions of this 
nature, only facts can decide, not theories. But, in 
spite of all this, the suggestions of Hittorf and Semper 
acted as a great stimulus, and their assertions only re- 
quired certain qualifications. Subsequent investigations 
have provided these, and to-day it is as certain that Greek 
architecture did not lack painting as it is that its use was 
limited by material, local custom, and the taste of the 

In Sicily later investigations have to be taken into 
account, made by Dorpfeld, Borrmann, and their com- 
panions (1881), of coloured terra-cotta slabs, which had 
covered certain upper parts of the buildings. These 
colours, burnt into the terra-cotta, were practically in- 


destructible, and here the more sombre tints of yellow, 
red, and black have been preserved, corresponding 
probably to those of the rest of the building, in contrast 
to the light blue and red on the glowing marble of the 
monuments of Attica. 

The investigation of Greek buildings in Sicily, begun 
by foreigners, was continued most successfully by 
natives. The Duke of Serradifalco, supported by the 
young architect Saverio Cavallari, proved an enlightened 
patron of art. Among the new finds of greatest import- 
ance were two half and four complete metopes, both of 
the temples on the eastern hillside at Selinus. The nude 
parts of the female figures of the four metopes of the 
Heraeon were of marble, while the rest was worked in tufa 
(with various traces of colour), thereby exhibiting an 
entirely new technique in coloured sculpture, nearly re- 
lated to the painting of terra-cotta. About the same 
time in 1828 the young Duke de Luynes, with the archi- 
tect F. J. Debacq, investigated the ancient remains of 
temples at Metapontum, the old Achaean city on the Gulf 
of Tarentum, rising out of marshy and fever-breeding 
surroundings, " anticamera del diavolo" In reference to 
the above question, it may be of interest to mention a 
spout of earthenware with an expressive lion's head, on 
which the colours are well preserved. 

All these eager researches in the Greek West formed a 
most valuable supplement to the investigations in Attica 
and the Peloponnese. The architecture of the earlier 
periods had become more intelligible ; the Doric style 
in particular, which had a parallel development in the 
West and the East; many peculiarities were noted on 
which at first the student had been inclined to base hasty 

The eye had to be trained to appreciate the fact that 
Greek art can be many-sided, even in so uniform a creation 
as the Doric temple seems to be. It proved wisest not to 


construct premature theories or systems which might 
obstruct a clear view into the diversity of phenomena, 
but to observe facts quietly, and to keep an open eye for 
the true historical development. 

Greece had meanwhile sunk back into her Turkish 
repose. The members of that international circle of 
friends to whom we owe the discovery and the harbouring 
of the sculptures of ^Egina and Bassae had left Athens. 
Cockerell and Foster had returned to England, the former 
developing extensive professional activity, the latter 
living quietly in Liverpool. Stackelberg had been taken 
prisoner by pirates in 1813, and was rescued after great 
sacrifices by his friend Haller von Hallerstein. Haller 
died of fever in Thessaly in 1817. Stackelberg and 
Linckh had meanwhile gone to Rome to live, and were 
joined there by Brondsted. In Greece, the discovery of 
the Aphrodite of Melos was the only archaeological event 
to interrupt the calm. 

This was an instance of an accidental find, the romantic 
details of which are still shrouded in darkness. In spite 
of an eager search, in all manner of records, it has been 
impossible to obtain all the data, and they seem practically 
irrecoverable, as important documents have disappeared. 
The circumstances are as follows : In one of the early 
months of 1820 the peasant Georgios of Melos found the 
statue of the Aphrodite in several pieces. Some French 
officers inspected the statue, among them the afterwards 
famous navigator, Dumont d'Urville ; the French agent at 
Brest informed David, the French consul at Smyrna, of 
the find. He again informed the ambassador at Con- 
stantinople, the Marquis de la Riviere, who offered to buy 
the statue of which he had heard so much. 

In the meantime a Greek priest had bought the statue 
of the Commune of Melos to present it to an influential 


personage at Constantinople. He had bought it, but it 
had not yet been paid for, when in May, the Secretary of 
the French Legation, de Marcellus, appeared at Melos, 
and acquired the statue from the commune for the trifling 
sum of 550 to 750 francs, and carried it off at once. The 
priest protested at Constantinople, and the commune 
was thereupon fined 7000 piastres, but, on the representa- 
tions of the ambassador, this sum was reduced. Some 
more fragments were collected in Melos in November, and 
the entire collection was presented to the King, Louis 
XVIII, who handed it over to the Museum of the Louvre. 
The statue was put in place there in May, 1821. Prob- 
ably with a view to economize the precious Parian marble, 
the statue is made in several pieces and joined in the 
manner customary in works of later times. The body 
is made in two pieces ; strangely enough the joining does 
not take place where the nude and the drapery meet, but 
cuts across the folds of the drapery in an ugly manner. 
A separate piece had been inserted in the right hip. The 
arms had been fixed on, but only a portion of the left 
upper arm and the hand holding an apple had been 
found. These are so inferior in workmanship to the 
great beauty of the body as to suggest a later restoration. 
Below, near the left foot, the plinth shows in its entire 
depth a slanting contact surface which, according to the 
evidence of the former director of the Louvre, Count 
Clarac, was joined to a block of marble of slightly different 
grain. This had extended under the slightly raised foot 
of the statue, and bore on its face the inscription of the 
artist (the three first letters are missing, but can be 
restored with certainty), Alexandros of Antioch, on the 
Maeander, a city founded in the beginning of the third 
century. Judging by the character of the letters the 
date of the inscription would fall about 100 B.C. On the 
upper surface of the block there is a square dowel-hole, 
into which fitted, according to a sketch by an amateur 


taken in Melos, a youthful herm of mediocre work, which 
was transferred to Paris from Melos with the statue. 
Unfortunately the important block with the inscription 
disappeared early since Clarac (1821) no one has seen it 
a fact which has given rise to the most varied theories, 
not yet settled to-day. No serious doubt can be enter- 
tained that the statue is the work of Alexandros. 
To him is due the addition of the tasteless herm (a 
restored copy by the French sculptor Claude Tarral 
makes this evident), and of the apple (Greek fJifjXov), 
an emblem of the island of Melos ; on the other hand we 
are indebted to him for the excellent reproduction of the 
body and head of a superb original, probably of the time 
of Scopas. 

The illuminating beauty of the original conception 
visible here, and the excellence of the work in the main 
parts of the body (the drapery is less well done, and the 
back quite unfinished), attained rapidly for the " majestic 
woman of Melos " a distinguished position, and secured 
it with entire justification. There is hardly another 
antique statue, -with the exception perhaps of the Hermes 
of Olympia, which has acquired so immediate and so 
lasting a popularity. 

The Greek insurrection had broken out shortly before 
the Melian had been placed in the Louvre. Twice was 
the Acropolis of Athens bombarded, first in the winter of 
1821-2 by Voutier and the Philhellenes, and five years 
later by the Turks under Reshid Pasha. The west front 
of the Parthenon was greatly damaged by artillery fire, 
and the Erechtheion was shattered by shells and lost 
another Caryatid. Since 1825 Ibrahim Pasha had occu- 
pied the Morea, until a sudden change was brought about 
by the unexpected naval victory of Navarino. In 1828 
a French army under Maison entered the country again, 
as in Egypt, accompanied by a scientific staff. The first 
map of the peninsula was prepared from an accurate survey, 


and the natural conditions thoroughly examined, as well 
as the relics of art and civilization. 

An excavation undertaken at the Temple of Zeus at 
Olympia in May and June, 1829, proved specially pro- 
ductive of results. The French consul Fauvel had dis- 
covered its scanty remains in 1787, and these were again 
recognized by the English geographer Leake in 1801. 
During a six weeks' campaign the architect Abel Blouet 
and the archaeologist J. J. Dubois sought for the back and 
front of the temple. Although no traces of pediment 
statues were found, they came upon some of the Herakles 
metopes, above all, the splendid one representing the 
hero struggling with the Cretan Bull. 

Partly the heat and partly the strict orders of the 
tyrannical President Kapodistria soon put an end to 
these excavations, for a patriotic Greek had informed 
against the strangers. The Museum of the Louvre was, 
nevertheless, enriched by a few reliefs exhibiting an 
entirely new style, and differing from the Attic, ^Eginetan, 
and Selinuntine, testifying to the great diversity of Greek 
plastic art. The observations made in Sicily in regard to 
the polychromy of Greek sculpture were again confirmed 
by the traces of vivid colour still visible on these reliefs. 

The new King of free Hellas, the Bavarian Prince Otto, 
landed at Nauplia in February, 1833. The Turks at once 
evacuated the Athenian Acropolis to make room for a 
Bavarian garrison. The fortress was to be abolished on 
the citadel, which was to be used only for archaeological 
studies. It was, in fact, threatened for a time by artists. 
The Bavarian architect, Leo von Klenze, restored some 
columns of the Parthenon with wretched patchwork, 
and the Prussian architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel even 
conceived the idea of building a royal palace on Athene's 
rock with the Parthenon gracing the royal court. A more 
useful work was the clearing away of houses and rubbish 
from the Acropolis, and the opening up of the approach 


to the Propylaea, labours which were executed under the 
superintendence of the active scholar Ludwig Ross, 
who had been appointed Conservator of Antiquities. 
He and his colleagues, the architects Edward Schaubert 
and Christian Hansen, succeeded in making a genuine 
restoration by rebuilding the small Temple of Athene Nike 
on its towerlike eminence above the entrance to the 
citadel in 1835 ; the blocks had to be picked singly out 
of the Turkish bastion erected against Morosini (p. n). 
Many valuable hidden fragments were discovered during 
the general clearance, numerous inscriptions on stone of 
great value to art and history, and many fragmentary 
pieces of sculpture, of the Parthenon frieze in particular, 
among these an exceptionally well-preserved slab of the 
group of the gods of the east frieze. 

Ross unfortunately felt in 1836 forced to resign his 
position, to the great loss of archaeology. 

This was transferred to Kyriak6s Pittakes, an in- 
dustrious and faithful worker, but a man lacking in 
culture, and a petty guardian of the treasures confided 
to his care. He continued clearing the Acropolis, and 
piled the sculptures gathered one above another in the 
Turkish cisterns ; he rebuilt some of the walls of the 
Erechtheion, and restored the Caryatid porch, and below 
the Propylaea he constructed a rather clumsy flight of 
steps. But, with these exceptions, his interest consisted 
only in the publication of newly-found inscriptions. 
These epigraphic interests were of paramount importance 
to the Archaeological Society, formed in the Parthenon in 
April, 1837, about the same time as the foundation of the 
University. Almost three decades passed before the 
Society undertook any archaeological work. It was owing 
to an accident that the most remarkable discovery of 
sculpture occurred in this period, that of the very archaic 
so-called Apollo of Tenea. This came soon after into the 
possession of the Austrian Minister Prokesch von Osten, 


who seven years later handed it over to the Glyptothek 
in Munich. In the meantime foreigners again had de- 
voted themselves to archaeological work. The English 
architect F. C. Penrose, in connection with G. Knowles, 
began in 1846-7 to survey the Parthenon and Propylaea 
with incomparable accuracy. Penrose's minute measure- 
ments created the greatest interest, inasmuch as he con- 
firmed the horizontal curves of the steps and entablature 
of the Parthenon, which had first been observed by his 
countryman J. Pennethorne in 1837. 

About the same time the French architect A. Paccard 
was engaged on a restoration of the Parthenon, which he 
intended to be used in connection with a great work 
on this temple and its sculpture, undertaken by Count 
Leon de Laborde, but unfortunately early abandoned. 
The architect J. M. Tetaz undertook similar work in con- 
nection with the Erechtheion, without, however, solving 
the riddle of this building. 

While Englishmen and Frenchmen were actively en- 
gaged on the Acropolis, and the Germans L. Ross and 
H. N. Ulrichs were eagerly travelling in Greek lands 
Ross in particular opened to science the Greek Islands as 
far as Rhodes and Cyprus great activity was exerted 
behind the scenes, in diplomatic circles, by the protecting 
powers, Russia, England, and France. The minister of 
the latter, the old Philhellene, Piscatory, succeeded 
finally in September, 1846, in establishing a French School 
in Athens, with the object of investigating the language, 
the history, and the antiquities of Greece on the spot. 

Some years passed before any remarkable results were 
attained. The directorate at first was hardly conscious 
of its aim, but the many journeys undertaken by its 
members brought about a more general knowledge of 
their surroundings. Great sensation was caused by the 
work undertaken by a pupil of the school, Ernest Beule, 
l8 52-3, afterwards Minister of the Interior, who un- 


covered parts below the stairs of the Propylaea. The 
remains of a late stairway were recognized by the archi- 
tect Titeux, which again led to the discovery of a lower 
gate, the " porte Beule " ; which at first was attributed 
to the period of Pericles, but subsequent investigations 
proved it to consist rather of patchwork of the times of 
the Antonines. Beule*'s book on the Acropolis appeared 
in 1853, an( i holds a place midway between popular and 
scientific treatment. As distinguished co-workers and 
observers there appeared early Le"on Heuzey and Georges 
Perrot ; Heuzey's book on Olympus and Acarnania 
appeared in 1860, and was the first scientific achievement 
of the French School. 

We shall meet both men again later. 

The first half of the century had opened to science the 
Greek countries in Europe, and the foundations for new 
investigations had been laid. Archaeology gained time 
in the pause between the excavations to study what had 
been acquired, and to join, in the meantime, as best it 
could, the fragments into a whole. 



A RCHITECTURE and sculpture formed almost ex- 
jTlL clusively the subjects of the two preceding chapters ; 
painting has only incidentally been considered in speaking 
of the wall paintings of Herculaneum and Pompeii 
<' (p. 9). As examples of art, these represent mainly 
* the Roman Empire, to which period they chiefly owe 
their origin. It is only in considering the subjects 
that any suggestion of Greece is obtained, as these 
consist chiefly of Greek myths, and in rare cases only 
are these pictures connected with Greek paintings of 
which we have literary knowledge, as, for example, 
the small relief-like composition illustrating the Marsyas 
myth after a painting by Zeuxis. 

The publications on Greek vase painting during the 
early decades of the century, chiefly of the finds in Lower 
Italy, had not been important, and frequently incorrect 
copies had been made. The collection of vases acquired 
in Naples by Sir William Hamilton, and sold to the 
British Museum in 1772 (p. 42), probably influenced the 
Wedgwood factory, so that " Greek," " Etruscan," and 
even " Pompeian " vases became the fashion. But all 
scientific appreciation of Greek painting and its develop- 
ment became lost in a maze of fantastic and amateurish 
dreams only concerned with the subjects represented, 



and finding mysterious meaning therein, as these re- 
sponded to the prevailing taste for a medley of religious 
and pseudo-scientific romanticism in the manner of 

A change, however, came from a direction where it was 
least expected. Greek painting had its resurrection on 
the " barbaric " soil of Etruria, instead of on Greek soil, 
and Rome became the place of observation. 

Stackelberg had again settled in Rome in 1816 to 
mature there, with liberal assistance and amid stimu- 
lating environment, the results of his investigations made 
on Greek soil, especially of the temple of Apollo at Bassae. 
He soon formed a close friendship with his Pylades, 
August Kestner, the fourth son of Goethe's Lotte, who 
lived in Rome as a Hanoverian diplomatist. He was a 
man of strong artistic tendencies, and an eager collector. 
After some years these two were joined by Eduard 
Gerhard of Posen, considerably younger, but an able 
pupil of Bockh, and influenced by Creuzer. He had first 
come to Italy in consequence of an affection of his eyes 
in 1820, and experienced always a great longing to return 
thither. This wish was gratified in 1822. At that time 
Niebuhr, the regenerator of Roman history, was Prussian 
minister at the Papal court, the second of a distinguished 
line (Humboldt, Niebuhr, Bunsen), so that, according 
to a witty remark of Ampere, Prussia was not represented 
at the Papal court, but Science at Ancient Rome ! 

Niebuhr was able to secure Gerhard for his contem- 
plated "Description of the City of Rome." But still 
more far-reaching were the results of the friendship 
Gerhard formed with Stackelberg and Kestner ; this 
came about through Brondsted, Stackelberg's companion 
in Greece, who was some years in Rome as Danish charge* 
d'affaires. When in 1823 the gifted but unmethodical 
Theodor Panofka of Silesia joined this circle, the friends 
united as the Roman Hyperboreans ; they read together 


Pausanias or Sophocles, or investigated the scattered 
antiquities of Rome and the surrounding country. The 
four Hyperboreans were of very different types. Kestner 
was not greatly interested in scientific research, but felt 
inspired by all that was beautiful and elevating. Stackel- 
berg had the most artistic temperament, with an in- 
clination toward mysticism, and was a delicate, almost too 
elegant draughtsman. Panofka's imagination acted as 
a stimulus to his companions, and attracted a wider 
circle about him, particularly Frenchmen, who were de- 
lighted by his jeux d'esprit. Gerhard was the most 
thoroughly learned and scientific of the four. Although 
the impartiality of his scientific conclusions was some- 
what impaired by the premature adoption of a system, 
yet his clear insight into the demands of science, com- 
bined with energy and executive ability, were of the 
greatest importance. He gained people and means for 
his aims, and knew how to use both to the greatest 
advantage. It was Gerhard particularly who realized 
with amazement the vast wealth of pictorial and plastic 
evidence of antiquity, which perhaps Zoega alone had 
studied before him. This was greatly augmented when 
the hardly known treasures of Naples, Magna Graecia, and 
Sicily were added to those of Rome. The few monu- 
ments illustrated in the popular books of Millin and Hirst, 
or even in the still rather scanty scientific literature, as 
the works of Visconti and Zoega, could not compare with 
the abundance awaiting publication. Thus through the 
newly gained knowledge were realized "the boundless 
possibilities of an expansion of the archaeological 
material," or, as Gerhard put it in an epigram : monu- 
mentorum artis qui unum vidit nullum vidit, qui milia 
vidit unum vidit. Here, above all, a remedy had to be 

This came about in a twofold manner. It first became 
necessary to ascertain by trustworthy and correct cata- 


logues what antiquities the museums contained. Gerhard 
undertook the task alone for the Vatican, and with 
Panofka that of the less-known museum at Naples. The 
second and more difficult task, as it required good 
draughtsmen, was the collecting and publishing of illus- 
trations, to extend the then existing narrow range of 
vision. In Berlin, where the museum was fast being 
completed, Gerhard was able to raise funds for the publi- 
cation of unedited drawings. He also induced the firm 
of Cotta to undertake a great work originally designed 
to contain 500 folio plates, the " Antike Bildwerke," 
which, unfortunately, through no fault of Gerhard's, 
was interrupted before one-third of the scheme was com- 
plete. Many weak points in Gerhard's scientific attain- 
ments became evident : the exclusive interest for the 
subject-matter of works of art, particularly mythological, 
and his preference for less well-known styles, e.g. often 
for quite shapeless terra-cottas, which at any rate could 
hardly receive the reproach of being " only beautiful." 
But his main thought must not be lost sight of ; he aimed 
at securing a new and broader foundation for archaeology ! 

Gerhard first learned to know Etruria in 1824, while 
these plans were growing and gradually developing. 
During the previous century the land of the old Etruscans 
had fallen into ill repute among antiquaries, in conse- 
quence of the extravagant efforts of a narrow clique of 
local patriots called the " Etruscheria," who tried to 
represent their country as a model of perfection in ancient 
times. The flood- tide of this movement had long passed, 
and two respected scholars, Giuseppe Micali and Fran- 
cesco Inghirami, were at the time engaged in studying 
the antiquities of Etruria and placing them in a correct 
perspective. The unexpected wealth of the country in 
works of art, both in private and public possession, 


nevertheless greatly surprised Gerhard. There were two 
classes of art work peculiar to old Etruria, which, although 
insignificant and frequently inartistic in themselves, 
excited his interest in consequence of the subjects treated 
of : metal mirrors with incised designs on the back, and 
the more or less cubical cinerary urns, frequently adorned 
with mythological reliefs and coloured decoration. He 
collected many drawings of both classes, and of the former 
many originals, now in the Berlin Museum. 

In the year 1827 something quite novel was added to 
these two classes of not unknown but little noticed 
monuments. In Corneto, the ancient Tarquinii, were 
discovered in several newly opened sepulchral chambers 
richly coloured mural paintings. This news was not long 
in reaching Rome. Gerhard was in Germany, but 
Stackelberg and Kestner, joined by the Bavarian architect 
J. H. Thuermer, went there together, and devoted several 
weeks to copying in coloured drawings the richly painted 
walls of the four sepulchral chambers. The largest of 
these the " grotta dal cor so delle bighe" was assigned to 
Stackelberg as the most experienced draughtsman. The 
publication of the forty-four large plates was unfortu- 
nately abandoned soon after its beginning through the 
same negligence which prevented the completion of 
Gerhard's " Antike Bildwerke," although the drawings 
already had been placed on stone. In a roundabout 
manner the original coloured plates have come into the 
possession of the Archaeological Art Institute of the 
University of Strasburg, but only very inadequate 
copies have appeared. These paintings did not long 
remain unique. At Corneto other grottos were soon 
found with wall paintings, and similar tombs were opened 
at Chiusi, Veii, and later at Cerveteri and Orvieto. A 
long series of mural paintings was thus gradually dis- 
covered, setting forth the development of this branch of 
Etruscan art in tolerably complete sequence from the 


beginning of the sixth to that of the fourth century. 
Various peculiarities and a certain coarseness, to which 
strongly marked naturalism may be added, recalling 
the " verismo " of the Tuscan art of the quattrocento, may 
be considered original. These qualities attracted at- 
tention mainly to the Etruscan elerhent in these paintings, 
especially as the love of portraying scenes of daily life 
excluded all thought of the mythical subjects of Greek 
art. But it gradually became evident that Greek models 
and Greek suggestions were the true root of Etruscan art. 
This conviction was all the more important as practically 
nothing remains to us of pure Greek wall painting. Thus 
an insight was gained into the development of Greek 
painting, though only reflected from an Etruscan mirror. 
But the more closely the accounts of Greek painting were 
examined, and the more insight into its character was 
gained, the more evident it became that for about two 
centuries the chief stages in its development actually 
repeated themselves in this collateral Etruscan branch. 
The Etruscan tombs thus illuminated an obscure chapter 
of Greek art. The light was soon to become more brilliant. 

While the Roman Hyperboreans still continued to 
explore with success, Gerhard planned a new scientific 
organization, in connection with the art-loving and 
generous Duke de Luynes. When the latter joined this 
circle on his Italian journey in 1825, Gerhard aimed at 
nothing less than establishing an international association 
of all archaeologists, which should publish a scientific 
journal and great works on the monuments. The centre 
was to be in Paris. In consequence of many obstacles 
this plan fell through and appeared to be abandoned. 
Gerhard, however, was not the man to give up anything 
once recognized as useful and important. Since Stackel- 
berg's departure in 1828 he had remained with Kestner 


alone in Rome, and, in spite of all difficulties, he held fast 
to the idea, and utilized the Italian journey of the Crown 
Prince Friedrich Wilhelm of Prussia in 1828 in such a way 
that under his patronage and with Bunsen's co-operation 
the foundation of " the Institute for Archaeological 
Correspondence " was decided on in Rome on Winckel- 
mann's birthday (9 December), 1828. The five founders, 
who called the first meeting of the new society on 21 April 
(the birthday of Rome), 1829, were Bunsen, at the time 
Prussian minister, Gerhard, Kestner, Carlo Fea (whose 
career extended back to Winckelmann's time), and 
Thorvaldsen, a former pupil of Zoega. This is hardly 
the place to pursue the history of this institution, which 
during thirty years exercised as a private organization 
the greatest influence on archaeological science through 
its regular publications, its meetings, and the dissemina- 
tion of appeals and suggestions. The ablest scholars 
of all countries belonged to the Institute, but Gerhard 
remained its life and soul, and was henceforth regarded 
as the true organizer of archaeology. As Director of his 
institution he knew how to guard against dangers which 
arose in various forms. 

A propitious fate placed a most precious gift in the 
cradle of the newly born Institute. Again the tombs 
of Southern Etruria were opened and disclosed, besides 
mural paintings, a great number of painted earthen 
vessels, which we habitually designate by the Italian 
name vases. For a long time painted vases, some even 
with Greek inscriptions, had been known. Southern 
Italy in particular had produced great numbers from its 
tombs (p. 42). Apulia became specially noted for dis- 
coveries of superb vases at Canosa, Ruvo, and other 
places. In the year 1828, about the time the first mural 
paintings were discovered at Corneto, there were found 
at Vulci, on the property of Lucien Bonaparte, Prince de 
Canino, for the first time graves containing painted vases. 


The first discoveries were kept secret, but soon the ex- 
tensive necropolis of the ancient town of Vulci was un- 
covered by its fortunate possessors in a search for vases. 
The success was almost incredible. Gerhard arrived at 
once on the site, and a statement which he sent in May, 
1829, to the Prussian Official Gazette gives a vivid de- 

" In the course of a search for the hidden finds which 
I have mentioned, there was revealed on a desolate stretch 
of land six miles long between the small towns of Canino 
and Montalto an extensive Etruscan burial place, perhaps 
that of ancient Vulci. Insignificant-looking grottos lying 
more or less near the surface were filled with the most 
beautiful Greek vases, many of them painted. At many 
different points of this extensive site excavations have 
been carried on constantly and successfully. Two other 
owners besides the Prince de Canino share in the interest, 
Sig. Candellor and Sig. Feoli, but the prince being the 
largest landowner has the greatest share. Besides the 
shepherds in this neighbourhood one hundred workmen 
have been employed daily in excavating under his 
personal supervision since last November. As a result 
of these excavations there have been daily found a great 
number of painted vessels and bowls, many in perfect 
condition, others were repaired on the spot. Your cor- 
respondent, who speaks as an eye-witness, can never 
forget the wonderful spectacle when he first beheld from 
the hill of Campomorto (the site belonging to Sig. Feoli) 
the numerous excavations scattered over the neighbouring 
plain on all sides, with the huge tumulus (La Cucumella) 
in the centre. On closer examination his astonishment 
only increased. The various bands of labourers, who 
had come from distant parts, chiefly from the Abruzzi 
and Romagna, were distributed under foremen from 
their own provinces ; and three tents formed the central 
point, into which poured the incessant stream of newly 


found vases or vase fragments still covered with damp 

"Attempts were made at once to put the fragments to- 
gether, in the tent occupied daily by the prince and his 
family ; these were then sent to Musignano, the prince's 
country house, and handed over to experienced restorers. 
Their work continued day and night ; your correspondent 
was greatly surprised to see one morning two beautiful 
large vases restored, which he had seen in fragments at 
the excavations the previous afternoon. The prince de- 
voted all his time to the remarkable discoveries on his 
property, which yielded in a few months one of the finest 
collections of vases known to us. The study of these 
extraordinary discoveries and monuments proved suf- 
ficiently fascinating to induce him to undertake their 

The gentle irony implied in these last words alludes 
possibly to the fact that the Prince de Canino, at the 
inspiration of his chaplain Padre Maurizio, thought he 
recognized, for instance, on a drinking bowl, instead of 
Dionysos, who is crossing the sea in a ship with masts 
hung with vines, Noah the discoverer of wine. The name 
of the potter Exekias was declared to be the Hebrew 
Ezekiel, and some cracks that had been caused by bad 
firing in the glaze were looked upon as hieroglyphics 
dating probably from the time of the flood. 

The general report made by Gerhard in regard to 
this entire find in a publication of the Institute in 1831, 
the " Rapporto Volcente," became famous as a model of 
a concise, complete, and lucid report, and laid the founda- 
tion for the science of antique painted vases. This 
new class of monuments played for a long time so im- 
portant a part in archaeology that satire of the "Institute 
dei vasi " and of the " science des pots casses " was not 
lacking.;Nor has it quite subsided to-day; or has it 
again revived ? 


How did these apparently insignificant objects of 
decorative art attain such great importance ? 

It was, in the first place, the great insight we gained 
into the perfection of the handicrafts in antiquity, such 
as had caused the greatest astonishment at the discovery 
of Herculaneum. But if it was a question then of the 
refined bronzework of Hellenistic times, here Attic 
pottery was found in its elegant simplicity. Of forms a 
great variety existed, so that these could be divided into 
many classes, according to their uses. There were vases 
for storing, mixing, pouring, and drinking wine. Each 
class can be subdivided, and the gradual development of 
each can be accurately followed. 

But what stamps these vessels with their special 
character is their indissoluble combination of the greatest 
utility with the simplest form, with the form best adapted 
to its purpose. It is as if they were copied from nature. 
A Greek vase appears as a perfect organism, and has not 
a trace of the arbitrariness which too often characterizes 
modern handicrafts. If anywhere the words may here 
be applied : 

" DCS Korpers Form ist seines Wesens Spiegel ; 
Durchdringst du sie, lost sich des Ratsels Siegel" * 

But the pictorial representations on these vessels, 
even more than their form, offered to archaeologists of all 
nationalities rich material for scientific investigations ; 
indeed, in accordance with the tendency which prevailed 
in the science of the day, this aspect was at first the most 
prominent. The new knowledge acquired from mytho- 
logical representations was indeed very great. Not only 
did long-familiar myths appear in a new guise, so that 
their gradual development became intelligible, or that older 
and lost forms could be traced, but not a few new myths 
appeared unexpectedly, and as very popular ones, for 

* The form of a body reflects its inner being ; apprehend it, and 
the riddle is solved. 


which literary evidence, if it existed at all, had been 
meagre or even misleading. Thus the department of 
science known as the mythology of art attained entirely 
new significance and scope. Not only Gerhard (p. 59), 
but all the classical archaeology of the day, depended on 
mythology. Only gradually, and at first only by single 
individuals, were these numerous representations valued 
as giving us a closer, and at times a most attractive insight 
into the daily life of the Athenians. 

Gerhard, in his " Rapporto Volcente," laid stress upon 
a third point of view by noting the importance of this 
new material in connection with the history of antique 
painting. The history of earlier painting is essentially 
the history of painting on clay ; the most ancient repre- 
sentatives of the class ,of n-ivouceg are such painted clay 
tablets as those which covered the walls of some ancient 
tombs at Cerveteri. Gerhard's critical eye distinguished 
four main groups in vase painting which followed one 
another consecutively, the oldest an " orientalized " style ; 
a silhouette style of black outline drawing upon a red 
background ; red figures on a black background with 
many variations ; to which finally may be added a style, 
not found in Etruria, but frequently in Lower Italy 
(Apulia and Lucania), of painting in many and varied 
colours which developed from the red-figured style. This 
division still exists to-day, although we have learned 
to mark distinctions closely, and our knowledge of older 
styles has vastly increased. But a fourth most important 
question demanded an answer. Was it possible to con- 
sider these painted vases, found in Etruscan tombs, as 
a product of Greek painting, and to trace with their aid 
the history of its development ? In spite of Greek style, 
Greek subjects, and Greek inscriptions, this was not 
at once admitted by all. At that time, in Greece proper, 
only single finds of vases had been made, and most of 
these were only published by Gerhard in 1837 from Stackel- 


berg's posthumous writings. It was indeed merely local 
patriotism of single Italian scholars that declared in 
favour of Etruscan origin. But had these vases originated 
from Greek settlers in Etruria, or had they been ex- 
ported from Greece ? (The first to think of Athens was 
Karl Otfried M tiller.) These and similar questions were 
eagerly discussed, and received a great variety of answers. 
The enlightening word on this subject came finally from 
the philologist Gustav Kramer (1837). He was staying 
in Rome on account of his studies on Strabo, and had 
become connected with the Archaeological Institute. 
Judging from the palaeographic characters of the in- 
scriptions, he ascribed the " orientalized " vases to the 
Corinthians ; the black and red figured vases to the 
Athenians ; he even thought it possible to trace the 
origin of the so-called pictorial style of vases of Lower 
Italy to Athens. Kramer encountered a great deal of 
opposition, for archaeologists did not consider him a 
competent judge. His opinions were only fully justified 
seventeen years later by Otto Jahn, who re-examined 
them critically in the introduction to his " Beschreibung 
der Miinchener Vasensammlung " in 1854, except that 
Jahn, with most of his colleagues, removed the home of 
the pictorial style of vases from Athens to Lower Italy. 
According to the knowledge of Greek palaeography of 
those times Jahn felt himself justified in assuming the 
following chronology for the vases : the black-figured 
style, to judge from the lettering, belonged to a period 
extending to the beginning of the Peloponnesian War, 
and the red-figured style must have existed for a long 
time beside it. Their origin in consequence dated from 
before the Persian Wars (480). The " severe " style 
reigned supreme in the fifth century ; the " free " style 
came in toward the end of that century, and prevailed 
during the fourth century. 
These suggestions indicate sufficiently the interest 


excited in the archaeological world by the finds of Vulci. 
But after all it was merely a modest handicraft, and could 
not satisfy the longing for the contemplation of the great 
Greek art of painting. This desire was finally gratified 
by the discovery of the great mosaic of Alexander the 
Great at the battle of Issus, found in the " Casa del 
Fauno " in Pompeii. It was not an actual painting, to 
be sure, only a presumably Alexandrian copy in mosaic ; 
but the composition offered an excellent model of a 
battle scene, inasmuch as a general view of the entire 
action had not been attempted (it never can make a 
clear picture), but the decisive moment is chosen and 
clearly expressed of the meeting of Alexander and the 
Great King. No beholder can doubt as to the following 
defeat. It is a picture in the grand style ; Goethe has 
well rendered the impression it makes in words written 
shortly before his death : " The comments of our con- 
temporaries and of posterity will not suffice to criticize 
correctly such consummate art, but after all examination 
and contemplation we shall be forced to return to simple 
and pure admiration." 

While at the end of the third and the beginning of the 
fourth decades Italy offered such important results to 
Archaeology, only a few single finds were recorded there 
during the next decades. Alessandro Franois (1796- 
1857) belonged to a group of men who, with the greatest 
energy and success, carried on excavations in Tuscany. 
In Etruria he had worked in numerous burial grounds, 
and during ten years he explored the old sites along the 
Maremma coast for Noel des Vergers, the son-in-law of 
the French publisher Firmin Didot. With extraordinary 
skill and sure method he succeeded in discovering a site, 
or in determining the locality of a necropolis (e.g. at Pisa 
and at Volterra). His two greatest discoveries concern 
the last-named province of antique painting. In a grave 
near Chiusi, the old Etruscan capital Clusium, he found 








Photo, W. A. Mansell & Co. 


To face page 69 


in 1844 a superb example of the antique potter's art and 
of painting on clay, but its countless fragments and sherds 
were scattered throughout the tomb. It is now known 
as the Francois Vase, after its discoverer, and forms one 
of the chief treasures of the Etruscan Museum in Florence, 
and although it was recently shattered again by an act of 
wanton barbarity, it has been once more almost perfectly 

To appreciate the trials, sorrows, and joys under 
which this find was made and secured, one must read this 
excellent man's report. This great vase, about two feet 
high, forms our best example of an early Attic style, till 
then little known, dating from about the time of Solon, 
and marking the transition from the Corinthian to the 
black-figured style. It thus filled a great gap in the 
history of vase painting, and the many bands surrounding 
the body of the vase offered a surprising number of care- 
fully executed mythological representations. These en- 
lightened us as to many important contemporary works 
of art, as the so-called chest of Kypselus and the throne 
of Apollo at Amyklai near Sparta, both of which are only 
known to us from the descriptions of Pausanias. By 
placing the painted Attic pottery alongside of the wooden 
Corinthian chest and the Ionic stonework of Laconia it 
becomes very evident how all over Greece, during the 
first half of the sixth century, a need was felt of ex- 
pressing the great wealth of mythological subjects in 
a permanent and artistic manner in every branch of art. 
And as in the epos single poems were gathered to form 
great epics, so here single mythical representations were 
collected in a great series. 

Towards the end of his life, in 1857, Frangois with Noel 
des Vergers discovered at Vulci a great tomb with rich and 
varied paintings. A patch of soil which afforded nourish- 
ment to a row of oaks surrounded by barren rocks led him 
to suspect the presence of an ancient site. The pictures 


of this "grotta Frangois" have become famous, because 
they represent bloody scenes from heroic Etruscan legends 
placed side by side with similar scenes from Greek legends. 
Only after Otto Jahn had read and interpreted the Etrus- 
can inscriptions of the former half was this fully under- 
stood. Thus appeared Macstrna (Mastarna), the Servius 
Tullius of the Romans, with his associates Caile and Avle 
Vipinas (Vibenna), and the names well known in Roman 
royal legends were not missing of Tanchvil (Tanaquil) and 
Cneve Tarchnu Rumach (Gnaus Tarquinius of Rome). 
For a time these pictures remained quite unique in their 
connection with Etruscan legends, but later similar ones 
were found. 

Another contribution to our knowledge of Greek 
painting was offered by Rome in 1848, when a small 
house was demolished in the Via Graziosa on the Es- 
quiline. A long painted wall became visible which had 
retained its decoration in colour for about 1900 years. 
Red columns painted so as to suggest perspective formed 
a sort of gallery, and looking between the columns the 
eye perceived an extensive landscape with scenes from 
the Odyssey depicted. These extended from the ad- 
venture with the Lsestrygonians to the descent into Hades. 
A landscape composition of such extent, the illusion of 
a view seen through a merely painted gallery, the changing 
scenes of the wanderings of Odysseus all this was new, 
and for a time awaited the clue by which its place in the 
history of painting could be assigned to it a clue which 
was ultimately found in consequence of other discoveries 
and careful researches (Chap. VII). But a very different 
discovery, taking us back to remote antiquity, was made 
in April, 1836, at Cerveteri, the old Etruscan Caere. The 
arch-priest Regulini and General Galassi had the good 
fortune to discover a tomb of peculiar formation as well 
as of extraordinary contents. A long passage vaulted 
with overhanging horizontal layers of stone clearly in- 


dicated great antiquity, and the rich utensils of bronze, 
silver, and gold likewise bore the same early character. 
Their forms and designs suggested Oriental influence or 
Oriental models. The Phoenicians were thought of by 
those who remembered their old activity in trade, de- 
scribed hi the Homeric poems, and, as some individual 
articles corresponded to some described in Homer, the 
Regulini-Galassi tomb attained great importance. For 
men hoped to gain therefrom a picture of Homeric art. 
Such a picture, however, has had to be readjusted in the 
light of the discoveries of Schliemann and his successors 
(Chap. VIII). The entire contents of this tomb were 
transferred to the Etruscan Museum at the Vatican, 
opened during this year by Pope Gregory XVI, where 
he collected a great part of the objects obtained during 
the last decade in Etruria. 

Important additions were also made in the department 
of sculpture. About this time a well-preserved portrait 
statue was found on the property of the Antonelli family, 
near Terracina, and presented by the owner to Pope 
Gregory XVI in 1839. Sophocles was soon recognized 
as the subject. It is the noblest portrait statue that has 
come down to us from antiquity, a wonderful character- 
study of the favourite tragedian of Periclean Athens, 
standing midway between the ideal presentation of the 
likeness of Pericles and the naturalistic treatment of the 
Demosthenes statue. The Pope found in the Sophocles 
a worthy motive for the establishment of an extensive 
museum for antiques in the Lateran palace, and added 
to this collection a huge mosaic of athletes, which already 
had been discovered in 1824 m the Thermae of Caracalla. 
Hardly less important was the discovery in Trastevere 
in 1849 f tne statue of an athlete, which after some 
hesitation was recognized as the Apoxyomenos of Lysip- 
pos. This good copy offered for the first time an example 
of the art of Lysippos, and for a long time remained the 


standard for a close study of this last great master and 
law-giver in Greek plastic art. The statue holds a 
prominent place in the Braccio nuovo of the Vatican. 

At the same time that new papal museums were thus 
being founded and older ones were being enlarged, Rome 
witnessed the formation of one of the richest private 
collections of the nineteenth century. This is of sufficient 
interest to be spoken of here, though new discoveries 
formed only a minor part of it. Giovanni Pietro Cam- 
pana belonged to a well-to-do Roman family of the middle 
class, which had since the middle of the eighteenth century 
managed the Roman pawnbroker's shop, the Monte di 
Pieta. Giampietro was the third of the family to fill this 
office. He was only twenty-five years old, and had 
hardly finished his studies when Pope Gregory XVI 
called upon him to take charge of this institution, which 
was deeply encumbered with debt. He fulfilled all ex- 
pectations, for in a short time he succeeded in making it 
the most important deposit bank in Rome. Campana 
had occasion to indulge his passion for collecting an- 
tiquities even during his youth, having inherited a small 
collection from his grandfather Giampietro (a favourite 
of Pope Pius VI), and a collection of coins from his father 
Prospero. He was enabled to indulge his taste, as he 
inherited a large paternal fortune and gathered his 
treasures into a small villa near the Lateran. But now 
in his new position Campana's collections increased 
rapidly. Although rarely accessible, they had, even in 
the thirties, gained a reputation. From mere collecting 
he soon proceeded to undertake excavations of his own. 
Those undertaken at Ostia in 1834 proved unsuccessful, 
while, on the other hand, he uncovered, in 1840, in the 
Vigna Condini, near the Tomb of the Scipios a large 
Columbarium, of the early times of the Empire. During 
the winter of 1842-3 Campana found at Veii a tomb of 
the greatest antiquity, containing the oldest known 


Etruscan wall paintings. On Monte Abatone, near Cer- 
veteri, the ancient Caere, he found in 1845 a less im- 
portant tomb. His greatest success was soon attained 
on this spot. During the year 1850 there was discovered 
the so-called " grotto dei rilievi" (a large tomb chamber, 
displaying in its painted reliefs an abode of the living with 
correct copies of household furniture and utensils), as 
well as the so-called " Lydian sarcophagus," a great 
painted terra-cotta sarcophagus representing a bed upon 
which rested a couple, in extremely archaic style. This 
fine example of Etruscan terra-cotta was long kept hidden, 
but in 1856 similar valuable finds were made in the 
painted clay tablets which had adorned another tomb 
at Cerveteri (p. 66). The baked clay had preserved the 
colours of the paintings from exposure to the damp, to 
which wall paintings are usually subject. At Cerveteri, 
Campana acquired a great profusion of vases, among 
them unique specimens of a class till then unknown 
(Caeretan vases) ; their Ionian origin was only recognized 
later (Chap. IX). To the products of his own excava- 
tions he added purchases made in all parts of Italy ; 
e.g. Campana bought of the Duke of Syracuse, the brother 
of the Neapolitan " re Bomba" the products of his ex- 
cavations at Cumae this collection contained the " queen 
of vases," a hydria with representations of the Eleusinian 
divinities in coloured and gilt relief. Even Greece 
contributed to the Campana collection. 

In less than a quarter of a century a museum of amazing 
diversity developed. The marbles, numbering 500, 
consisted chiefly of the ordinary Roman work with a 
few good examples, a beautiful Niobe relief being one of 
the best. Campana had unfortunately adopted the 
wretched Roman custom of restoring arbitrarily broken 
statues and reliefs, and finally covering the whole with 
a dull white paste (Gnaccarini paste). The restorations 
were executed by the sculptor Filippo Gnaccarini, who 


later acted with the same wilfulness in the Torlonia 
Museum. In consequence of his work the marbles lost 
all artistic charm and scientific value. 

Of great interest was the collection of Roman terra- 
cotta reliefs, published by Campana himself, and hence 
retaining the name of the " Campana reliefs." These 
were Roman works for decorative purposes executed on 
Hellenistic models. Their trustworthiness and genuine- 
ness may here again be doubted, as Campana owned a 
pottery ; for restorations of broken originals under- 
taken there resulted frequently in worthless pasticci or 
complete forgeries. The skilful restorer Pennelli, who is 
known to have taken part in other forgeries, was actively 
engaged here, and later accompanied the Campana 
collection to Paris. 

Besides the terra-cotta reliefs there were a great 
number of restored terra-cotta figurines; in all, the 
collection contained about 1900 terra-cottas. During 
excavations in Etruria and Lower Italy there were 
discovered 3800 vases, many of extraordinary value, 
including fine examples of all the then known and many 
unknown classes. Everything was represented here in 
vast numbers ; there were 600 bronzes, 460 glass vessels, 
nearly 1600 gold jewels or trinkets, gems, and selected 
coins, the two latter classes containing many extraordi- 
nary works. 

Collecting continued thus at a rapid pace. During the 
fifties a new passion arose : collecting Italian works of 
art of the Middle Ages and of modern times. It did not 
take long to gather 1000 paintings from the thirteenth 
to the seventeenth century, of course with high-sounding 
names attached. These filled a large house in the Via 
del Babuino. About 700 pieces of majolica, chiefly of 
the coarser kind, supplemented the collection of paintings. 

All these treasures, excepting the " Campana reliefs," 
were kept hidden. The owner, who had in the meantime 


been made a marquis, only allowed a few chosen friends 
or highly recommended strangers to view his collections, 
and then only in parts. For instance, Heinrich Brunn, 
the Secretary of the German Archaeological Institute, who 
had assisted in the publication of the catalogue of vases, 
remained long in ignorance of the existence of the Etrus- 
can terra-cotta sarcophagus and the painted terra-cotta 
reliefs (p. 73) ; the large collection of paintings only 
became known in 1857, a ^ ter tne great catastrophe had 
overtaken the collector. 

The passion for collecting had enticed Campana to 
outrun his fortune. His position as manager of a great 
bank had enabled him to take gradually 125,000 from 
the bank, at first with the consent of those in authority, 
and by giving as security for 4500 part of his valuable 
collection, and later by simply depositing his notes. 
According to well-informed persons this was all done in 
perfectly good faith, as he thought the great value of his 
collections sufficient to cover all loans. The collections 
had been valued by the official archaeologist Pietro Ercole 
Visconti at 200,000. In order to obtain some relief from 
his increasing financial distress, Campana began about the 
middle of the fifties to negotiate in different quarters for 
the sale of his collections, and began preparing catalogues, 
which, however, in consequence of carelessness only 
appeared in 1858. These negotiations had not yet had 
any results, when suddenly in October, 1857, Pope Pius IX 
issued, from Bologna, threatening warnings against 
fraudulent administrators of public funds ; soon after 
his return to Rome investigations were undertaken at 
the "Monte di Pieta," which resulted in the marquis 
going to prison on the 25th of November. A fortnight 
after this event I reached Rome, and found the city still 
greatly excited, and discussions still continuing. In the 
following year Campana was condemned to the galleys, 
but in January, 1859, ^ ie was pardoned, but exiled. It 


took a number of years to dispose of the great Campana 
collection, which had been confiscated. In February, 
1861, Russia obtained part of the sculpture, including 
the Niobe relief, some of the bronzes, and 518 vases 
some of great value for 26,000. To express his satis- 
faction at the sale, so at least it was said in Rome, the 
Pope added the beautiful hydria from Cumae (p. 73). 
After long delay Napoleon III decided to purchase the 
remains of the collection for about 175,000. It came 
to Paris as the Musee Napoleon III, and the Louvre 
came into possession of the valuable Etruscan collection 
of glass vessels, gold jewels, terra-cottas, the Campana 
reliefs, about 300 marbles, and finally 3400 vases, which, 
when added to this already fine collection, raised it to 
a position of foremost importance. Minor pieces or 
collections were disposed of to smaller museums. Finally 
single and not unimportant groups of vases reached the 
museums of Florence, Brussels, and Geneva. The 
collector survived his fall more than twenty years, and 
finally died in 1880 in poverty in Rome, where he had 
long been forgotten. 

Most of the single finds mentioned above (p. 68) 
were first interpreted in the publications of the Archaeo- 
logical Institute. For about twenty years German, 
Italian, and French scholars shared in this work under 
the guidance of the German Secretaries, and with financial 
aid from the Prussian > Government and the Duke de 
Luynes (p. 61), until in the troubled year of 1848 the 
French section abandoned its activity, leaving the work of 
the Institute to the two other nations. This became more 
and more the centre of archaeological activity in Rome, 
not only in consequence of its publications and its weekly 
meetings, but also on account of its constantly growing 
and important library. This proved of the greatest 
advantage to the younger German scholars who came to 
Rome from the end of the thirties onwards for the purpose 


of serious study. They had been prepared in archaeology 
at the German universities, where Welcker was teaching 
at Bonn, Karl Otfried Miiller at Gottingen, and Gerhard 
at Berlin ; and in the secretary of the Institute, Emil 
Braun, they found a gifted, if not a strictly scientific, 
leader. Braun, however, was one of the first to recognize 
the importance of archaeological experience, such as had 
been gained by Jahn, Brunn, Stephani, Wieseler, Stark, 
and others. When, therefore, in 1856, after the most 
critical years, Heinrich Brunn took the place of Braun, 
the study of archaeology had fully developed at the 
German universities, in consequence of the teaching of 
this older generation, and the crowd of ragazzi, who 
soon came pouring in, found under Brunn's leadership 
the Institute a sort of archaeological university. The 
great usefulness of the Institute was further increased by 
more liberal assistance on the part of the Prussian Govern- 
ment and by some travelling studentships. But its 
activity was by no means exhausted, either in the train- 
ing of young archaeologists or in the publication of its 
regular journals (Monumenti, Annali, Buttettini), for it 
assumed again the two tasks which it had in a sense taken 
as a legacy from Gerhard (p. 58). 

It was of primary importance to resume the cataloguing 
of the scattered antiquities. In Rome this task was 
undertaken chiefly by pupils of the Institute ; Benndorf 
and Schone catalogued the Lateran Museum ; Schreiber 
the Ludovisi collection ; Matz and von Duhm the 
scattered antiques in Rome, and at a later date Amelung 
and Petersen worked at the Vatican. At Naples, Helbig 
catalogued the paintings, and Heydemann the collection 
of vases. The numerous museums of Northern Italy 
were described by Diitschke, and those of Florence by 

In Athens, Kekule" undertook the Theseion and Heyde- 
mann the smaller collections, while members of the French 


School helped in this arduous task, Collignon cataloguing 
the vases, Martha the terra-cottas, and de Ridder the 
bronzes. In Munich Jahn catalogued the collection of 
vases, and Brunn the Glyptothek ; in Berlin scientific 
catalogues were issued by Gerhard, Friedrichs, Wolters, 
Conze, and Furtwangler, and in St. Petersburg by Ste- 
phani. The sculptures of Spain were described by 
Hiibner, and the scattered " Marbles of Great Britain " 
by Michaelis. 

These labours, requiring the utmost industry and 
patient self-denial, supplemented the work of the spade. 
It is owing probably to the German character and to the 
scientific training given at the German universities, that 
this work was carried on mainly by Germans (for the 
same reasons the laborious work of providing the appa- 
ratus criticus for editions of the classics is chiefly in 
German hands) ; but to Gerhard's example and to the 
work of the Institute great credit is due. Thus the 
French who take an active part in this work are pupils 
of the French School at Athens, while the Italians, who 
for a long time lacked the opportunities of such a train- 
ing, seldom undertook such work. Rare exceptions are 
presented by Giuseppe Valentinelli (Venice), Giovanni 
Jatta (Ruvo), and Antonio Sogliano (Pompeii). 

England goes its own way. The British Museum, 
however, provides excellent catalogues of sculpture, 
coins, and vases, among which those of the collections of 
coins prepared by Poole, Head, and others, maintain a 
position of the first rank. 

Another series of great undertakings of the Institute 
had already been indicated by Gerhard. He had recog- 
nized the great importance of collecting representations, 
as complete as possible, of similar works of art. He 
personally undertook the Etruscan mirrors ; the great 
number of Greek vases made a selection necessary ; 
a collection of drawings was all that it was possible to 


undertake at first in regard to the Etruscan cinerary 

The model afforded by the " Corpus Inscriptionum 
Gr&carum" which had been followed by the more 
methodical preparatory work for the Latin inscriptions, 
made it apparent how essential such collections are. 
Brunn again began with new material, the collection of 
Etruscan cinerary urns, and as soon as the Institute 
was transformed into an institution of the German 
Empire in 1874, and was possessed of greater means, new 
enterprises were undertaken ; Reinhard Kekule", with the 
co-operation of Hermann von Rohden and Franz Winter, 
published a collection of ancient terra-cottas ; the Roman 
sarcophagi were undertaken by Friedrich Matz, and after 
his early death continued by Carl Robert. Alexander 
Conze, with others, published the Attic Grave Reliefs, 
a work executed as a commission from the Vienna 
Academy. The choice in the class of monuments fre- 
quently depended on finding a capable and willing worker. 
Great numbers of all classes of monuments, statues, 
busts, as well as vases, still remain unpublished. 

The series of publications undertaken by this Institute, 
however, shows that these undertakings are impossible 
without extensive means and a staff of workers eager to 
work and willing to make sacrifices. Until now the 
Institute has pursued its way alone, but it does not seek 
any monopoly ; other institutions and other nations will 
find a great field where all may co-operate. Paul Arndt, 
with a number of fellow-workers, has in the meantime 
prepared a photographic collection of sculpture. 

It may be added here that the Archaeological Institute 
in Rome has been the cradle for the study of Roman 
epigraphy, which has now become so flourishing. These 
studies were first introduced at the Institute by Count 
Bartolommeo Borghesi, and under his patronage Olaus 
Kellermann devoted himself to these studies. Later 


Theodor Mommsen and Wilhelm Henzen undertook 
those epigraphic studies and journeys which culminated 
in the "Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum" That it 
was possible to carry this out so perfectly, under the able 
guidance of Mommsen, is again owing to the deep pene- 
tration and tenacious energy of Eduard Gerhard, who 
never tired of exhibiting his plans to the Berlin Academy, 
and finally carried off the victory after long resistance. 

The labour and the completion of this great work had 
gathered together for half a century a great number of 
young workers the Roman part had since the death 
of Henzen been carried on by Christian Hiilsen and, as 
is well known, this monumental work completely re- 
modelled the study of Roman antiquities. 

The Roman nobleman Giambattista de Rossi had taken 
an active part in the Roman Institute since 1850, and 
also in the preparatory work of the " Corpus"; he became 
acquainted with Mommsen and Henzen about that time. 
The main subject of his studies was Christian Archaeology, 
a subject which the Institute had excluded, so as to avoid 
all unpleasant encounters with the authorities of the 
Vatican. It will suffice to indicate here the entirely new 
sphere opened for this branch of archaeology, through 
de Rossi's rediscovery of the Roman catacombs. 

The catacombs, the subterranean resting-places (Cce- 
meteria) of Roman Christians of the first three centuries, 
scattered in great numbers about the city, had since the 
sixteenth century been the object of research and investi- 
gations. In 1632 there had already appeared the " Roma 
sottenanea" by Antonio Bosio of Malta, a work em- 
bodying the labour of thirty years. But an unlucky 
star had guided these earlier efforts. The graves of 
famous martyrs and saints had never been reached, 
although of many it was known in what catacombs they 


\\vrc interred, and that they had received in the early 
Middle Ages the veneration of many pilgrims and be- 

One of the most famous burying-places had been a 
catacomb on the Appian Way, which had been known 
as the one containing the tomb of Pope Sixtus II, who was 
martyred in 258, and was sometimes designated as that of 
St. Cecilia, or of Callixtus, who had laid out this extensive 
place. It had generally been sought for near the church 
of San Sebastiano, where there had evidently been cata- 
combs, but no trace could be found of the graves of these 
saints. And this was the case everywhere. Until the 
middle of the nineteenth century our knowledge of the 
catacombs was confined to the ordinary passages with 
the simple wall niche and their occasional extension and 
decorated grave chambers. 

During the year 1841 Pope Gregory XVI gave the 
supervision of the catacombs to the learned Jesuit 
Giuseppe Marchi, who seriously undertook their investi- 
gation. He at once exploded the erroneous belief that 
the early Christians had used old pozzuolana quarries 
for burying-places, by proving that the catacombs had 
never been made in the soft soil of the pozzuolana earth, 
but had always been found in tufa, and that here also old 
quarries had not been used, but that the complex, narrow 
passages running frequently at right angles had been 
solely prepared as a resting-place for the dead. But 
Marchi proved only the forerunner of a greater man, and 
one who had accompanied him on all his expeditions 
the young de Rossi. He towered far above his leader, 
having a broader horizon, greater sagacity, and more 
clear-sighted penetration. 

A thorough study of the books of early medieval pil- 
grims (among which the itinerary of the convent of 
Einsiedeln is famous and of great importance) in con- 
nection with a systematic study of early Christian and 


ecclesiastical literature, gave him a new and entirely 
different conception of the situation and relative position 
of catacombs. He thus came to the conclusion that the 
Catacomb of Sixtus was to be sought nearer the city than 
San Sebastiano. He tried to cover the surrounding 
country carefully in his investigations, and was finally 
rewarded in 1849 by finding a broken marble slab on 
which the words " nelius martyr " were still visible. 
From literature Rossi had learned that the martyr 
Cornelius, who had been killed in 251, must lie in a 
division of the Catacomb of Sixtus, and had received 
special veneration. He hoped thus to gain a definite 
clue. On the strength of this discovery the young scholar, 
then twenty-seven years old, urged Pope Pius IX to 
purchase the Vigna, where the fragment had been dis- 
covered, and received from the Pope the commission to 
continue his researches and investigations. 

Thus opened those brilliant discoveries which led every 
year to new chapters in Christian Archaeology. It soon 
became evident that during the fourth century, after the 
Christian religion had been established, Pope Damasus, 
to regulate the constantly increasing number of pilgrims 
who for centuries visited the tombs of martyrs, built wide 
staircases in great walled shafts, thereby ruthlessly de- 
stroying graves of the more insignificant dead, so as to 
lead the pilgrims straight to the graves of the saints or 
chief martyrs. These underground apartments received 
their light and air by specially constructed air shafts rest- 
ing on great arches. In the earlier excavations, by chance 
such a shaft had never been reached, but on meeting a 
wall in a narrow passage it was concluded that the end 
of the subterranean burying-ground had been reached. 
If one of these walls had been demolished, de Rossi's dis- 
covery would have been made centuries earlier. 

The first great tomb-chamber to be entered by de Rossi 
was that of St. Cornelius, and to complete the circum- 


stantial evidence, there was found here the left half of 
the broken slab with the letters " Cor'' which had formed 
the first part of the name, and the beginning of the title, 
" ep " (iscopus). De Rossi knew from the books of 
pilgrims that this chamber was some distance from the 
tomb of St. Sixtus. An eager search now began in the 
narrow passages extending to the height of several 
storeys, and all these had to be cleared of their debris. 
The grave of St. Eusebius was first discovered. Finally 
the scrawled inscriptions increased on the walls to which 
pious pilgrims had confided their hopes and aspirations. 
The 'expectations of the lucky finder were greatly raised, 
when near a door he came upon three invocations to 
" Sustus." The door, in fact, led to the main entrance 
of the Sixtus Catacomb, as it had been arranged in the 
third quarter of the fourth century by Pope Damasus. 
The main tomb was found in the background, but greatly 
damaged ; in simple niches about the sides were the graves 
of eleven Roman bishops of the third century, the outside 
marble tablets bearing the names in Greek, the former 
official language of the Roman Church, without recording 
other distinction or papal dignity. In the corner, to the 
left of the tomb of Sixtus, a little gate led out of the so- 
called papal chamber into the adjacent chapel of Cecilia. 
The saint's grave niche was vacant, for in 817 Paschalis I 
had, as the times grew more disturbed, transferred the 
corpse to the church of St. Cecilia at Trastevere, where 
a statue by Stefano Maderna shows the martyr in the 
position in which she had been found. Byzantine paint- 
ings of the sixth and eighth centuries on the walls of the 
vault in the catacombs, testify to the veneration accorded 
this saint during the centuries of pilgrimages. There is 
still to-day on St. Cecilia's Day, 22 November, an im- 
pressive ceremony in the subterranean chapel, which has 
been cleared. 
Thus passed the beginning of de Rossi's researches in 


the catacombs. Those hours will ever remain a delightful 
memory to every hearer, in which the able and dis- 
tinguished discoverer on whose lips dwelt Peitho 
related his recent discoveries and his future aims. During 
the following years he continued to give accurate accounts 
of what had been attained. 

It is beyond the scope of this book to give a more de- 
tailed account of the arrangement of the catacombs and 
their decorations, and much less to enter into the dis- 
cussion as to their interpretation. Nor do we wish to 
enter here into the development of the investigations of 
the catacombs ; how one catacomb was carefully ex- 
amined after another, and how gradually our knowledge 
of the paintings in the catacombs has extended. It is 
sufficient to remember here the labours of Joseph Wil- 
pert. But Christian Archaeology will always revere 
Giambattista de Rossi as its founder. 


RICHARD LEPSIUS, whose earlier studies had 
been concerned with the Italian dialects, took 
part temporarily during the thirties in the work and 
direction of the Archaeological Institute. While in 
Paris the young scholar had already devoted himself 
to the study of Egyptian hieroglyphics, which had now 
become intelligible in consequence of Champollion's 
great discovery. Bunsen greatly desired to include 
Egyptian monuments in the research work of the Archaeo- 
logical Institute, and urged Lepsius to continue his 
studies in this field. Lepsius, in fact, began his Egyptian 
work in 1837 with a revision of Champollion's interpre- 
tation, making great advance in the method. He thus 
entered upon the path whereon he attained his greatest 

No important progress had been made, apart from the 
reading of hieroglyphics, in the study of Egyptian monu- 
ments since the Napoleonic expedition (p. 14). The 
Franco-Tuscan expedition sent out under Champollion 
and Rosellini in 1828 had in the course of a year (October, 
1828, to September, 1829) gathered considerable material, 
and Champollion inaugurated a great advance in the 
knowledge of Egyptian history by the reading of in- 
scriptions, the copying of which had formed the main 
object of the undertaking. The expedition had pene- 



trated beyond Philae (p. 16) to Abu Simbel with its 
rock giants, and had gone as far as Wadi Haifa. 

Champollion, finally, had recognized the great disparity 
between the, until then, greatly overrated sculptures of 
the Ptolemaic-Roman sculptures (e.g. Dendera) and the 
genuine Egyptian monuments of the time of the Rames- 
sids. In the domain of art, however, little had been 
gained showing important new results. The Ramesseum 
had been recognized, the royal tombs at Thebes had been 
entered, and the significance of the colossi as images of 
Amenhotep III (p. 16) had been established. The 
tombs of Beni Hassan, with their simple Protodoric type 
of column, excited the greatest interest ; Champollion 
believed that he discovered therein the prototype of the 
Doric column of the Greeks. For he became convinced 
that Greek art had developed strictly in conformity to 
Egyptian art. In spite of all this, a wide field still re- 
mained for research work, particularly if equipped with 
means and permission to carry on excavations, as these 
had only taken place to a very moderate extent in former 
expeditions. Thanks to the great influence at the com- 
mand of Alexander von Humboldt and Bunsen, Lepsius 
was able to enter upon his work now, for means had been 
secured from King Friedrich Wilhelm IV (a man more 
given to forming plans than to executing them) for an 
extensive scientific expedition to Egypt, lasting three 
years, 1843-5. Lepsius, hardly thirty-two years old, 
was placed at the head of the expedition, accompanied 
by a staff of architects and draughtsmen, among whom 
may be mentioned Erbkam. It was not simply a question, 
as heretofore, of inquiry and of carrying off that which 
lay openly before all eyes, but a question of research 
work and the use of the spade when necessary. The 
great length of time planned was to preclude all haste ; 
thus, for instance, six months were devoted to Memphis 
and its tombs, seven months to the extensive ruins of 


Thebes, and a month to the Island of Philae and its en- 
virons. With the exception of the Pyramids of Beni 
Hassan, only monuments of the New Kingdom or of the 
later periods had been examined. The discovery of 
numerous monuments of the Old Kingdom was the first 
great result obtained by the Prussian expedition. The 
number of the most obvious witnesses of this brilliant 
period, the Pyramids, increased to 67 ; of the Mast abas, 
a style of tomb until then unknown, 130 were discovered. 
Although Champollion had only reluctantly acknowledged 
the great antiquity of Egyptian art, our knowledge of it 
now extended back into the fourth millennium. In 
Amenemhet III it was possible to recognize the con- 
structor of Lake Moeris in the Fayum, the great basin 
regulating the Nile ; to examine his pyramids and 
structures which Lepsius mistakenly identified with the 
famous Labyrinth and to investigate the plans for 
damming the river. Later, in Upper Egypt, where the 
river becomes narrow, the Nilometer of the same king 
appeared, indicating the height of the Nile, at that time, 
as about seven metres higher than to-day. In Middle 
Egypt appeared the later tombs of the Old Kingdom, the 
rock tombs (for instance, Kom-el-achmar ), and farther south 
the later tombs. The Ramesseum and the rock tomb of 
Rameses II were carefully investigated in the scattered 
ruins of Thebes, and still further south the rock temple 
of Abu Simbel with its colossi. 

The expedition did not halt at the frontiers of Egypt, 
but penetrated to Ethiopia beyond Khartum, and even 
Sinai did not remain unexplored. 

This much as to the extent of the expedition. Its 
results were of the utmost importance to the history of the 
country. As permanent guides numerous cartouches 
with names of kings were collected for the publication of 
the "Book of Kings" in 1858. The figure of the revolution- 
ary King Amenhotep IV was first dimly recognized at 


Tell-el-Amarna. Our historical knowledge also enhanced 
our comprehension of the history of art ; for the great 
epochs of Egyptian art, from the Old Kingdom down to 
the times of the Ptolemies and the Romans, only now 
appeared in a clear light. Architecture, in connection 
therewith, was for the first time critically examined by 
experts. The reliefs covering the walls and the inscrip- 
tions were eagerly copied, squeezes and drawings were 
taken, all yielding valuable information as to language, 
religion, and the conditions of daily life. 

It is not asserting too much to state that in consequence 
of this expedition Egyptology gained a new and an en- 
tirely changed foundation. The results attained were 
soon rendered accessible by the great illustrated work 
which formed a collection of documents, and by the organ- 
ization of the Egyptian Museum in Berlin. 

The art of Assyria appeared on our horizon for the first 
time almost at the moment that Lepsius and his friends 
were investigating Egypt. From Mosul, the chief town 
in this region, the eye scans the vast region on the left 
bank of the Tigris, whereon are scattered in many places 
irregular earth-hills. Earlier travellers Kinneir, Rich, 
and Ainsworth had already recognized in these hills 
(flat at the top with steep and frequently broken edges) 
the sheltering coverings of ruins, and the site of old 
Nineveh had even been conjectured in the group of hills 
of Kuyunjik and Nebi Yunus (the grave of Jonah) 
opposite Mosul. 

The credit of seriously beginning investigations be- 
longs to Paul Emile Botta, who had been French consul 
in Mosul since 1842 ; the famous Oriental scholar, 
Julius Mohl of Paris, was his learned friend and patron. 
The excavations undertaken by Botta at Kuyunjik were 
fruitless. But after overcoming serious difficulties with 


local authorities and the Pasha of Mosul he undertook 
excavations at Khorsabad, ten miles further north, near 
the eastern boundary of the plain, and his efforts were 
crowned with great success (1843-4). Upon massive 
terraces there appeared the vast palace which King Sar- 
gon erected after the conquest of Babylon in 710 as a 
summer palace or Versailles ; the name of the site was 
Dur Sarukin (the hill of Sargon). Great courts with 
entrance gates were uncovered, stately halls, a maze of 
passages and rooms ; one part of the palace contained 
a threefold harem and remains of a terrace-tower which 
had served as a sanctuary. The entrance gates were 
guarded by huge bulls and lions ; the brick walls were 
partly covered with reliefs in alabaster representing 
chiefly scenes of the royal life, or they were partly covered 
with decorative friezes of coloured enamelled tiles. 
A new vista was opened here. Botta immediately 
tried, as may readily be understood, to find shelter for 
the sculptures, and sent them as soon as possible to 
Basra, whence they were conveyed to Havre in 1846. 
Paris was safely reached in February, 1847 among the 
sculptures were a pair of the large portal figures. In 
the autumn of 1843 the draughtsman Flandin joined 
Botta, and the two worked together, publishing their 
results. But the architectural investigation of this 
important ruin still left much to be desired. The French 
consul Victor Place and the architect Felix Thomas 
tried some years later to fill this gap, 1851-5. Their 
searching investigations succeeded in reconstructing this 
palace on paper, and thus casting a clear light on the 
peculiarities of Assyrian architecture. The English 
traveller and journalist Austen Henry Layard felt 
tempted to try his luck in consequence of Botta's great 
results. Means were offered him by Sir Stratford 
Canning, British ambassador at Constantinople. In 
1845 Layard chose as the site of his campaign the great 


rubbish mound of Nimrud, eighteen miles south of 
Kuyunjik, which had attracted his attention on his 
former journeys. Remains of the old city of Calah were 
soon discovered there. The first excavations were 
carried on under constant difficulties, arising from ill- 
disposed authorities, superstitious fanatics, and thievish 
neighbouring tribes. Nor did these difficulties cease 
the following year ; such discoveries as that of the 
gigantic human head of a bull created the greatest 
excitement in the entire province. 

The work, however, had sufficiently advanced to 
allow the first shipment to London to be made during 
the summer of 1846, a gift to the British Museum from 
Sir Stratford Canning. The museum now accorded some 
financial aid, so that excavations could be resumed in the 
autumn, although, unfortunately, without the aid of a 
draughtsman. As many pieces were too badly injured 
or broken to permit transportation, Layard had to come 
to the rescue again. No architect was on the spot, 
therefore little is known to us of the architecture of the 
ruins of Nimrud. The second shipment of sculpture took 
place in December, and with it ended the investigation 
of Nimrud. The palaces found here closely resembled 
those at Khorsabad. The alabaster wall coverings, 
with their rows of reliefs, were here found still in position 
or in the ground as they had fallen, and again the same 
gigantic animal figures formed the support of the portals. 
But all was larger, more impressive, and bore a more 
vigorous character, the sculpture, as well as the well- 
preserved colours. These ruins extended more than a 
century and a half further back, as far as the reign of 
King Assurnasirpal, who was the first of the great Assyrian 
conquerors. He had built in the years 875-68 the 
" North-western Palace " uncovered by Layard. There 
foUowed the "Central Palace," built by his son Sal- 
manassar II, on which Layard also worked ; of particular 


interest was the " black obelisk," giving an illustrated 
chronology of thirty-one years of the king's reign. The 
remains of the unfinished " South-western Palace " with 
its reliefs are of later date, and resemble in style those of 
Khorsabad ; the palace had been designed about 670 
by Asarhaddon. This entire rich collection found its 
way to the British Museum, and with Layard's great 
publication and popular description helped materially to 
direct general interest to Assyrian art. 

But Layard did not rest there. In 1849, bein g com " 
missioned by the British Museum, he undertook work on 
the hills of Kuyunjik, where earlier attempts had not 
been successful, although trial excavations in 1847 had 
shown some good results. Layard now continued these 
excavations on an extensive scale until 1850. Again 
his efforts were crowned with success, and these results 
again went to the British Museum. He disclosed this 
time the latest period of the Assyrian Empire, the seventh 
century, from which date the palace ruins of Nineveh. 
King Sanherib and his grandson, Asurbanipal (Sardana- 
palus), were the chief representatives of this period. 
Judging from outward appearance the representations 
were very much the same as on the two other sites, but 
a new and more animated spirit pervades these sculptures, 
an attempt to abandon the old fetters and formalities. 
Such a work as the lioness mortally wounded in the spine, 
which, although her hindquarters are already paralysed, 
lifts his head and shoulders for a last roar, is far above all 
the creations of the older Assyrian sculpture. The ex- 
traordinary phenomenon is witnessed here of an art which 
for centuries had conformed to the most rigid rules 
suddenly rising before its end to a more vivid conception 
and interpretation of the life about it. It was not sur- 
prising that an explanation of this anomaly was sought 
for, and it was assumed that Ionian influences had here 
rejuvenated ancient Assyrian art. It is, however, to be 


questioned whether the plastic art of the lonians, in the 
beginning of the seventh century, had already attained 
this strength. 

These Assyrian discoveries, made in the forties, 
opened a view of the court art of a secluded empire, 
showing distinctly the consecutive stages of development 
during three centuries. Its influence extended as far as 
Cyprus, where in 1845 Ludwig Ross discovered an image 
of King Sargon on a relief stele. Assyrian art belongs to 
the last pre-Christian millennium, and is, therefore, far 
later than the Egyptian, but yet is old enough to raise 
the question whether any light can be obtained from 
Assyria to solve the obscure question of the origin and 
style of Homeric art. Adrien de Longperier pursued 
this path, and later Heinrich Brunn. 

Since Chandler's " Ionian " expedition in 1764 Asia 
Minor had frequently been visited by several, especially 
by travellers, but they had either been guided by 
geographical considerations or had searched for the 
"seven churches of the Revelation." Not until the 
journeys undertaken by Charles Texier at the instance 
of the French Government in 1833-7 did archaeological 
interests again become prominent. A number of build- 
ings and plans of cities were drawn, unfortunately often 
so carelessly that later investigations revealed the un- 
trustworthiness of Texier's great publications. The 
Doric Temple at Assos, a city on the south coast of the 
Troad, offered some novelties to the history of art. 
The primitive style of the architecture, with equally 
ancient reliefs upon epistyle and metopes, all hewn out 
of the brittle trachyte of the neighbourhood, created 
great interest. After the reliefs had been acquired by 
the Louvre, through the efforts of Raoul-Rochette, many 
voices assigned them to the very beginning of Greek 
sculpture. The American architect Joseph Thacher 
Clarke, who in 1881-3 re-examined the entire city of 


Assos, at the instance of the Archaeological Institute of 
America, became convinced of the contrary, and after 
examining the ground-plan of the temple, ascribed it 
to a period near the time of Pericles. An instructive 
example, showing that correct conclusions cannot always 
be definitely attained by the exclusive study either of ar- 
chitecture or archaeology. To-day few will doubt that 
we have to deal with a peculiar provincial style of the 
sixth century. As the most important archaeological 
achievements of Texier's journey may be mentioned the 
great temple site of Aizani (for a time supposed to be 
Hellenistic, until recognized as of the time of Hadrian), 
the Temple of Augustus at Ancyra, and the rock-reliefs 
at Boghas Koi and Nymphid. These soon formed the 
object of more thorough investigations (p. 106). Another 
French expedition carried on by Philippe Lebas in 1843-4 
proved of less importance as regards Asia Minor. Partly 
in consequence of political affairs its results remained 
quite fragmentary ; only parts of the work, which had 
been planned on a great scale, were ever published. 

The event which contributed most to our knowledge 
of Asia Minor during these years was what may be termed 
the discovery of Lycia. This Alpine peninsula, pro- 
jecting into the sea, on the south coast of Asia Minor, had 
in consequence of its mountainous character not been 
easily accessible. Only along its coast had it been visited, 
where Myra, the place where St. Paul landed, had excited 
interest. Older descriptions of travel, as those of Clarke, 
Ludwig Mayer, and Beaufort, only suggested enough of 
the peculiar charm of Lycian works of art to arouse a 
desire for more accurate knowledge. Charles Fellows, 
however, was hardly influenced by these, when he became 
the actual discoverer of Lycia. As the son of a wealthy 
banker without any vocation, he had early begun to 
travel, and since 1832 had spent several years in Italy 
and Greece. In the spring of 1838 he went to Smyrna, 


and thence started on a three months' journey, which 
led him north by way of Pergamon and Troy to Con- 
stantinople, thence across country to Adalia, and then 
by Lycia, Caria, and Lydia, back to Smyrna. He knew 
nothing of the earlier travellers, wrote his journal without 
preconceptions, and with a tolerably practised pencil 
sketched what he saw. Only after his return to London, 
when he reported his journeys and exhibited his sketches, 
did he realize the great number of new things he had seen 
and experienced. The greatest interest was excited by 
the drawings from Lycia, which exhibited funereal 
monuments cut out of the rock or standing free. Both 
displayed a striking imitation in stone of wooden archi- 
tecture. The decoration in reliefs of many of these 
tombs was also remarkable. The frieze of the so-called 
Harpy Tomb of Xanthos appeared of marked importance, 
although painfully modernized in Fellows's drawings. 

This unexpected success decided Fellows to return in 
the autumn of 1839, as s o n a s his report had been 
printed (" Asia Minor "), with the purpose of investi- 
gating Lycia more thoroughly. He was accompanied 
by the draughtsman George Scharf, born in London, 
the son of a Bavarian artist. This second journey, 
during the spring of 1840, with a stay of four months in 
Lycia, greatly enriched our knowledge of this remote 
country, with its numerous and extensive ruins of cities. 
Its tombs, which are hewn out of the rock, at times 
represent wooden structures, at times the faades of 
Ionic temples ; its reliefs are partly very ancient and 
partly represent a later style carried out in a distinctive 
character. The Harpy Tomb, in particular, which was 
now more correctly drawn, distinctly suggested certain 
works of art in which Ionian influence was conjectured, 
and offered in its representations an interesting problem. 
The copy of a wooden structure aroused anew the question 
of the relation of wood construction to Greek architecture. 


To these may be added inscriptions in peculiar characters 
and a strange tongue, which offered difficult problems 
to the philologist. Fellows returned home with good 
results, and reported all in a new book " Lycia," to which 
some of Scharfs drawings were added. The latter's 
larger drawings were presented in 1844 by Fellows to the 
British Museum. Some plates among these clearly 
showed traces of colour on some of the monuments. 

These new reports greatly stimulated the desire to 
acquire the most important sculptures of Xanthos for 
the British Museum. Negotiations were begun with 
Turkey, and a carelessly prepared expedition was set 
on foot, which certainly would have failed, had not 
Fellows offered his services, and with his knowledge of 
Turkish affairs surmounted the main difficulties. In 
January, 1842, he led the work of the sailors placed at 
his disposal by the British Navy. He succeeded in 
lowering the reliefs from the Harpy Tomb, which was 
eight metres high, without further injuring it. The 
chief find, however, was in the neighbourhood of a great 
substructure of freestone, where torsos of statues and 
four different relief friezes were found, with pediment 
reliefs and Ionic architectural remains, all belonging to 
one building, at first known as the " Ionic Monument of 
Victory," but which we now term the " Nereid Monu- 
ment." Even the sailors acquired a lively interest in 
their work. They returned one day saying they had 
found something very strange, a relief of " the parson 
and his clerk." It was part of a besieged fortress, 
representing a warrior looking down from a tower, leaning 
forward, while below him another warrior was visible, 
thus suggesting to the sailors the church service. 

Fellows and the naval officers lived in a hut, which 
with its flat timber roof and airy portico supported by 
wooden columns had exactly the appearance of an ancient 
Lycian structure. A visitor, then Lieutenant and later 


Admiral T. A. B. Spratt, gives a graphic description of 
the life there : " Whilst we were there, these sculptures 
were daily dug out of the earth, and brought once more 
to view. The search for them was intensely exciting, 
and, in the enthusiasm of the moment, our admiration 
of their art was, perhaps, a little beyond their merits. 
As each block of marble was uncovered and the earth 
carefully brushed away from its surface, the form of some 
fair Amazon or stricken warrior, or an eastern king or a 
besieged castle became revealed, and gave rise to many 
a pleasant discussion as to the sculptor's art therein 
displayed, or the story in the history of the ancient 
Xanthians therein represented conversations, which all 
who took part in them, will ever look back upon as among 
the most delightful in their lives. Often, after the work 
of the day was over and the night had closed in, when we 
had gathered round the log fire in the comfortable Turkish 
cottage which formed the headquarters of the party, we 
were accustomed to sally forth, torch in hand, Charles 
Fellows as cicerone, to cast a midnight look of admiration 
on some spirited battle scene or headless Venus, which 
had been the great prize of the morning's work." Within 
a short time a great deal was thus acquired ; eighty-six 
cases were packed and sent with great difficulty to the 
distant coast to be placed there on a warship, and thus 
taken to London. But even this did not suffice. With 
the inadequately equipped expedition it had been im- 
possible to remove the great block covering the Tomb 
of Payava (Horse Tomb). In consequence another 
and better-equipped expedition was sent out in 1843-4, 
the leadership of which Fellows again assumed. A 
numerous staff accompanied him, the draughtsman 
George Scharf, the architect Rohde Hawkins, besides 
others to make plaster casts of such monuments as could 
not well be removed. Finally twenty-seven cases were 
shipped containing the new finds : the two large tombs 


of Payava and Merehi (Chimaera Tomb), several friezes, 
among which the one giving a graphic representation of 
cock-fights in a poultry-yard is of special interest, and 
lastly a number of casts of rock-reliefs in very remote 

In the Lycian Room the British Museum acquired a 
department quite unique and only overshadowed by 
the proximity of the Elgin Marbles, and with the ex- 
ception of the reliefs of Giolbashi in Vienna (Chap. VII) 
quite unrivalled in the world. 

In more than one aspect Lycian art, the chief monu- 
ments of which date from Cyrus to the end of the fifth 
century, suggests problems and offers solutions to the 
history of Greek art. Great light is thrown here upon 
Ionic art in Asia Minor. Unfortunately these monu- 
ments were not exhibited in the museum in a manner 
corresponding to their importance ; they were crowded, 
and objects which should have been together were 
separated, thus making a study of them most difficult. 
Moreover, nothing was done for their publication. The 
Museum did not devote a new volume to them in its 
"Ancient Marbles"; the architectural drawings of Rohde 
Hawkins have disappeared. Scharf's drawings remained 
a long time unused in the archives of the museum ; no 
publication of the chief monument, the Nereid Tomb, 
appeared for thirty years, and the record then under- 
taken was a private enterprise. 

Some public recognition was accorded to Fellows. He 
refused a remuneration with the words, reflecting on 
Lord Elgin, that he was not a dealer in stone; the 
reward he desired, an expression of thanks on the part 
of Parliament, was withheld (the distinction appeared 
too great), but the Queen knighted him. In May, 1845, 
he became Sir Charles, and in the following October there 
already was a Lady Fellows. 


At the same time as the Assyrian and Lycian sculptures, 
other valuable remains from Asia Minor reached the 
British Museum, evidence of a noble and pure Greek 
art. In the autumn of 1841, when Fellows went to 
Constantinople to remove some of the difficulties in 
connection with his Lycian plans, he found on the list 
of demands made by Great Britain to the Porte a wish 
to remove some of the reliefs built into the fortress walls 
of Budrun (the ancient Halicarnassos). Fellows looked 
upon this as " an unreasonable request," and by re- 
linquishing it he secured acquiescence in the Lycian 
demands. But the plan was by no means abandoned in 
consequence of his action. 

The objects in question were twelve relief tablets, built 
for decorative purposes into the fortress wall of a castle, 
erected by the Knights Hospitallers. These had greatly 
aroused the curiosity of travellers, as in all probability 
they were the remains of one of the wonders of the world, 
the neighbouring Mausoleum. Even to enter a Turkish 
fortress was most difficult (particularly one as strongly 
fortified as Budrun), so that taking stones out of its walls 
appeared almost an impossibility. But the word im- 
possible did not exist in the vocabulary of the energetic 
representative of Great Britain at the Sublime Porte, 
the same Sir Stratford Canning who had helped Layard 
in his undertaking at Nimrud (p. 89). He succeeded in 
overcoming all difficulties after three years, and received 
in 1846 a firman giving him permission to remove the 
slabs. This was, of course, carried out at once. The 
work lasted a month, and in the same year the remains 
of the Amazon frieze of the Mausoleum were added to 
the Lycian treasures in the British Museum. This 
addition created great interest. So when shortly after 
this Frau Sibylla Mertens-Schaffhausen, a great lover of 
art, discovered a well-preserved similar slab in the sum- 
mer-house of the Villa d'Negro at Genoa, and had plaster 


copies of it taken, the officials of the British Museum 
recognized without difficulty a piece of the same frieze, 
which may have been taken thither centuries ago by a 
Knight of St. John. The prospect of recovering more 
of these scattered pieces must have appeared most en- 

This thought fascinated one of the officials at the 
museum, Charles Thomas Newton, then thirty years 
old, a man combining great learning and a keen sense 
for art with a quiet, persistent energy. He studied 
Halicarnassos thoroughly with a view of definitely es- 
tablishing the site of the old Tomb of Mausolos, and at 
last his aim appeared within reach. He arranged to 
be sent in 1852 to Mytilene as vice-consul, and from 
there he also acted temporarily as consul in Rhodes. 
According to the directions of the Foreign Office seven 
years of diplomatic service in the Levant were to be 
combined with the task of contributing new acquisitions 
to the British Museum. Already on his outward journey 
Newton's hopes were raised on seeing a beautiful Amazon 
in the small museum at Constantinople ; it obviously 
belonged to the frieze of the Mausoleum. Some other 
fragments were discovered walled into houses in Rhodes. 
But it was not till 1855 that Newton entered for the first 
time the castle of Budrun. A pair of large lions caught 
his eye at once, built into the walls on the side of the sea, 
and evidently belonging to the Mausoleum. The time for 
action had now come. The ambassador, who had become 
Lord Stratford de Redcliffe, acquiesced willingly in 
Newton's undertakings, which were a continuation of 
his own former plans. The fortunate turn of events in 
the Crimean War (Sevastopol had fallen) helped to 
second the demands of the British ambassador. In the 
meantime Newton had uncovered in Constantinople the 
serpent column on the Atmeidan, the remains of a Pan- 
hellenic offering from the spoils of Plataea. Two German 


scholars living in Constantinople, Otto Frick and P. A. 
Dethier, were thus enabled to discover and decipher the 
dedicatory inscription thereon. 

While the firman of the Porte was delayed, Newton 
occupied his time in a search for the Mausoleum, and 
finally decided on exactly the same spot which had been 
fixed upon thirty years previously by the English archi- 
tect T. L. Donaldson. But only on New Year's Day, 
1857, was the ground first broken. Nine months of 
laborious and exciting work brought forth a number of 
precious marbles, among them innumerable fragments, 
out of which the statues of Mausolos and Artemisia were 
reconstructed ; further a colossal torso of a rider dressed 
as a Persian ; four slabs of the east frieze belonging to the 
side where Scopas worked, three of these fitted to one 
another. The art of Scopas, Timotheos, Leochares, and 
Bryaxis appeared here far more brilliantly than one would 
have anticipated from the friezes already in London. 
One of the chief works of Greek plastic art of the middle 
of the fourth century was regained in so far as we may 
hope to gain anything of the kind ; and eventually 
through Newton's energy all the fragments were gathered 
into the British Museum, including those in Genoa, 
Constantinople, and Rhodes. So many and important 
remains had been found of this marvellous Ionic structure, 
that the architect P. Popplewell Pullan, who had in the 
meantime arrived, tried to undertake a reconstruction, 
a task for which he was hardly qualified. 

But even these great results did not satisfy Newton. 
The following winter he went over to Cnidos and un- 
covered, in the deserted ruins of this old and prosperous 
metropolis, probably for the first time with any degree 
of accuracy, the plan of a Greek city. The greatest 
treasure, however, was the marvellous statue of the seated 
Demeter, which adequately represents the brilliant 
Praxitelean period of Attic art. To this was added the 

Photo, If. A. M 'an sell & Co. 


To face page 100 



following summer, by a fortunate accident, the discovery 
of the Doric monument remotely situated on the coast 
overlooking the battlefield where in 394 Konon overcame 
the Lacedaemonian fleet. The huge crouching lion of 
Pentelic marble, which had crowned the monument, 
was a very welcome find, but the embarking of so huge 
a block occupied a full month. As a final achievement 
Newton took all the seated statues which had lined the 
nonal Way on the south of Miletos from the harbour 
of i anormos to the sanctuary of Apollo Philesios, the 
Didymaion. Ten seated statues and two lions, by their 
position suggesting Egyptian temple avenues, testified 
to the glorious period of Miletos before the Ionian Revolt, 
the time when the capital of Ionia maintained a close 
connection with the land of the Nile. 

After having acted as consul in Rome for a year, 
Newton returned in 1861 to the British Museum and 
assumed the management of its Greek and Roman 
antiquities. He could claim that in consequence of his 
work in Asia Minor the department of sculpture had 
been more extensively enriched than by any other 
undertaking since the times of Lord Elgin. Nor did 
Newton allow any opportunity for acquiring new treasures 
to escape. The following example clearly illustrates this. 
In the year 1862 a statue, shattered into many fragments, 
had been found in Vaison (Vaucluse), the ancient Vasio. 
On the advice of an expert. the owner applied to the 
Museum in Paris in October, 1868, and when refused 
there offered it to the British Museum, with the result 
that Newton merely answered he would inspect it at 
his earliest opportunity. However, nothing happened, 
and the owner renewed his offer again to both 
Museums, 25 July, 1869, this time enclosing a small 

Paris again declined on 31 July ; but in consequence 
of the importance of the statue Newton announced at 


once his approaching visit. He writes : "I took my 
portmanteau and went over to France." The purchase 
was concluded in a few hours, and on n August Newton 
was able to write to the owner that the British Museum 
was willing to pay 25,000 fr. (1000). The subject of 
this rapid purchase proved to be the Polykleitan Dia- 
dumenos, with which we first became acquainted in this 
copy. The gradual purchases of the Farnese collection 
in Rome, of the Blacas collection, and the chief objects 
in the Pourtales collection in Paris, together with two 
Castellani collections in Rome, at a total expense of 
100,000, not only increased this department in the 
museum, but added greatly to the collections of gold, 
gems, bronzes, and vases. Newton also promoted foreign 
excavations, or secured their results for the museum. 
He secured in 1859 from Biliotti and Salzmann in Rhodes 
the valuable collection of antique vases, which they had 
excavated on the ancient site of Kameiros. The naval 
officers R. Murdoch Smith and E. A. Porcher had with 
great success, in 1860, explored the district of ancient 
Cyrene, and found a number of Hellenistic and Roman 
sculptures, and in the Cyrenaic town of Benghazi, the 
British consul George Dennis, to whom we owe one of the 
most delightful books on Etruria, had been actively 
collecting for the museum. The architect Pullan con- 
tinued his researches on different temples on the west 
coast of Asia Minor (Teos and Smintheion), and uncovered 
in 1866 a number of reliefs at Priene, at first incorrectly 
attributed to the frieze of the Temple of Athene Polias, 
dedicated by Alexander the Great. They actually 
belong to a later decoration from within the temple. 
These fragments also came to the British Museum. 
But the most important accessions were the result of 
another enterprise. As one of the seven wonders of the 
ancient world, the Temple of Artemis at Ephesos ranked 
beside the Mausoleum. It had been rebuilt in great 


splendour after the fire of Herostratos in 356. In the 
marshy soil all traces of the temple had been lost, even 
its exact locality was uncertain. The architect J. T. 
Wood was sent in 1863 by the British Museum and the 
Society of Dilettanti in search of it, and after many years 
of weary effort he located it in 1869 below the hill of 
Ayasoluk, exactly where the geographer Heinrich Kiepert 
had indicated it thirty years earlier. There followed 
five years of most laborious investigations (to 1874) in 
the swamp six metres below the present surface. It may 
have been partly in consequence of these unfavourable 
circumstances, partly of inadequate preparations, but 
unhappily there can be no question of the fact that the 
excavations have only partly attained their object, and 
essentially bear the stamp of careless working. The 
mighty pieces of architecture covered with reliefs, which 
have reached the British Museum, are indeed of the 
greatest importance. The drums of columns with most 
beautiful sculptured reliefs, remains of the columnce 
ccelatce mentioned by Pliny, and, above all, the remains 
of columns with similar decorations of an earlier temple, 
of the time of Crcesus, justified the great admiration they 
aroused. This decoration on columns was novel, and 
the comparison offered by the consummate art of the 
fourth century with the archaic of the sixth century was 
most instructive. But the effort of raising these huge 
pieces of sculpture from such a depth led to an utter dis- 
regard of the plan of the temple as a whole, a problem 
which was never correctly solved. Since then this site 
British property has remained a desolate waste. A 
recent visitor expressed himself thus : " What does it 
look like to-day ? One shudders at the desolate heap 
of rubbish which meets the eye. It fills a ditch several 
hundred yards long, a picture of utter neglect. Better 
to have left it covered than create such damage." This 


decidedly is going too far, in view of what we have ac- 
quired by Wood's labour and the gain these treasures have 
been to the British Museum. England must have felt in 
honour bound to resume these excavations and carry 
them out with all the technical skill acquired of late 
years. It is therefore most gratifying that the British 
Museum, under the efficient and energetic guidance of 
Cecil Smith, has resumed this laborious task so long 
neglected. May the results bring the desired solutions. 

The enterprises undertaken and promoted by Newton 
have the same significance for the art of the fourth century 
as the older discoveries of ^Egina and Bassse and the 
acquisition of the sculptures of Pericles have for the fifth 
century. The statues of the Didymaion and the old re- 
mains of columns of the Artemision at Ephesos, together 
with the Lycian Harpy Tomb, date back to the sixth 
century. In consequence of the energy of Fellows and 
Newton the British Museum has triumphantly retained 
its old position as the treasure-house of the most re- 
markable collection of Greek sculpture. 

Newton's activity becomes the more significant if 
compared with the quiet at the British Museum, in his 
department, since he left in 1888, and only of late has 
some activity again been shown. Newton was at the 
same time the organizer of scientific archaeology in 
England ; in former times the study of numismatics 
had been carried on there almost exclusively, although 
in a very creditable manner, by Poole, Head, and their 
colleagues. Newton was one of the founders of the 
Society for the Promotion of Hellenic Studies in 1879, 
and of the Egyptian Exploration Fund in 1882 ; and 
took part in establishing the Archaeological School in 
Athens in 1885. He exercised his office as curator of the 
treasures at the British Museum with the most magnani- 
mous generosity to all, including foreigners, a generosity 
which should be the model for all, but unfortunately 


is not always found, even in some departments of the 
British Museum. 

From another source researches were undertaken about 
this time in the interior of Asia Minor. Napoleon Ill's 
interest in the history of Caesar helped to advance a 
number of scientific enterprises. Thus in 1861 Georges 
Perrot, one of the most distinguished students of the 
French School in Athens, was placed at the head of a 
" Galatian expedition." Its main object was the com- 
plete excavation and reading of the account of his govern- 
ment drawn up by the Emperor Augustus, which both in 
Latin and Greek versions covered the walls of the Temple 
of Augustus and Roma at Ancyra (now Angora). The 
architect E. Guillaume and the photographer Jules Delbet 
accompanied Perrot. Busbeke had discovered and copied 
the Latin text of the " Monumentum Ancyranum " more 
than three hundred years before, and later travellers had 
partly copied the Greek. Large fragments of this very 
important record were now uncovered. But of greater 
importance for archaeology was the expedition undertaken 
by Perrot and his companions into the neighbouring 
Cappadocia to re-examine the rock-reliefs at Boghas- 
Koi which Texier had seen and noted. A strange un- 
Greek art was disclosed here, rather suggestive of Meso- 
potamian designs, but at the same time independent. In 
Northern Asia Minor these rock-reliefs frequently appear 
as far as the neighbourhood of Smyrna where the " Kara- 
bel " (black stone) of Nymphio, a warrior image, had 
already attracted the attention of Texier. But quite 
different again is the so-called Niobe on the Sipylos, an 
old-Phrygian image of Cybele. In these rock-reliefs 
we come in contact with the art of a very ancient Asian 
people, which apparently developed under the influence 
of the Hittites of Northern Syria. But it remained 


doubtful whether we were to suppose, as many have 
done since the publication of William Wright's " Empire 
of the Hittite. " in 1884, that the political rule of this 
nation, or merely its civilizing influence, extended over 
the whole of Asia Minor. Excavations carried on in the 
autumn of 1906 by Hugo Winckler (Berlin) have demon- 
strated the fact that Boghas-Koi was indeed the capital 
of the Empire of the Hittites. Clay tablets, forming an 
enormous body of archives, in Hittite and Babylonian 
characters, promise some solution for the problems of 
the prehistoric times of Asia Minor. Remains of walls 
and of sculpture (lions) may attract further excavators. 
Other plans of Napoleon III included a Macedonian ex- 
pedition, with which Leon Heuzey, a colleague of Perrot's, 
and the architect Honore Daumet were commissioned 
by the emperor. The study of the battlefields of Phar- 
salos, of Philippi, and of Pydna was its main object. 
But Heuzey with great thoroughness extended his task 
so as to include a number of monuments in Thrace as 
well as different architectural sites. Among the latter 
were noted the remains of an extensive villa, until then 
unknown, of Hellenistic times, near Palatitza in Southern 
Macedonia. The co-operation of the architect proved 
most efficient. A grave relief of two women from 
Pharsalos proved of interest in consequence of its archaic 
character. Excellent publications appeared showing the 
results of both expeditions. 

Mention must be made here of the journey to Thasos 
made by the Paris academician E. Miller, in 1864. 
Although it was undertaken chiefly for the sake of in- 
scriptions, excavations enriched the Louvre with two 
choice pre- Attic works of Ionic art : the frieze of an altar 
dedicated to the Nymphs and Apollo of delicate archaic 
style, nearly related to the Harpy Tomb, and the extra- 
ordinarily well-finished grave relief of Philis. This 
shows in a marked degree the " pastoso " style, as repre- 


sented by the relief of Pharsalos, in which Brunn seeks 
to find the peculiarities of the relief work of Northern 
Greece. It is in any case a peculiarly skilful variety of 
the Ionic style. 

The most northern territory opened during this period 
to our science is the land of the Scythians in Southern 
Russia. Upon archaeological explorations there the 
Russian Government expended great sums. These aimed 
chiefly at uncovering the graves of Scythian kings or 
chieftains, forming artificial hills in the Crimea near 
Kertch or beyond the straits in the peninsula of Taman 
or again near the Dnieper. The French emigrant Paul 
Dulrux, who had entered the Russian service and took a 
keen interest in antiquities, opened in 1830 the Kul Oba 
(hill of ashes) near Kertch, and disclosed for the first time 
the wealth of gold treasures in these tombs of rulers. 
Below the great earth-hill was found hidden a sepulchral 
chamber of masonry, which had a wooden ceiling after 
the fashion of Scythian houses. The body of the chief 
and the walls of the tomb showed traces of garments 
decorated with gold ; the rich decorations of the grave 
were completed by a gold shield and a gold scabbard 
(with the name of the artist Pornacho inscribed on it), 
both with reliefs, and a large amphora of electron (a 
mixture of silver and gold). The kings' tombs on the 
Dnieper were only examined considerably later by the 
Russian archaeological commission under the scientific 
guidance of Ludolf Stephani. In accordance with the 
literary evidence of Herodotus on the tombs of the Scy- 
thian rulers, which in the main proved correct, some of 
the largest hills were opened, among a vast number lying 
between Ekaterinoslav and Alexandrovsk on the right 
bank of the river. 

On opening the "Meadow Tomb" near the village of 


Alexandropol in 1862-3 it was found that the grave had 
been opened and robbed at some former time. The 
same was found to be the case in the large hill of Kurgan 
near Nikopol in 1862-3, although the robber had here 
been overtaken by disaster, for in a passage was found 
a body with a lamp near the treasures. The gold decora- 
tions of a broad quiver (gorytos) and a scabbard as well 
as a silver amphora, all decorated with reliefs of Greek 
workmanship, were the main objects, but besides these 
were many trinkets of gold. In the sepulchral chamber 
of the wife of the ruler a painted wooden coffin presented 
an artistic novelty. 

Where did this art originate ? In the tombs of the 
Crimea numerous Attic vases, many of great beauty, 
testify to the active commercial intercourse existing 
between Athens and the land of the Scythians. An 
Athenian vase painter, Xenophantos, who apparently 
had settled in Pantikapaion (Kertch), also suggests a 
transference of Attic art in this manner. The subject 
of his painting, a somewhat fantastically elaborated 
" Hunt of Darius," indicates the taste of a rather barbaric 
public. One felt inclined to attribute the main objects 
found in the graves to the same influence, the great and 
small vessels in gold, silver, and electron, and the splendid 
gold trinkets. Greek art forms had here been combined 
with the national Scythian objects, and with surprising 
accuracy the characteristic life of the ancient Cossacks 
had been grasped and rendered. We see the Scythians 
at war ; they talk together, they stretch their bows, 
a painful dental operation is rendered or a wounded leg 
bandaged. Again we find them on the steppes engaged 
in leashing together or breaking in their horses. Every 
movement is copied from life. The Greek objects besides 
these show mannerism and a somewhat lifeless style, and 
indicate at times misconceptions, but, on the other hand, 
it is true they present remarkably fine and pure decorative 


effects and images of animals. An accurate copy of the 
head of the Parthenos on gold plaques clearly indicates 
a connection with Athens, and it is probable that these 
objects of the fifth and fourth centuries may have been 
imported from Attica. But a mixed Attic-Scythian art 
was represented, and was largely practised in the land 
of the Scythians either by Greeks or by Scythians who had 
had their training in Greece (e.g. Pornacho). After 
Athens, Ionia may also claim a share in the beauty of 
this splendid art, a beauty which forgers have tried to 
imitate. The "Tiara of Saitaphaines " is still in the 
memory of all. These great treasures form the pride of 
the collection of antiquities at the Hermitage in St. Peters- 
burg. As regards the golden jewels, no other collection 
can compete with it. The great publi cation, " Anti- 
quit6s du Bosphore Cimme*rien," issued by imperial 
munificence, and the reports of the Archaeological Com- 
mission of St. Petersburg have served to make these 
treasures known in a worthy manner. 



THE flood of archaeological discoveries continued 
almost without intermission to the beginning of 
the sixties, finally with Newton's discoveries in Asia Minor 
attaining a height that recalled the beginning of the 
century. A pause now intervened, interrupted only now 
and then by single discoveries. 

In 1862 Ernst Curtius and the architects Karl Botticher 
and Heinrich Strack undertook a journey to Athens with 
the object of studying its antiquities. Curtius devoted 
his attention to the Pnyx and its topographical problems. 
Botticher directed his studies to the buildings on the 
Acropolis, while Strack began excavating the completely 
buried Theatre of Dionysos. 

In the following spring there was discovered near Rome, 
at Prima Porta, the ancient Saxa Rubra, where Con- 
stantine gained dominion of the world, the villa of the 
Empress Livia, with landscape paintings on the walls 
and a statue of her consort, the most authentic portrait 
of Augustus, which, in consequence of the courtly sym- 
bolism displayed on the cuirass and the vivid traces of 
colour, excited the greatest interest. Rome also offered 
something new of the times of Augustus. In 1861 
Napoleon III secured from the dethroned royal family 
of Naples the Villa Farnese on the Palatine, and he 
commissioned the Roman architect Pietro Rosa with 
the excavation of the imperial palaces as far as they lay 



within its limits. These excavations proved of the 
greatest importance for our knowledge of the Palatine 
buildings, of the Flavian Palace in particular. A most 
gratifying discovery was made just before the close (1869) 
by the uncovering of a part of the house of Livia or of 
Germanicus, situated lower and in consequence better 
preserved. Three vaulted chambers have retained their 
mural paintings, more delicate and lovely and of greater 
originality than anything Herculaneum or Pompeii can 
show. The great significance of this discovery was only 
revealed later on. 

Thus the seventh decade was not wholly lacking in 
discoveries apart from those mentioned at the end of 
the last chapter, which were, for the most part, only 
published later but yet a check was perceptible. Hence 
the question arose : What had so far been attained ? 
How far was our archaeological material enriched in 
consequence of these numerous discoveries ? And what 
had science gained thereby ? 

At the beginning of the century archaeology had worked 
almost entirely with Roman material. Now nearly all 
the countries surrounding the Mediterranean the entire 
Greek region from Sicily to Asia Minor were included 
in our consideration, and rendered available for scientific 
examination by means of travels, investigations, and 
excavations. Pompeii and Etruria had been added ; 
and Egypt and Assyria had extended our horizon beyond 
the classical lands. 

Greek art, which now became known not only in copies, 
but in its original forms, occupied the central point of 
scientific investigation, and the outlines of its develop- 
ment could now be clearly traced. A faint ray of light 
had been thrown by Mycenae into prehistoric times, the 
contents of the Regulini-Galassi tomb (p. 70) helped to 
illustrate Homeric art, the rock-reliefs of Asia Minor, to 
which belonged the supposed Niobe of Sipylos mentioned 


by Homer (p. 105), belonged likewise to prehistoric times. 
True Greek art, on the other hand, was supposed to begin 
only about 600, when the names of Greek artists first 
appear. But from that period until the time of Alexander 
the Great, three centuries of Greek art could clearly be 

Doric architecture was represented by numerous 
temples both in the west (Sicily and Psestum) and in 
Greece proper. Examples of the Ionic style were less 
numerous, and of early times in particular none were 
known, so that the Temple of Athene at Priene, of the 
time of Alexander the Great, was regarded as the normal 
type of temple. Nevertheless, these materials sufficed for 
the gifted Gottfried Semper to establish the fundamental 
points of the development of architecture, and to dis- 
tinguish their chief periods ; while Karl Botticher, a 
logical and systematic thinker, but lacking in the historic 
sense, reconstructed by a brilliant effort of abstraction 
the Doric temple before our eyes in its entirety, in the 
strict co-ordination of its parts and in its relation to the 
ritual conditions. 

It is entirely owing to the discovery of vases that we 
had gained any definite knowledge of Greek painting. 
These paintings on vases have been compared to the 
delicate rays of the moon, as contrasted with the bright 
sunlight of the great Greek painting, for ever lost to us. 
It is true these products of a handicraft can never re- 
place those masterpieces, but the firm hand and the 
delicate perception in these modest works breathe a more 
truly Greek spirit than the late work at Herculaneum and 
Pompeii, and they place us more closely in touch with 
the original artist than any description in ancient litera- 
ture. Thus they offered suggestions to the imagination 
in helping to reconstruct a picture of the great beauty 
lost. And artists with a classical training like the 
brothers Riepenhausen, united with so sympathetic a 


master in science as Friedrich Gottlieb Welcker, recon- 
structed in drawings the mural paintings at Delphi of 
the great Polygnotos. 

Etruscan mural pictures gave us some faint indication 
of the progress of style of Greek painting. The great 
mosaic of Alexander found at Pompeii indicated for the 
first time, although in the coarser material of mosaic, 
the pictorial treatment of historical events in the grand 
style. Furthermore, the constant finds of Pompeian 
paintings greatly extended our knowledge of the mytho- 
logical treatment of subjects. 

In plastic art the gain was greater. The oldest metopes 
of Selinus, and perhaps, too, the frieze of Assos, seemed 
to take us farther back than the sixth century, and indi- 
cated, if not a primitive, at least a very archaic art. 
The heavily proportioned statues from the Sacred Way 
at Didymaion, the archaic reliefs on the drums of the 
Artemision at Ephesos, the frieze of the Lycian Harpy 
Tomb, in which, for all its limitations, an awakening 
charm is already faintly seen, all these illustrated the 
art of the sixth century in different directions. The 
distinction formerly made, in architecture, between the 
Doric and Ionic styles now, in consequence of these new 
impressions, began to be applied to sculpture as well. 
Such was the distinction in the art of the fifth century 
between the ^Eginetan, the few Olympian, and the later 
Selinuntine sculptures on the one hand and the Athenian 
and Phigalian masterpieces on the other ; we were only 
beginning to know plastic art of the " lofty style." In 
a similar manner the finds at Halicarnassos, at Ephesos, 
at Cnidos helped to illustrate the art of sculpture, which 
had been transplanted to Asia Minor. The Apoxyomenos 
and the Sophocles completed the chain. New points had 
been gained by which comparative study was promoted, 
which enriched the picture of the development of sculpture 
unfolding before our eyes. A whole series of " Histories 


of Greek Sculpture " began, either awakening or strength- 
ening prejudices, as if the history of Greek art were con- 
fined to plastic art. This, in consequence, came so much 
into the foreground, that the sense of the indissoluble 
union of the three arts was gradually lost. 

The series of new discoveries ended, as has been said, 
with the time of Alexander the Great. Doubts were ex- 
pressed constantly in regard to the Venus of Melos, 
whether she had not better be placed in the fourth or even 
in the fifth century ; for she seemed too good for the 
Hellenistic period. The less we knew of this period the 
less ability we felt inclined to ascribe to it. For here a 
great gap remained in our knowledge, all the more keenly 
felt as literature offered next to no assistance. Credit 
must be given to Wolfgang Helbig for having started 
new investigations ; he had studied at the University of 
Bonn as a contemporary of Ritschl and Jahn. The 
catalogues he undertook in 1868 of the mural paintings 
of Herculaneum and Pompeii led him to further investiga- 
tions, which he published fully in 1873. The main point 
upon which he laid stress was that these paintings, 
although executed in Roman times, can with rare ex- 
ceptions be traced to Hellenistic art, and this they repro- 
duce in more or less weakened or distorted copies. Roman 
art, he maintained, differed from the above, and fre- 
quently was coarsely realistic. To prove his results 
Helbig undertook a long series of single investigations, 
which may be designated as the first attempt at a History 
of the Civilization of the Hellenistic age. With this a 
new basis had been established for our knowledge of late 
Greek art and of painting in particular. The general 
view at first obscured the differences, but the way had 
been prepared for assigning new discoveries, which 
soon followed to their proper sphere. On the other hand, 
Roman art had to yield " Pompeian painting " to Hellen- 
ism, and had to be prepared for further restrictions. 


A new generation undertook the task of scientifically 
working over these new discoveries. In Germany three 
leading representatives of the older generation were 
called away during the sixties : Gerhard, Welcker, and 
Jahn. Otfried Muller had already died in Greece in 1840. 
Heinrich Brunn remained active at the Archaeological 
Institute in Rome, training his younger colleagues, 
until called to Munich in 1865, when he surrendered his 
Roman post to Helbig. For the constantly growing 
number of chairs of Archaeology founded at the German 
universities, it was possible to find able young men who 
had gained their archaeological training at the Institute. 
This thorough preparation of the teacher and the ex- 
tended teaching of archaeology, even at the smaller 
German universities, gave German science a preponder- 
ance for some time, as was even admitted by foreigners. 
Many foreigners, particularly Greeks, came to the 
German universities. The French School at Athens under 
Amede'e Daveluy and Emile Burnouf remained very 
quiet ; only in Paris was there any archaeological activity 
in France. England had not yet organized the study of 
archaeology ; Cambridge only later established the first 
chair. Italy took part only in isolated cases, and then 
chiefly in connection with the Archaeological Institute ; 
gradually, however, the first indications appeared of the 
prehistoric researches which developed quite apart from 
and independently of classical archaeology, rather in con- 
nection with natural science and the history of civilization 
(Chap. VIII). The interest of the Greeks was almost 
entirely absorbed by Epigraphy and Numismatics. 

The new trend of archaeological science affected exca- 
vations likewise. What had been discovered up to the 
time, apart from Pompeii, were single objects or single 
structures ; even Newton's undertaking bore this char- 


acter, except at Cnidos, where the ground-plan of the 
entire city was uncovered. Frequently the discoveries 
were brought about by accident, as the burial sites in 
Southern Etruria. For the future it became desirable 
to undertake extensive plans only after careful and 
scientific preparations had been made, and to carry them 
out exhaustively. The co-operation of well-trained 
architects and those familiar with ancient architecture 
was needed ; for many of the past undertakings showed 
a great lack of these. Alexander Conze was the first 
to recognize and to remedy this defect. Conze, a pupil 
of Gerhard, had, after finishing his studies, in 1856-7, 
undertaken a voyage to the most northern islands of the 
Archipelago (Samothrace, Imbros, Lemnos, and Thasos) 
and to Lesbos, with a view of filling a gap in the ^Egean 
cruise of Ludwig Ross. This journey was most eventful, 
though excavations were not undertaken ; indeed, such 
an idea was still rare. From the castle hill of Mytilene 
he looked over to the shores of Asia Minor, where, the 
Crimean War being now over, Turkish soldiers were rov- 
ing about in bands, and making the country inaccessible 
for scientific research, particularly by a single individual. 
After having published his description of the islands, 
Conze went to Rome and met Newton. Newton was 
just then, in 1859, exhibiting in the Palazzo Caffarelli, 
occupied by the Prussian Legation, his drawings and 
photographs of the Mausoleum, and his other discoveries 
of Asia Minor. He then had succeeded where Conze had 
believed it impossible. The importance of what had 
been acquired, the conversations with the happy dis- 
coverer, the remembrance of the many sites he had to 
leave unexplored, all this combined to leave Conze no 

After an extensive journey over Greece Conze and 
the writer of this book were the first to receive travelling 
studentships of the Archaeological Institute and years 


spent in teaching at Gottingen and Halle, Conze was 
called in 1869 to the University of Vienna, where greater 
prospects were opened to him. The study of archaeology 
was completely neglected in Austria ; had not Metternich 
in his day forbidden membership in the Archaeological 
Institute, of which he himself was Ehrenprasident 
(president en Fair, as he jestingly said) ? Besides or- 
ganizing the archaeological studies at the university, 
and travelling in Austria to view its Roman remains, 
Conze undertook the task of arousing a wider interest in 
archaeological questions. 

In the year 1872, for instance, he gave a lecture on 
" two Greek islands, Syra and Samothrace." Syra, as 
the centre in the Cyclades, inherited the once im- 
portant trade of the neighbouring island of Delos ; while 
the sanctity of the latter had during the last fifty years 
passed over to Tenos, with its Evangelistria. So the 
remote Samothrace with its mystery cult had yielded its 
place to the convents of Athos, the " sacred mountain " 
of Oriental Christianity. Both islands were within the 
sphere of Austrian trade and Austrian politics. In 
alluding to this Conze closed with the following words : 
" It is to be hoped the ban will soon be raised which closes 
this remarkable and little-known island, with its important 
monuments. The authoritative word may be uttered any 
day." The demand was not in vain. The Government 
on its own initiative requested Conze to supply a scheme 
for excavations, which he was eventually commissioned 
to execute with two architects from Vienna, the pains- 
taking Alois Hauser and the gifted George Niemann of 
Hanover. Thus the important co-operation of architects 
was secured. To these a photographer was added. 

Newton had already made use of photography, although 
it was not developed as it is to-day ; but it proved indis- 
pensable for all future undertakings. A man-of-war was 
placed by the Government at their disposal, so that in 


May and June, 1873, excavations were carried on in 
Samothrace for six weeks. These were so successful 
that in the autumn of 1875 a second expedition was 
undertaken for two months. Besides Conze and Hauser, 
Otto Benndorf, then of Prague, was among the workers. 
Samothrace is a rough, rocky island, somewhat remote 
and rarely visited by ships. On it are very few level 
plains, even of moderate extent. Since Conze 's visit in 
1863 the French vice-consul Champoiseau had excavated 
and collected two hundred fragments of a large female 
statue at Kaballa, a city situated opposite, and these 
had been sent to Paris. A beautiful statue of Nike had 
from these fragments been pieced together, and at first, 
strange to say, it was classed as " a mediocre decorative 
figure of a late period." Wilhelm Frohner in 1869 was the 
first to recognize its great worth. The statue had been 
found not far from the spot where the Austrian expe- 
dition had begun work. Beyond the ancient city walls 
of old Samothrace lay the ruins of the Sanctuaries of the 
Mysteries, situated upon two irregular tongues of land 
between deeply cut river-beds. During the excavations 
in 1873 the chief finds were two buildings of unusual plan. 
The " Marble Temple " of the third century B.C. seemed 
to anticipate in a singular manner with its transept, its 
raised " choir " and rounded apse the ground-plan of the 
Christian Basilica. Within the " choir " a deep pit, 
going down to the rock, suggested the bloody sacrifices of 
the mysteries and initiative rites. Not less peculiar was 
the moderately large round structure, characterized as of 
two storeys and closed all around, apparently a meeting- 
place of the initiated. Fragments of a dedicatory 
inscription indicated Arsinoe, the daughter of the first 
Ptolemy and wife of King Lysimachos (d. 281) as its 
foundress. The finding in 1875 of a gateway, founded 
by Ptolemy II, completed this group of buildings, 
which dated from the times of the early Ptolemies. 


Near the Marble Temple another building appeared, an 
older and far simpler Temple of the Mysteries of the 
fourth century, with a similar pit for sacrifices, pre- 
sumably the temple for which, according to an ancient 
authority, Scopas worked. Finally there ran along the 
side of the place of the Mysteries a long colonnade, the 
first example of what was soon to be recognized as a 
regular feature of all Hellenistic groups of buildings. 

Although single discoveries of the excavations were 
important, it was of far greater significance that here 
an entire ground-plan, the complex of a complete group 
of buildings devoted to the mysteries, had been uncovered. 
All these, with the exception of the older temple, belonged 
to the first half of the third century, and were probably a 
new foundation by different members of the Ptolemaic 
house. This gave us our first knowledge of Hellenistic 
architecture. A number of distinctive single features 
were observed, and the picturesque arrangement of the 
entire plan suggested in a vivid manner the Pompeian 
landscape paintings, and thus illustrated an important 
feature of Hellenistic art. If the yield of sculpture had 
been insignificant the remains of the pediment figures 
of the Marble Temple indicated a facile decorative talent 
the neighbouring limekilns offered the sad solution. 
Another discovery compensated for this, and to Benndorf 
in particular we owe its scientific explanation. Near the 
end of the long colonnade on the site where Champoiseau 
had found the fragments of the statue an eager search was 
continued, and besides some further fragments of the 
statue, many blocks of the base were found, which when 
fitted together formed the prow of a warship. Thus the 
Nike had stood on a ship, exactly as after the decisive 
naval victory off the Cyprian Salamis in 306 which had 
shattered the empire of Alexander into four independent 
kingdoms Demetrios Poliorketes had a Nike, standing 
on a ship, stamped on his coins. So exactly do they 


correspond that one is forced to conclude that the Nike 
of Samothrace was dedicated by Demetrios after his 
victory. Thus a most important work of art was re- 
covered from early Hellenistic times, as spirited in com- 
position as it is masterly in the execution of the superb 
drapery. The discoverers informed Champoiseau of 
their find, and all the fragments were transported to 
Paris. The statue was completed and placed on the 
prow of the ship. On the occasion of the Czar's visit in 
1896 it was placed in position above the escalier Daru ; 
a position offering the most brilliant decorative effect, 
even if not allowing any detailed study of this superb 

A complete record was published of the Austrian 
excavations. Photography was used here for the first 
time, not only at the excavations, but for the publi- 
cation. Newton still had lithographs made of his 
photographs ; here the latter themselves were incor- 
porated in the book. Another innovation was supplied 
by the architects. Whereas, with few exceptions in 
the past and frequently even now, the architects deem 
it sufficient to present reconstructions of the buildings 
with characteristic details, here all the important blocks 
were accurately figured with their technical peculiarities. 
Only by such careful and conscientious proceeding does 
it become possible to test the reconstructions and to 
study the peculiarities of different periods and different 
schools of architecture, on the technical as well as on the 
formal side. The important position accorded to the 
architects proved a great gain, and indicated the method 
to be observed in future undertakings. 

The Sanctuary of Samothrace had been dedicated to 
the " great gods " the Kabeiri and their mysteries. 
Mention may here be made of another smaller sanctuary 
of the Kabeiri uncovered west of Thebes, by the German 
Archaeological Institute of Athens, 1887-8. Upon careful 

DELOS 121 

examination several different building periods could here 
be distinguished. Of the oldest temple, dating back to 
the sixth century, only a part of an apse remained, 
recalling the one at Samothrace. The second, a Hellen- 
istic temple, showed a double apartment instead of 
a cella, as in the temples at Selinus ; in the inner apart- 
ment was found the broad basis of the statues of the gods. 
Behind the temple lay a walled court containing a 
sacrificial pit ; this was not accessible from the temple, 
but had, like the transept of the temple at Samothrace, 
doors on two sides. Again it became evident that 
parts of a sanctuary may be " hypaethral," that is, open 
to the sky (p. 37). The latest remodelling of Roman 
times on the whole preserved the earlier plans, only 
changing the cella and entrance hall in the customary 
manner. The great mass of potsherds testified to the 
popularity of the cult ; their rather coarse and humorous 
style of painting formed a characteristic contrast to the 
contemporary Attic painting. These representations of 
Kabeiros and his son with Bacchic surroundings illustrate 
an interesting chapter in mythology. 

While the Austrians were gathering laurels in Samo- 
thrace, the French School at Athens undertook a similar 
task : to explore Delos, the birthplace of Apollo, the 
smallest of the Cyclades, but in consequence of the 
cult of the god, and later as the centre of Greek mari- 
time trade, always of the greatest importance. The 
island with bare Mount Kynthos towering above it, pre- 
sented a picture of the most abject desolation, not the 
natural barrenness of Samothrace, but the desolation 
following devastation by human hands, and the curse 
which Christianity early laid on the sacred island of the 
Hellenes. Not a tree, not a house, nor even a little 
church, only a lonely veteran who acted as guardian, 


while a few goats and pigs foraged in the morass of the 
" Sacred Lake." Thus I found the island in 1860. The 
site of the sanctuary was known by a heap of rubbish, 
the town indicated by the theatre on the slope of the 
hillside, and higher up the mountain a short rock passage 
paved with large slabs offered a problem to be solved. 

Stuart and Revett had made an imperfect plan of the 
site and drawings of the remains of the Doric hall of 
Philip V, of the end of the third century, while the 
Expedition du Moree had not added much. Albert 
Lebegue, a member of the French School, recognized in 
1873 in the rock grotto in all probability an extremely 
ancient sanctuary of Apollo. But the work still awaited a 
competent hand. 

This was effected in 1876 when the energetic Albert 
Dumont assumed the leadership of the French School, 
and in a friendly way competed with the recently founded 
German Archaeological Institute. He gave a stimulus to 
greater efforts and higher aims. He fixed his eye at 
once upon Delos, and with sound judgment chose among 
the many excellent pupils of the School in Athens, 
Theophile Homolle, then only twenty-eight years old, 
to go to iTelos in 1876 and reconnoitre. Homolle re- 
turned with definite plans. He began his first campaign 
in May, 1877, with the modest sum of 1300 francs (52) 
placed at the disposal of the School for excavation 
purposes by the Society of French Architects. The 
Sanctuary of the Delian Apollo was first uncovered. 
Work continued at the Temple of Apollo for three years, 
1877-9, an( i during that time the entire precincts were 
excavated. Of foremost importance were the very 
numerous inscriptions, some of these instructing us in 
regard to matters of art, while next may be mentioned 
a great number of marble statues, throwing new light on 
the relation of the Ionic sculpture of the sixth century to 
the rough-seated statues of Miletos (p. 101). The statue 

DELOS 123 

dedicated by Nikandra of Naxos looks as if hewn out 
of a log ; it represents the draped figure in its most 
primitive form ; the flying Nike of Archermos, or fash- 
ioned on his model, shows a daring flight of the imagina- 
tion still hampered on the formal side. Other female 
statues indicate the gradual advance in posture and 
drapery. Besides these archaic works, fragments of 
later groups were not lacking. In these Furtwangler 
soon (1882) recognized the akroteria of the Temple of 
Apollo, built about the time of the Peloponnesian war. 

During these first three years Homolle had no assistance 
from any architect. In consequence not much attention 
had been paid to architecture, and no general ground-plan 
was made of the excavations. Radet gives the following 
description : "At the end of 1879 tne uncovered founda- 
tion wall extended over the country in disconnected 
masses, intersected by a chaos of ditches and heaps of 
rubbish. It was impossible to recognize their form, 
extent, or connection." 

In the meantime, not only the work on Samothrace, 
but, above all, the excavations at Olympia (p. 125) had 
demonstrated the necessity of architectural assistance 
at such undertakings. Thereupon Homolle resumed his 
work in 1880, accompanied by the able architect Henri 
Paul Nnot, who later built the new Sorbonne. From 
their newly gained starting-point they tried to follow 
the surrounding walls of the sacred precinct, and came 
upon numerous buildings crowded together within it : 
sanctuaries, treasuries, the peculiar so-called " Hall of 
the Bulls," of all of which Nnot published plans and 
sketches. He also made the first plan of the previous 
excavations. We do not know why this path, so happily 
begun, was soon abandoned. Homolle continued his 
investigations twice more in 1885 an< i i n 1888, the second 
time in conjunction with the architect Demierre. For 
the rest, the excavations were entrusted by the new 


director, the distinguished epigraphist Paul Foucart, to 
the youthful and keen pupils of the School, who, however, 
were hardly sufficiently trained for the task. Thus 
there were actively engaged in 1881 Amedee Hauvette, 
in 1882 Salomon Reinach, in 1883 Pierre Paris, in 1886 
Gustave Fougeres, in 1889 Georges Doublet, in 1892 
Joseph Chamonard, in 1893 with Edouard Ardaillon, in 
1894 the latter and Louis Couve. Not only did they all 
add to our knowledge of the sacred precinct and its 
complex plan of the temples for the Roman worshippers 
of Mercury and the Asiatics who adored Serapis, but 
also to that of the city with its theatre and many public 
and private buildings, and finally the harbour with its 
quays, warehouses, and market-places. Thus, with the 
help of inscriptions both the sacred and secular Delos 
appear tolerably clear before our eyes. 

The acute Couve, who died young, was the happy dis- 
coverer of the Polykleitan Diadumenos, found in excellent 
preservation. Owing to the constant change in the leader- 
ship there was no fixed plan of the excavation, and this 
frequently led to a repeated working over of the same 
ground. Though we possess a general survey of the site 
by Nenot, and an archaeological map of the island by 
Ardaillon and Convert, we have no architectural pictures 
of Delos with all its structures, which would be most 
instructive in regard to Hellenistic architecture. Whether 
it still can be produced remains very doubtful. Let us 
therefore be grateful to the engineer Henri Convert for 
plans of a number of private dwellings which had been 
uncovered, by Couve. These houses date from the time 
between the end of the war against Perseus (168) and the 
double destruction of Delos by Mithridates' general 
Archelaos in 88 and by pirates in 69 ; it was the time 
when the island enjoyed its greatest commercial activity, 
when Greeks, Syrians, Egyptians, and Romans all met as 
competitors. Therefore in the plans of houses we find 


Greek and Roman types side by side, offering an interest- 
ing picture of the transition period when Hellenism was 
on the decline, and the empire of the Romans in the 

The excavations at Delos have been recently resumed 
(1902). The Duke de Loubat, one of those patrons of 
art of whom France may be proud, combining great 
insight with splendid devotion, has on the advice of 
Perrot granted 50,000 francs (2000) yearly for this work. 
Under the guidance of F. Diirrbach and A. Jarde", and the 
assistance of Convert, a general clearing of a great part 
of the field of excavation has taken place. The excava- 
tion of the magazines along the harbour has been under- 
taken, and rubbish has been extensively cleared away. 
The " House of Kerdon," the workshop of a sculptor, has 
offered interesting material. We may expect almost with 
certainty that the gap left after the earlier fifteen years' 
work will now be creditably filled. 

Before the excavations at Delos had been commenced 
the newly created German Empire began to execute a 
long-cherished plan on the Greek mainland to clear of 
rubbish the sacred precinct at Olympia. Winckelmann 
had already dreamed of this. Blouet's excavations 
(p. 52) had proved the great value of such an undertaking, 
and Ernst Curtius in a lecture in Berlin in 1852 had tried 
to arouse enthusiasm for it. But, when during the follow- 
ing year Ludwig Ross opened a subscription in Germany, 
the meagre result was only 787 marks (39 75.). It was 
only after the establishment of the German Empire in 
1871 that extensive plans, requiring large means, could 
be carried out. It was again Ernst Curtius, who had in 
the meantime been called to Berlin and occupied Ger- 
hard's chair, who now turned to Olympia and combined 
this with other plans. The Archaeological Institute had 


in 1871 been placed on a firmer basis as a Prussian State 
institution ; now in 1873 it was transformed by the 
Reichstag into an institution of the German Empire, 
and at the suggestion of Curtius a branch was established 
in Athens. The imperial confirmation came the following 
year, and Curtius was sent at once to Athens to arrange 
with the Greek Government the conditions on which the 
German Empire was to acquire the privilege of exca- 
vating the Altis, the sacred precinct of Olympia. As the 
Greek Government prohibits the export of antiques, the 
German Empire renounced all claims except in case of 
duplicates being found ; thereby giving a magnanimous 
example of carrying on a costly enterprise under the 
supervision of a Greek ephor, simply in the interest of 
science. Narrow-minded critics of this contract were 
not wanting in Germany, and curiously enough it was 
fully a year before the representatives of the people in 
Athens consented to this disinterested agreement. 

Its realization began in 1875, but its execution was 
not entrusted to the recently established Athenian 
Institute, which would have required assistance, but 
the supervision remained in Berlin in the hands of Ernst 
Curtius and the architect Friedrich Adler. 

The work occupied six winters, 1875-80. The German 
Empire spent 600,000 marks (30,000) upon it, and the 
Emperor William bore the expenses of the last winter. 
Gustav Hirschfeld, with the assistance of Adolf Botticher, 
began work on the Temple of Zeus in 1875. A late wall 
was discovered into which many pieces of sculpture had 
been built, and in consequence received the name " the 
longer the better." Georg Treu in 1877 succeeded 
Hirschfeld as director, Karl Purgold undertook the in- 
scriptions, and at times Rudolf Weil and Adolf Furt- 
wangler were actively engaged. 

The architectural work was undertaken by Richard 
Bohn, and later by Wilhelm Dorpfeld, who gained his 


first laurels here. The task contemplated was the com- 
plete uncovering of the Altis, and this was systematically 
carried out. Nothing was superficially worked, but 
each spot and each building received careful attention. 
Each detail was carefully noted, and all the finds were 
systematically arranged, so as to afford a general view 
for eventual reconstruction ; preservation and arrange- 
ment involved reconstruction, quite a new and salutary 
proceeding. In the case of pieces of sculpture which 
were shattered into countless fragments, the position 
of each piece and the depth of the debris above it were 
noted, and in not a few instances the latter gave a de- 
cisive indication of the age of an architectural monument. 
According to the current chronology the finds dated 
from the eighth century B.C. to the close of ancient history 
and beyond ; thus extending over a thousand years. 
Down in the lowest stratification masses of unpretending 
votive offerings of clay and bronze were found. They 
cast, however, an entirely new light on the origin of plastic 
art. Until then, it was generally believed that Greek 
art had developed with the representation of the gods ; 
now, however, it was proved that the portrayal of the 
everyday life of men and animals, of the artist's actual 
environment, based entirely upon observation, stood 
at the beginning of the development. The need of an 
embodiment in human form of the gods came only later 
with a desire for a house of the gods, a temple. The oldest 
temple at Olympia, the Heraion, was discovered in close 
proximity to these early votive offerings. This structure 
proved of the utmost importance for the history of archi- 
tecture, inasmuch as it illustrated most vividly the 
relation of the original wooden construction to the later 
of stone (Chap. XI). The old construction of sun-dried 
bricks used in connection with wood, elucidated by 
modern usage, was incorporated in the history of archi- 


Beside the long and low Temple of Hera appeared the 
vast Temple of Zeus, the age of which has been greatly 
discussed, but in consequence of certain details must be 
placed in the post-Persian times of the fifth century. In 
contrast to its colossal blocks of conglomerate, hard as 
steel, and its huge drums of columns which earthquakes 
have scattered upon the ground, the marble Parthenon, 
appears delicate, almost too elegant. The Doric style 
of architecture was exhibited here in its full vigour, more 
even than at Passtum. 

The pediment groups caused great surprise, as they 
were gradually reconstructed from hundreds of smaller 
or larger fragments. As the chryselephantine statue of 
Zeus in the temple was known to have been the work of 
Phidias, it was taken for granted that the other sculptural 
decorations must be the work of his pupils. Tradition 
had indicated Alkamenes, the most brilliant pupil of 
Phidias, as the creator of the West pediment and the same 
tradition assigned the East pediment to Paioriios, so 
that he also had to be sought in the same school. It was 
found, however, impossible to assign the metopes 
fragments of all twelve had been found and still less, 
to assign the pediments to the school of Phidias, as known 
by the sculptures of the Parthenon. After numerous 
discussions it became evident that we had to deal here 
with an entirely different school. And again, a second 
fact had to be considered. At Christmas, 1875, an 
original work was found inscribed with the name of 
Paionios. It was the great Nike, floating through the 
air, while her feet rested lightly on an eagle ; she had 
stood on a base 7 metres high (23 feet) overlooking the 
Altis. This bold conception hardly corresponded to the 
work of a pupil of Phidias, and not by any means to the 
tranquil character of the East pediment, traditionally 
ascribed to the same Paionios. Here was a new problem, 
which Adolf Kirchhoff appears to have solved from the 

Photo, British I'hoto Co. 


To face page iaS 


philological side. The inscription on the Nike indicated 
Paionios as the maker of the akroteria on the temple. 
It was apparently through supposing this to refer to the 
pediment groups, instead of the figures of Nike on the 
summits of the gables, that tradition came to represent 
Paionios as the creator of the East pediment group. 
Why the West pediment should have been attributed to 
Alkamenes has never been explained ; some have thought 
of an older Alkamenes of pre-Periclean times (Chap. XI), 
to whom then probably both pediments would have to 
be assigned. But this theory also presents great diffi- 

Paionios was a native of the Thracian coast, and the 
home of the older Alkamenes, according to a doubtful 
report, was Lemnos. Thus Brunn conceived the idea of 
seeking a North Greek school of art in the work of the 
Temple of Zeus. Kekule advanced the theory of Magna 
Graecia and Sicily, where the artist Pythagoras created a 
school. Furtwangler put forward a claim for Paros, and 
Robert even suggested Kolotes, the Parian companion 
and assistant of Phidias. Others, knowing the temple 
to have been built by the Elian, Libon, attributed the 
sculptures to Elian artists, some of whose names have 
come down to us. Argos has also been suggested. Only 
a few, such as Flasch, still held to their Attic origin. 

Through the Olympian finds another problem was 
revived. According to a twofold tradition Phidias 
either died in prison (438) after the Parthenon had been 
completed, or migrated to Elis to make the chrysele- 
phantine statue for the Temple of Zeus at Olympia. 
Until recently the latter version was accepted, and the 
duration of the building of the temple extended. Certain 
finds, however, indicated definitely that the building 
must have been finished by the year 456. Thereupon 
Loschke urged the less-accredited theory : if Phidias 
died in 438 he could only have worked at Olympia be- 



fore the building of the Parthenon, 447-438 ; his activity 
there would then naturally follow the completion of the 
temple and fall in the fifties. This brilliant conjecture 
was widely accepted, although serious difficulties were 
raised, partly owing to the dubious source of the tradition, 
and partly in regard to the legal proceedings. It was 
maintained that the masterpiece of Phidias was probably 
made later for the temple, to take the place of a smaller 
and older statue. One may to-day still say of this 
question : grammatici certant et adhuc sub judice Us est, 
although the scales are descending more and more to the 
older and more accredited tradition. 

The date of the Nike of Paionios is equally uncertain : 
does she belong to the middle of the century ? or, ac- 
cepting Pausanias' view, shall we identify the statue with 
the proud monument erected by the Messenian exiles to 
commemorate their share in the conquest of the island 
Sphakteria (425) ? A better-preserved copy of the head 
of this Nike, recognized as such by Amelung, has rather 
severe features, leading many to adopt the earlier date, 
which I hardly consider justified. 

The authority of Pausanias, the old travellers' guide 
of the Antonine age, had been rarely called in question 
until the Olympian excavations, and was indeed bril- 
liantly confirmed thereby as far as the actual facts were 
concerned, but proved less reliable as regards the informa- 
tion he gathered from literature or from ciceroni. His 
account of the artists of the temple pediments has already 
been mentioned ; in regard to the Nike of Paionios he 
relates the twofold tradition. In a unique manner he 
mentions and describes each figure of the East pediment 
group representing the preparation for the chariot race 
of Pelops and Oinomaos. The exact number described 
by Pausanias has been found, although in one case 
Pausanias described a kneeling female as a male figure. 
Considering that, in addition to this, the form of the 



pediment, the size and attitudes of the figures, and finally 
the unfinished condition of the back of the statues pro- 
vided most important clues to their position, it might 
be expected no doubt could exist as to the position 
of the thirteen statues and eight horses. Indeed, it is 
quite certain that the five upright figures occupied the 
centre, the two reclining figures fit into the corners of 
the pediments, and the two four-horse chariots occupied 
the intermediate space ; therefore only 2x3 statues 
remain doubtful. And yet more than a dozen different 
reconstructions of these have been made ! Important 
questions, such as the relative significance of the cir- 
cumstances of the find, of technical characteristics, and 
of the symmetry necessary for the pediment, played a 
part beyond the object itself, and afforded discussions 
for years, until now Treu's arrangement has received 
nearly unanimous approval, although certain advan- 
tages of other groupings are not to be denied. 

This long digression in connection with the Temple of 
Zeus aims at showing how every new discovery not only 
extends our knowledge, but frequently creates doubts 
where we until then imagined ourselves to be tolerably 
certain ; how in consequence new problems arise, which 
stimulate science and widen the scope of inquiry. A new 
discovery may at times appear as a step backwards, at 
least as a loss of certainty, but in every case it brings 
about a methodical, and later a positive, advance. 

The latter is the case with the brilliant discovery at 
Olympia of the Hermes of Praxiteles, the only original 
work of art we possess of a Greek artist of the first 
rank, an artistic revelation in its marvellous technical 
perfection. When the divine youth found exactly on 
the spot described by Pausanias, and on the whole well 
preserved had been cleaned of the protecting clay, no 
one could doubt that the Hermes of Praxiteles had been 
found. And yetjthe copies we had known, or thought 


we knew, of works of this master were so different that 
at first the thought arose that we were not dealing with 
the famous Praxiteles, but with a grandson of the same 

But this did not last long. The statue at Olympia soon 
became the chief object in our study of Praxiteles, and 
shed light in all directions ; thus, for example, the 
" Antinous " of the Belvedere, whose place had till then 
been sought for in vain, was now brought into relation 
to it. 

The clear and distinct view obtained of the Altis at 
Olympia in consequence of the excavations carried on 
there, affords a striking picture of a Greek religious and 
festal site. While at Delos the sacred precinct is thickly 
crowded with buildings of all kinds, on the right and left 
surrounded by the town, and toward the west extending 
to the harbour, the Altis is situated in the plain, not near 
any neighbouring settlement. To the north the hill 
of Kronos towers above it, to the west is the turbulent 
Kladeos, and the southern boundary is formed by the 
broad Alpheios. The plain was so spacious as to afford 
ample room beside the Temple of Zeus for the Heraion, 
the Pelopion, the Metroon, and for innumerable votive 
offerings. Many of the bases with inscriptions have been 
recovered, forming valuable records of the history of 
artists. The Peloponnesian schools were well represented, 
above all the family of Polykleitos, for several generations. 
To the north the area was bounded by a terrace with a 
series of treasuries, in which the different Greek states 
stored their treasures and offerings to the Olympic Zeus. 
The treasury of the Megarians yielded the most ancient 
attempt at a pediment group in relief. The round 
structure of the Philippeion to the west had contained 
the statues of the Macedonian royal family, and showed 
the intrusion of monarchical influences. Toward the 
east the " Echo Colonnade " formed the boundary, 


one of the oldest examples of a device which came more 
and more into favour for enclosing a precinct. To the 
south, Roman structures among them a Triumphal 
Arch have crowded out the more ancient buildings. 
Numerous buildings extended outside of the walls of 
the Altis, along the Kladeos, as the Gymnasium, the 
Palaestra, the great guest-house called the Leonidaion, 
and many sanctuaries. To the south the Bouleuterion, 
consisting of three different parts, excited special interest; 
the Stadion extended toward the east far into the plain, 
and here lay the Hippodrome now completely washed 
away by the Alpheios. 

The leaders of the excavations have in a most exem- 
plary manner preserved all that was uncovered, a duty 
frequently neglected. The visitor to-day can gain a 
clear view of the whole, so long as there are no inun- 
dations of the river and rampant vegetation does not 
destroy and re-cover the scene. Only recently the 
generosity of a Bremen art-lover, Karl Schutte, has 
permitted two columns of the Heraion to be carefully 
reconstructed under the supervision of Georg Kawerau, 
thus helping us to form a clearer picture of this very 
ancient temple. A small museum designed by Adler, and 
established by M. Syngros, contains all the sculpture, 
bronzes, terra-cottas, and architectural fragments ; rooms 
are also provided for students. All would be well if only 
the Hermes were not here. To the Museum at Olympia 
rightly belongs all the sculpture which had its origin at 
Olympia, as the Nike of Paionios and the pediment groups 
of the Temple of Zeus. The Hermes was certainly not 
made in Olympia by Praxiteles, and owes its place there 
to an accident unknown to us. It is a work of such ex- 
ceptional merit that only Athens, probably its place of 
origin and its spiritual home, is the right and worthy 
place for it. A cast would suffice for Olympia. May it 
be possible to set aside all petty considerations which 


prevent the transfer of the Hermes to Athens. Pre- 
liminary reports on the excavations were published from 
the beginning of the work, and after its completion a 
great authoritative publication appeared, in which, 
besides Curtius and Adler, participated the architects 
Dorpfeld, Borrman, Graber, Graf, and the archaeologists 
Treu and Furtwangler. 

It was only natural that the Greeks should wish to 
take an active part in these investigations relating to 
their own antiquity. Their first undertaking at Dodona 
had been rather strange. The situation of the oracle near 
Dramesso, south of Yanina, had been recognized as far 
back as 1830 by T. L. Donaldson. Leake, however, 
expressed doubts as to this view, and when in 1858 
Gaultier de Claubry, a pupil of the French School, 
recognized Donaldson's discovery, it remained unknown. 
A Polish engineer, Sigismund Mineyko, commissioned 
by the province of Yanina, began in 1875 excavations 
near Dramesso, and definitely established the site of the 
famous oracle by inscriptions and other finds. The ex- 
cavations were continued until February, 1876, yielding 
rich art treasures. A banker of Epirus (Ambrakia), 
Constantinos Karapanos, living in Constantinople, se- 
cured a firman which annulled the permission granted 
by the province ; but he had a representative, Lekatzas, 
digging for five months, without meeting with any success. 
Thereupon he bought at Yanina antiques from various 
sources, part of the objects found by Mineyko and his 
companions, although by no means the most important 
ones. In consequence of these purchases, and while 
disguising the true circumstances, Karapanos represented 
himself in a publication as the discoverer of Dodona. 
The theatre and temple mentioned by Donaldson were, 
of course, ignored. But the votive offerings of bronze 


appear all the more important. Some of these correspond 
so exactly with others found at Olympia and Delphi that 
one cannot fail to recognize that these offerings must have 
been made in certain establishments for distribution to 
the different cult centres. Part of the collection re- 
tained by Mineyko has recently been acquired for the 
Berlin Museum, thus supplementing the valuable an- 
tiquities of Dodona. 

Of great significance about this time was the work of 
the Greek Archaeological Society (p. 53). Until now the 
Society had only modestly undertaken minor tasks. 
Now, however, in 1876, it began to uncover on the south 
slope of the Acropolis the sanctuary of Asklepios, which, 
as we have since learnt, was established in 420 as a branch 
to the cult of Asklepios at Epidauros. 

A considerable number of votive reliefs with charac- 
teristic sculptures of the fifth and fourth centuries were 
found, representing the healing divinity, at first as a 
physician standing holding a rod, and in the later reliefs 
as an enthroned god with serpent and sceptre, sur- 
rounded by his votaries. However, for want of a com- 
petent architect, the general survey of the older and later 
temples, the altar, the colonnade, and the spring re- 
mained obscure, and only years later received careful 
elucidation at the hands of Dorpfeld. 

Dorpfeld, who had been the soul of the new methods 
of preservation at the excavations at Olympia, settled, 
after the completion of this great work in 1882, in Athens. 
He was connected with the German Archaeological 
Institute, and soon became one of its permanent secre- 
taries. His great proficiency, his experience, his gener- 
osity in placing his vast learning at the disposal of 
others, made him soon the favourite adviser of the Archaeo- 
logical Society, whose technical surveys he usually 
executed. This proved of the utmost advantage to 
Basileios Leonardos when he began to excavate the 


Amphiaraion for the society in 1884-7. Opposite to 
Eubcea, in the district of the ancient Oropos, lay the 
site where, according to the legend, the seer Amphiaraos, 
on the return of the " Seven against Thebes," was swal- 
lowed by the earth and rescued from his pursuers. 
An oracle had been established there and early finds had 
indicated the spot. Leonardos began work here and 
found the sanctuary. Before this small temple, beyond 
the river-bank, stood an altar dedicated to five divinities, 
a palpable example of an altar belonging to several 
deities so common in antiquity. Structures were found 
specially designed for festivals, and of interest was a 
theatre, which, though not a large one, was remarkable 
as being found in so isolated a place. It may have 
served not only for scenic performances, but as a general 
gathering place for other occasions. In any case, certain 
well-preserved peculiarities of the stage, recorded in 
inscriptions, became of importance in view of the in- 
quiries soon to be made regarding the Greek stage and 
its uses. 

The means of the Archaeological Society had now 
considerably increased ; it also possessed an able and 
energetic leader in Panagiotes Evstratiades, so that it 
was no longer satisfied with small undertakings, but 
took in hand two very important excavations : Eleusis 
and Epidauros. 

The sanctuary of the Eleusinian Mysteries was no 
longer virgin soil. Gell and his companions (p. 32) 
had sketched the general outlines of the sacred precinct. 
Charles Lenormant had in the year 1859 made some 
excavations during the journey which ended his life in 
Athens. His son Frangois later published these results. 
These were, however, quite overshadowed by the dis- 
covery in the same year of the great relief during the 
building of a school near the former small Temple of 
Triptolemos. This soon gained a famous place in early 


To face page 137 


Attic art as the Eleusinian Relief. Its subject is the 
" sending forth " of Triptolemos by the two great god- 
desses Demeter and Persephone with the seed-corn, 
the blessing of the husbandmen. Under the guidance 
of Demetrios Philios, and with the constant advice of 
Dorpfeld, thorough excavations were begun here in 
1882, and continued until 1890. Behind the sacred 
precinct rises the low but steep castle-hill, and before it 
is the expanse of the beautiful bay, along the shore of 
which came the torchlit processions of the mystce to 
the sanctuary of Eleusis. Within the walled precinct 
the chief building was the Telesterion or Temple of the 
Mysteries, differing from ordinary temples in its square 
form. Excavations revealed within rows of steps on all 
four sides ; while in the middle columns were disposed 
in rows to support an upper storey. Careful examination 
of the pillars, their size and material and their disposi- 
tion, revealed different stages of construction. For the 
mysteries of the Peisistratan period a very much smaller 
building had sufficed. The Periclean structure designed 
by Iktinos, the architect of the Parthenon, was thrice 
the size of the earlier one. Ascending to the upper part 
of the structure was a broad flight of stairs on either 
side, opening into a wide passage hewn out of the rock. 
It has been ascertained that for the front, if not for all 
three sides, a colonnade had been planned, but only 
executed much later, about 300 the only decoration 
on the exterior of this enclosed building. If not all the 
secrets of the hall have been revealed to us, our knowledge 
of it has been greatly extended. 

Well-preserved walls of sun-dried bricks take us back 
to very ancient times ; in consequence of their having 
been early covered with debris and earth, they escaped 
the damp, and were thus protected, affording an example 
of that rarely seen method of building (p. 127). F. 
Noack discovered this ancient construction at Eleusis 


(1905-6) and continued the investigation. Among the 
earliest remains may be mentioned the Pluto grotto, 
a small sanctuary cut into the rock ; within it a well- 
preserved and extraordinarily handsome youth's head 
was found, with an abundance of hair, related in style to 
the so-called Vergil bust. Benndorf and Furtwangler 
recognized therein with great probability the Eleusinian 
chthonic god Eubouleus, whose image is ascribed by an 
inscription found about the same time to no less an 
artist than Praxiteles. A second masterpiece of the great 
artist to be placed beside the Hermes ! To many this 
seemed too great a piece of good fortune, and they pre- 
ferred to see Triptolemos in the newly discovered head. 

The two entrance gates to the sacred precinct showed 
curious combinations of different periods of art. The 
outer gate, probably of the late Attic period, simply 
copied the central part of the Athenian Propylaea, an 
instance among many of the poverty in architectural 
invention of the times. The inner gate, a foundation of 
Appius Claudius Pulcher, of the time of Cicero, is more 
characteristic, and combines features of the Hellenistic 
period in its Corinthian capitals with ornate garlands and 
corner figures representing griffins. 

On the whole, Eleusis offered a perfect picture of a 
cult-site arranged only for the mysteries, not as uniform 
in style as Samothrace, but of importance inasmuch as 
it permits us to follow the development for centuries 
of this most famous sanctuary of the mysteries of the 
Greek world. 

The sanctuary of Asklepios at Epidauros is again quite 
different. The Archaeological Society began excavating 
there in 1881 ; the French expedition had in 1829 es ~ 
tablished the general outlines of the extensive plan. 
These new excavations were under the supervision of 
Panagiotes Kavvadias, a pupil of Brunn, and at the time 
still an ephor of the society. Later, in 1885, Kavvadias 


became Director in chief of the Royal Museums and 
Antiquities and the head of all Greek excavations, but 
his interest in Epidauros continued, and until recent 
times these excavations have had his special care. The 
reward proved great ! 

The Hieron of Asklepios, one of the most important 
cult-sites of the healing divinity, is situated about eight 
miles inland from Epidauros. The elevated level plateau 
must have been considered most salubrious, as the 
sanctuary developed into a much -frequented health 
resort. Numerous inscriptions found there furnish strange 
evidence of the superstitious trust which the suppliants 
reposed in the miraculous cures of a priesthood to whom 
rational medicine was entirely alien. The arrangement 
of the sanctuary, of course, had to correspond with the 
requirements of a health resort. The enclosed precinct 
was here also approached by Propylaea, and contained 
a temple dating from the beginning of the fourth century. 
Remains of pediment sculptures have been found, and 
inscriptions assign these to Timotheos, showing us works 
of this distinguished artist's youth. The delicate motives 
of drapery afforded great scope to his genius. Later he 
worked on the Mausoleum. The innumerable bases of 
votive offerings, which surrounded the temple and altar, 
testified to the great veneration the god of Epidauros 
enjoyed. Long halls, some even of two storeys, served 
as sleeping-places for those who had come to consult the 
god, and awaited healing in their sleep. A peculiar 
building of enigmatical character was the Tholos or 
Thymele, a round structure with two concentric series 
of columns. Its subterranean passages were arranged 
like a labyrinth, and their significance has never been 
fully explained. It has been suggested that the snake 
of Asklepios was kept there. The Tholos, which was 
several decades in construction, remains for us one of 
the oldest, if not the oldest, round structure of the kind 


in Greek architecture. The Corinthian capital found 
here is one of the earliest examples of what later became 
its normal development. Although the Tholos is not 
a large building, it displays in the plastic ornaments of 
its later portions a technical perfection which surpasses 
even the Erechtheion at Athens. Tradition mentions 
Polykleitos as the architect, certainly not the famous 
sculptor in bronze of the fifth century, but a younger 
member of that family of artists. But was this Poly- 
kleitos, as seems very probable, the first designer of the 
plan, or was he the later artist who designed the Corin- 
thian columns and the delicate decorations of the interior? 
Some new discoveries may bring complete certainty. 

Adjoining the sacred precinct other extensive buildings 
(chiefly of Roman times) were added for gymnastic 
exercises or for the entertainment of guests. There 
was, for instance, a stadion, but the most remarkable 
feature of the Hieron was the beautiful theatre, situated 
in a hollow of the hill a short distance from the temple. 
The well-preserved tiers of seats of the spacious audi- 
torium had been known since the work of the French 
expedition, and fully confirmed the fame, which ancient 
tradition attributes to this second work of Polykleitos 
as the most beautiful and harmoniously designed theatre 
in Greece. Kavvadias also excavated the orchestra 
with its approaches and the remains of the stage ; against 
all expectation the orchestra proved circular, whereas 
those previously known were semicircular or in the shape 
of a horseshoe. Enough remained of the stage to permit 
a reconstruction of the side ramps leading to the upper 
part of the proskenion. The theatre at Epidauros 
became the starting-point for Dorpfeld's investigations 
of the Greek theatre, which have held the attention of 
scholars for the last twenty years. It may be taken 
for granted that originally, during the classic times of 
the Attic drama, both chorus and actors used the orchestra 


for acting, and that the background was formed by a 
small players' booth with low roof, not a raised stage. 
Discussions still continue unabated, whether the stone 
proskenion in the existing theatres none of which date 
back to the times of Sophocles or Euripides belonged 
to such players' booth, or, after the chorus disappeared, 
may rather have been a raised stage. The question, 
in any case, became of such importance as to cause a 
thorough examination of the ruins of theatres. While 
twenty years ago few theatres but those of the Roman 
type were known to us, to-day we know more than a 
dozen genuine Greek theatres. Archaeologists of all 
nationalities have taken part in these investigations. 
Only the following theatres need be mentioned : Mega- 
lopolis, Mantineia, and Sikyon in the Peloponnese ; 
at Athens ; at Eretria in Eubcea ; at Priene, Magnesia, 
and Pergamon in Asia Minor. Again a systematically 
worked find has suggested great problems, and their 
study has resulted in numerous discoveries. 

But a word must be added here on the hardly less 
famous sanctuary on the island of Kos, the home of 
Hippokrates. Excavations were carried on during 1902-4 
by Rudolf Herzog and the architects Gustav Hecht and 
Ernst Wagner, with means provided by the German 
Empire, the Government of Wiirtemberg, the German 
Archaeological Institute, and some private patrons as 
the manufacturer Ernst Sieglin of Stuttgart. The 
sanctuary was situated not far from the city of Kos, 
on a mountainous height, on the site earlier recognized 
by the epigraphist R. Paton. The original sanctuary 
consisted of a stately altar, an ancient temple, a spring, 
and some cypresses. Finally during the third century 
a Hellenistic design with three terraces was carried out. 
Below was an extensive " sacred market-place " sur- 


rounded by colonnades; above it is the old cult-site, 
but enlarged and with many additions, as a new Ionic 
temple. A broad and high staircase led from here to 
the new marble Doric temple above, which seemed to 
dominate its entire surroundings ; the remains of the 
sacred cypress grove perhaps forming the background. 
On either side of the temple and behind it were buildings 
with colonnades containing probably rooms for the 
accommodation of the invalids. The whole gives an 
excellent idea of a model structure in the Hellenistic 
style, for here, not as at Samothrace, nearly all traces 
of earlier foundations had been obliterated. 

By the side of the Asklepios sanctuary at Kos may be 
placed the very ancient sanctuary of Poseidon on the 
island of Tenos ; excavated by the Belgians, Hubert 
Demoulin, 1902-3, continued by Paul Graindor in 1905. 
The temple, with architectural accessories, some works 
of art, and numerous inscriptions, testifies to the popu- 
larity of the cult of Poseidon and Amphitrite, and this 
has its modern counterpart in the Evangelistria, whither 
for the past eighty years pilgrimages have been constant. 

The American School founded in Athens in 1882 now 
contemplated another task. The ancients looked upon 
the Heraion at Argos as one of the oldest Doric temples in 
Greece. It was situated about four miles from Mycenae, 
on the eastern border of the plain of Argos. This very 
ancient temple was consumed by fire in 423 ; a new 
temple was immediately erected, for which Polykleitos, 
the most famous artist of Argos, made a chryselephantine 
statue of Hera to rival the Olympian masterpiece of 
Phidias. The site of the sanctuary had long been es- 
tablished ; some trial excavations made in 1854 by 
Alexandros Rhizu Rangabe at the request of Ludwig 
Ross for the " 787 Olympian marks " (p. 125), and directed 
by K. Bursian had only insignificant results. In 1892 
the American School, under the direction of Charles 


Waldstein, began work there. Unfortunately the re- 
mains of the older temple, on the upper terrace, were so 
fragmentary as to make it impossible to ascertain with 
certainty its ground-plan ; it would appear, however, 
as if this temple (though it is a fantastic assumption to 
date it far back in the second millennium) had preserved 
more faithfully than other temples in the East the form 
of the Homeric house (Chap. VIII). More extensive 
were the remains of the Later Temple ; however, not 
a great deal of it was discovered, most blocks having 
probably disappeared as building material in the neigh- 
bouring villages of the plain. The remains of sculptural 
decorations of the temple are the most valuable ; they 
are undoubtedly of the school of Polykleitos, as those 
of the Parthenon are of the school of Phidias. They 
teach us how great, even then, was the influence of Attic 
art upon that of the Peloponnese. 

The results achieved by the excavations carried on in 
1902 by Furtwangler, Thiersch, and the architect E. 
Fiechter on the island of ^Egina were great and unex- 
pected. In 1811, when the pediment groups were dis- 
covered, excavations of the entire temple were not 
carried out, and with the exception of some minor work 
of Stais in 1894, none had since been undertaken. The 
new Bavarian excavations supported by the Prince Regent 
Luitpold aimed first at completing the statues found 
years ago ; then extended beyond this, greatly adding to 
our knowledge of the entire sanctuary. 

With exemplary thoroughness its history has now been 
traced through three consecutive stages of development. 
A new name for the temple was also recovered. The 
temple had at first been looked upon as of Zeus Pan- 
hellenios, the most famous sanctuary on the island, a 
forged inscription intended merely as a joke being taken 
so seriously that Cockerell, one of the discoverers, in 
1860 still maintained it. As early as 1837 Ludwig Ross 


had shown this inscription to be a forgery, and tried to 
prove by another inscription that the temple was 
Athena's, a view Stackelberg had expressed in 1826, and 
Mustoxydes in 1831. Furtwangler recently proved that 
this also is untenable. As the name of the Cretan 
and jEginetan goddess Aphaia has appeared on numer- 
ous inscriptions the temple is now claimed for that 
divinity. It has been found on an archaic building 
block where an incised inscription records the building 
of a house (of/co?) and an altar to the goddess. This 
new name has gained universal approbation. If I 
still entertain doubts as to its correctness, my justifi- 
cation rests on a reliable and, as I believe, faultless 
record which states that the cult of Aphaia at ^Egina 
was founded in a sanctuary of Artemis, which would 
not, by any means, exclude Aphaia from enjoying 
even greater popularity than the chief goddess, and that 
she possessed, besides an altar, a special house (which, 
according to ancient usage, means a house to contain the 
numerous votive offerings dedicated to her). However 
this may be, the pediment groups refer neither to Aphaia 
nor to Artemis, but celebrate the victory of Salamis, and 
the name of the temple is fortunately not of importance 
in their interpretation. 

The excavations yielded a number of fragments for the 
Munich pediment groups. Not only these additions, but 
an accurate examination of those already in Munich and 
of Thorvaldsen's restoration led Furtwangler to an 
entirely new arrangement of the pediment groups. 
Thorvaldsen's and Martin Wagner's old restoration had 
long been known to be incorrect. A series of examina- 
tions, in which Karl Friedrichs, Heinrich Brunn, Adrian 
Prachow, Konrad Lange, Leopold Julius, and Bruno 
Sauer had taken part, seemed to give as a final result a 
strictly symmetrical composition, a battle scene, for the 
West pediment. The action here centred in a fallen 




warrior in the middle, lying at the feet of Athene. The 
group, composed of twelve figures, formed a complete 
whole, and it was this which pre-eminently seemed to 
distinguish the composition from earlier ones. Only 
five figures of the East pediment were found, and it was 
assumed that it contained a similar composition with 
slight diversities. Brunn proved as early as 1867 that 
the latter showed a higher form of art than the West 
pediment (Chap. XI). Furtwangler's critical studies, 
however, had quite different results. According to 
these the West pediment falls into four distinct groups : 
on either side of the goddess are two warriors fighting 
over a fallen warrior, and beyond these an archer and 
a man with a lance appear to be overthrowing a man in 
each corner ; thus the movement tends from the centre 
to the corners. Instead of one harmonious whole we 
have a battle scene in four distinct groups, which are 
parting asunder as if intended to counteract the idea of 
a co-ordinated whole. The more advanced artist of 
the East pediment realizes this fault. Although his 
composition, limited to eleven figures, is divided into 
two distinct battle scenes, yet the two halves are directed 
towards the middle where the goddess forms the point 
of union for the composition. If Furtwangler's new 
reconstruction is correct (without a re-examination of 
the originals it cannot be definitely stated, but according 
to Furtwangler's account it appears very probable) the 
two groups show an interesting intermediate period of 
art in the development of pediment groups, falling mid- 
way between the single and detached scenes of the pedi- 
ment of the Treasury of the Megarians at Olympia and 
the complete groups of the East pediment of the Temple 
of Zeus at Olympia and the pediments of the Parthenon. 


It now remains only to mention two excavations of 
the French School; one formed the brilliant close of all 
the enterprises directed towards the recovery of Greek 
cult sites during the last century. Both sites were, like 
Delos, dedicated to Apollo. 

Mt. Pto'ion rises with many peaks in Bceotia, south- 
east of Lake Kopai's, and upon its summit Apollo possessed 
in ancient times a popular cult site, which after the 
Persian War was far less frequented. The site, therefore, 
appeared most alluring, for one might fairly expect to 
find very early remains. Maurice Holleaux (1885-6) was 
fortunate in finding an old grotto of Apollo recalling 
Delos, and an old altar. These had later been replaced 
by a temple. Numerous other structures were found, 
great ancient cisterns, such as were necessary on these 
heights, and minor buildings such as belong to all sanc- 
tuaries. A number of archaic statues were discovered. 
Although those primitive attempts to represent the form 
of a nude youth, the so-called statues of Apollo, had for a 
century come to light everywhere, even to satiety, yet 
the " Ptoion Apollo " presented such striking features as 
to secure him a prominent place in the long line of youths 
advancing with the left foot. Products of the handi- 
crafts, dating from the eighth to the sixth century, were 
found in great numbers at Ptoion : clay pots and figurines, 
bronze figures and implements, among them archaic 
tripods such as had been found at Olympia, and such as 
we recall from Homer. In contemplating these objects 
one perceives how general was the veneration of the 
Ptoion god, and how these offerings were produced in 
localities both near and far ; some are native, some Ionian, 
some come from the Peloponnese. If a complete publica- 
tion had been issued, it would be possible to form a 
better judgment of the whole. Near Elateia, in Phocis, 
the sanctuary of Athene Kranaia had been successfully 
investigated by Pierre Paris in 1884. 


The chief work of the French School, comparable to 
that of Olympia, was at Delphi, the great festal centre 
in Northern Greece. Nature formed in " rocky Pytho " 
the greatest contrast to the level plain of the Alpheios. 
Delphi can only be approached on two sides by mountain 
paths. To the north the Phaedriades rise precipitously, 
steep cliffs of Parnassus. The rocky soil descends 
abruptly, with hardly any terraces, southward to the 
Pleistos ; beyond it bare Kirphis obstructs the view to 
the Bay of Corinth. It is a most magnificent solitude, 
only perhaps surpassed in Greece by the neighbourhood 
of the Styx. The precinct of the oracle was situated on 
high under the shadow of the Phaedriades rising abruptly 
from south to north. Two transverse walls were visible 
here, the supporting walls of artificial terraces. Below 
was the " Helleniko," a freestone wall ; above the 
" Pelasgik6," a polygonal wall, above which the south 
steps of the temple appeared. The rest was completely 
hidden and covered by the huts of the wretched little 
village of Kastri. In 1840 Karl Otfried Miiller was 
struck and killed by the rays of the Delphic god, while 
helping to decipher the numerous records found in the 
Pelasgik6. In a modest way Conze and Michaelis helped 
in this task in 1860 ; the following year the Pelasgiko 
was successfully cleared by Paul Foucart and Karl 
Wescher. In 1862 Wescher proved that this wall, the 
terrace wall of the temple, turns abruptly north at its 
east end. This indicated the extent of the temple 
precinct on this side, and the direction of the approach 
to the temple. The main features of the topography 
of Delphi had been established in 1838 by Heinrich 
Nikolaus Ulrichs, as far as was possible without excava- 
tions. Among the few pieces of sculpture found was a 
slab with a relief of a four-horse chariot, which was later 
joined by its fellows. Years of inactivity followed. Only 
after the Archaeological Society in Athens had, in 1880, 


bought the land and placed it at the disposal of the 
French School was work again resumed. Foucart, the 
director of the school, sent Bernard Haussoullier there ; 
he excavated at the corner of the Pelasgiko discovered by 
Wescher part of the Sacred Way and an Ionic Hall which 
inscriptions proved to be the Stoa of the Athenians, 
destined for trophies of victories. Its date was not quite 
clear, but it may be a monument of the battle of Marathon. 
Haussoullier's great success led the French School to 
contemplate the excavation of the entire sanctuary of 
Delphi. But a long time intervened before work was 
actually begun. Foucart succeeded as early as 1882 in 
concluding an agreement with the Greek Government, 
establishing the same conditions at Delphi as had been 
observed at Olympia. The next change of ministers, 
however, annulled the contract, and a long period of un- 
certainty ensued. Political considerations also interfered; 
and it was believed that the methods of the excavators 
at Delphi contrasted unfavourably with those at Olympia, 
so that the scruples of the Greek Government were 
aroused, Germany was offered the site, but declined out 
of consideration for France. A second agreement was 
formed in 1887 between Greece and France, but again it 
was not confirmed. In 1889 America applied for per- 
mission, but without success. Finally, in 1891, after 
Theophile Homolle had taken Foucart's place, a definite 
contract was made, transferring all rights of excavation 
for ten years to France ; the French Government granted 
500,000 francs (20,000). A preliminary condition was 
the complete expropriation of the villagers of Kastri, to 
which the Greek Government contributed 60,000 drach- 
mas. In the meantime H. Pomtow had carried on some 
work at Delphi in 1887 ; its chief result had been the 
discovery of the main entrance of the precinct in the 
south-east corner. 

Homolle assumed the personal direction of this great 


task. He had the assistance of Henri Convert, an en- 
gineer, and Albert Tournaire, an architect. The mem- 
bers of the school who assisted were Louis Couve, Paul 
Perdrizet, and others. This task not only involved great 
expenditure of time and money, but when the expro- 
priation of the village of Kastri began the inhabitants 
began rioting and seized the tools of the strangers. 
Finally, in April, 1893, all preparations were completed, 
so that the work could begin. It was evident that it 
was a question of three storeys, as it were, the terrace of 
the temple forming the middle one. The Pelasgiko 
separated the two lower ones, and the Helleniko formed 
the southern and lowest boundary of the precinct. 
Homolle began near the latter, and fortune smiled upon 
him. He at once struck a building, which, according 
to his ground-plan, appeared to be one of the treasuries, 
and, according to Pausanias' description, the Treasury 
of the Athenians. Let us listen to his words : 

" After deliberating for twenty-four hours, I believed 
myself justified in telegraphing to Paris that we had 
found ' le tresor des AtheniensS Our joy was shared in 
Paris and, for quite a different reason, by the Greek 
authorities in Amphissa, the capital of the district. The 
following day I received a telegram from the sub-prefect 
of that place, who announced the arrival of his revenue 
official to receive our ' treasure.' The Greek Government 
was at that time not in a brilliant financial position ; 
a slight misunderstanding arose, and in their artless way 
they hoped that ready money had been found in the 
ground, at an opportune moment, to pay off their interest 

In the lower third of the sacred precinct the Sacred 
Way ascends with sharp turns ; on either side of it are the 
treasuries of the Greek states, and near the entrance gate 
are some important votive offerings. Only the bases or 
indications of their position remain as in the case of the 


great memorial groups of Marathon and Aigospotamoi 
the glory of Athens and her fall. We have again to appeal 
to Pausanias for the names of the treasuries, many of 
which are far richer than those at Olympia. For example, 
the Treasury of the Athenians is a Doric structure with 
thirty metopes with archaic reliefs. Its walls were in- 
scribed with the Hymn to Apollo, the musical notation 
of which created such great interest, and gave us the 
first definite conception of Greek music ; besides this 
records were found on the walls of the official Athenian 
processions to Delphi. Five oblong metopes were found 
of the Treasury of the Sikyonians, giving proof how 
naive had been the early plastic art of that city. The 
treasury attributed at first to the inhabitants of the 
island of Siphnos, and later to the inhabitants of Cnidos, 
is profusely decorated ; if, however, we follow Pausanias, 
we shall have to attribute this treasury to the Siphnians, 
and seek the Treasury of the Cnidians rather higher. It 
was a graceful Ionic building, its portico supported by 
female figures in the place of columns. While we meet 
here the first indication of what later is carried to great 
perfection in the Caryatids of the Erechtheion in Athens, 
the frieze surrounding the building on four sides (the 
relief of the four-horse chariot mentioned on p. 147 be- 
longed to it) vividly recalls Ionic prototypes of the 
Parthenon frieze. All is more animated, more naive, 
than in the more sober art of Periclean Athens, but the 
pediment groups are still clumsy and heavy. An im- 
portant addition to the Ionic art of the treasuries was 
the Column of the Naxians, crowned with an archaic 
sphinx ; it stood near the terrace wall of the temple, the 
so-called Pelasgiko. As our knowledge of the earlier 
period of Ionic art is very limited, such an example as the 
huge but simple capital of this column becomes very im- 
portant. But that information in regard to Ionic art 
should come to us from Delphi was entirely unexpected. 


i. Main entrance. 2. Side entrances. 3. Bronze bull. 5. Great monument erected 
by Peloponnessians after battle of Aegospotamoi, 405. 6. Heroes of Argos on the founda- 
tion of Messene, 360. 7. Bronze copy of the " wooden horse," 414. 8. Greek monument of 
Phidias given by the Athenians after the battle of Marathon, 490. 9. The Seven against 
Thebes (456 dedicated). 12. Treasury of the Sikyonians. 13. Treasury of the Siphnians. 
15. Treasury of the Thebans. 18. Treasury of the Cnidians. 19. Treasury of the Corin- 
thians. 23. Treasury of Clazomenae. 28. Treasury of the Athenians. 29. Buleuterion. 
32. Hall of the Athenians. 33. Copy of the Nike of Paionios. 34. Treasury of the 
Corinthians. 36. Tripod votive offering of the Hellenes after the victory of Plataea, 479. 
38. Nike and tripod. To the west the column with the acanthus. 41. Temnfe of Apollo. 
Behind the cella tripod of the oracle. 46. The lion hunt of Alexander, of Lysippos and 
Leochares, dedicated by Krateros. Near it the quadriga of Polyzelos (Gelon ?). 47. The 
theatre. 48. Poseidonion. 52. Exedra. 53. Group of Pharsalian princes ; Agias of 
Lysippos. 55. Lesche of the Cnidians. 

To face page 150 


Delphi above all other places was common to all the 
Greeks, far more so than Olympia, which never lost its 
predominantly Dorian character. Another column found 
at Delphi shows a particularly rich development of the 
Corinthian acanthus motive, enhanced by three highly 
elegant dancing figures which execute their graceful 
movements aloft. A tripod may have crowned the 

Let us ascend the Sacred Way, passing the base of the 
Serpent column of Plataeafand the foundation oft the 
monument of ^Emilius Paullus, the victor of Pydna ; 
some fragments of this frieze had become known as early 
as 1840. According to Pausanias we might have ex- 
pected to find the Older Temple built in the sixth century, 
which had received a marble fa9ade from the family of 
the Alkmaionids, exiled from Athens. Its pediments were 
executed in the fifth century by pupils of Kalamis, and 
Euripides has described the decorated metopes. If this 
temple had been found in the same state of preservation 
as the Temple of Zeus at Olympia, what problems would 
have been solved ! Nothing remained but some frag- 
ments of sculpture of the temple of the Alkmaionids. 

The ancient temple was destroyed by an earthquake in 
373 as we have learnt from inscriptions and the later 
temple, of which some remains have been discovered, 
dates from the fourth century. 

As recorded by inscriptions, the temple was destroyed 
by fire in 83 B.C., and after that again slowly rebuilt. 
Did Pausanias quote an obsolete source, dating from 
before the earthquake in 373 ? It almost seemed so 
and a new opening was given to the moderns who com- 
plain of Pausanias' untrustworthiness, when recently 
Emil Reisch discovered the solution and proved that the 
Kalamis referred to by the writer was not of the time of 
Kimon, but was a noted artist of the fourth century. His 
pupils Praxias and Androsthenes would thus belong 


exactly to the time when the temple at Delphi was being 
built. The investigations at the temple solved new 
problems in the history of art, although not in regard to 
the Temple of the Alkmaionids, nor in regard to the 
pediment groups of the pupils of Kalamis ; these are lost 
without a trace. The interior of the temple proved dis- 
appointing ; not a trace was found of the chasm in the 
earth where the dragon Python had been slain by Apollo, 
and over which the priestess sat on a tripod while she 
uttered the oracles. If the remains of the temple were 
somewhat disappointing, the uppermost part of the 
sacred precinct proved all the richer in discoveries. 
Toward the north-west the theatre was discovered, and 
near it the fine stadion ; below the theatre traces were 
found of a group by Lysippos Krateros saving the life 
of Alexander the Great at a lion hunt. The discovery 
of the Lesche of the Cnidians was of supreme importance. 
This hall, situated towards the north-east, served as a 
meeting-place ; its walls had been embellished with the 
two famous paintings by Polygnotos : the Taking of Troy 
and the Descent of Odysseus into Hades. As Pausanias 
has described each figure of the paintings, they are for us 
the most important work of the great Thasian master 
of wall painting. Numerous attempts at their recon- 
struction have been made. But all these lacked the 
foundation which only could be gained by the knowledge 
of the building and its wall space. This foundation was 
now acquired. The Lesche proved to be an oblong 
building open in the centre and receiving light thence, 
while eight columns supported the roof. The building 
may be compared with the original form of the Palaestra 
at Pompeii. As the door was in the middle of the long 
south wall, it is probable that the two paintings with 
their numerous figures were so distributed between the 
eastern and western halves of the hall that each extended 
over portions of three walls, the central groups being 


painted on the narrow east and west walls. This, of 
course, could not have been foreseen. 

Below the Lesche of the Cnidians, not far from the 
temple, there appeared a great group of marble statues in 
various styles, representing the family of a Thessalian 
prince and his connections. The influence of the art of 
Scopas, of Praxiteles, and of Lysippos is perceptible. 
Interest in this group has been greatly increased since 
Erich Preuner proved one of the statues, the Agias, to be 
the work of the young Lysippos (Chap. XI). But the 
finest and most famous work the Delphic excavation 
yielded is the superb bronze statue of a Charioteer from 
a four-horse chariot. This may have been erected by 
the Syracusan Prince Polyzalos after 480 to bis father 
Gelon. But this is still uncertain. It is the only re- 
maining example of the innumerable bronze statues 
which once adorned Delphi, and is hence of the greatest 

Besides these great architectural and sculptural 
treasures about 3000 inscriptions were recovered during 
the eight years' excavation, for the most part of great 
linguistic or historical interest. As at Olympia, Syngros, 
and after his death his widow, furnished the means for 
the erection of a museum. Some of the treasuries, as 
those of the Athenians and Cnidians, were recovered so 
completely as to make a restoration possible ; like that 
of the Temple of Athene Nike at Athens (p. 53). The 
example set at Olympia might have been followed with 
advantage here. The many fragments and inscriptions 
scattered over the extensive site might have been brought 
together and properly arranged ; it has already become 
difficult to find certain fragments and to compare them 
with others to which they belong. 

As the results of the excavation a great publication is 
being issued to place before the scientific public. It is 
to be regretted (I am not expressing my own views only) 


that the publication begins with the restorations of 
Tournaire, for no matter how elaborate the drawings are, 
they contain a great deal that is arbitrary and false, and 
are calculated more to attract the general public than 
to satisfy scientific requirements. Other numbers offer 
excellent plates of the large number of bronzes and of 
marbles found. 

But undoubtedly as the work continues, under Ho- 
molle's able guidance, those details will be given, without 
which it is difficult to judge the architectural recon- 
structions (p. 120). The buildings form, as it were, the 
skeleton. Without this solid framework all other works 
of art lose their bearings. 

During thirty years, while all nations lent a helping 
hand and shared in the labour, a number of sanctuaries 
were uncovered, beginning with Samothrace and ending 
with Delphi and ^Egina. All these helped to cast a clear 
light on a chapter in the history of ritual antiquities till 
then only known from literature. 

Certain fundamental features are common to all these 
places. The altar is always of foremost importance (in 
Olympia it has not yet been possible to ascertain its 
position) ; small archaic votive offerings are found about 
it ; at times even a cave as at Ptoion, or an artificial 
grotto as at Delos. As soon as the divinity assumed the 
human form the temple appeared as the dwelling of the 
god's image, and other minor buildings soon became 
necessary. These conditions prevailed at Ptoion, some- 
what improved at Elateia, and on the whole the same 
prevail at any number of small or remote cult sites. The 
noblest type is represented in the Argive Heraion, where 
the rebuilt temple displayed the full splendour of a perfect 

The sanctuaries, however, may be distinguished ac 


cording to their significance. Where the cult was secret, 
as the Mysteries at Eleusis or Samothrace, the first 
essential was the enclosure of the cult buildings as well as 
the entire precinct. Great gates which could be locked 
formed the entrance to the precinct, which was either 
naturally difficult of approach (Samothrace) or secured 
by a wall (Eleusis). At Eleusis, where certain symbolic 
spectacles formed the chief part of the ceremonies, they 
necessitated a large temple of several storeys and sur- 
rounded by walls, adjoining which were smaller cult 
temples. The great Temple was enlarged as the number 
of the initiated increased. We find at the later sanctuary 
in Samothrace beside the first temple of the fourth 
century a more imposing later structure of the age of 
the early Ptolemies ; both were provided with a sacrificial 
pit for the special cult of the Kabeiri, and the whole was 
so extensive that the faithful could all witness the action ; 
differing, in this respect, from the small Kabeirion in 
Boeotia, where the sacrificial court was only externally 
connected with the temple. In Samothrace the round 
hall of Arsince may have been used for other gatherings 
which demanded an enclosed building. Of the same 
date probably is the large open hall outside the sacred 
precinct which sheltered the great number of visitors to 
the Mysteries, upon this rough and inhospitable island. 
Far more magnificent were the sanctuaries, which not 
only served sacrificial purposes, but at the same time 
were planned with a view to festivals and games. Olym- 
pia and Delphi, where the Olympian and Pythian games 
took place, have yielded extensive information, so that 
we may hardly hope to learn more from excavations on 
the Isthmus or at Nemea. Though his temple was rebuilt 
at different periods, Apollo remained at Delphi the sole 
divinity (Dionysos only appears beside him and Neopto- 
lemos was buried there), while at Olympia Hera possessed 
the oldest temple, and near it Pelops had an enclosed 


tomb. For a long time Zeus seems to have only received 
worship at a great altar in the open air ; after the Persian 
wars, however, there was erected the great Temple, 
which dominated all its surroundings, and within it was 
placed the colossal chryselephantine statue by Phidias. 
The Mother goddess was later admitted as a third di- 
vinity. Common to both places, although their situation 
and their decorations were very different, are the trea- 
suries, in form usually temples in antis. These, from the 
sixth century on, increased rapidly, to shelter, beside 
treasures, the small votive offerings of the different states 
connected with the cult at Delphi or Olympia. Great 
public votive offerings filled the sacred precinct, and from 
the sixth century onward also an endless number of 
statues of victors. The extensive plain of the Altis at 
Olympia offered ample room, while at Delphi all were 
crowded along the Sacred Way, or were placed on the 
narrow spaces afforded on the steep rocky ascent. In 
both places the entire precinct was enclosed by a wall. 
At Olympia, toward the east, an extensive Stoa provided 
a sheltered hall ; while at Delphi the steep cliffs made 
such an open hall an impossibility. In place thereof 
the Lesche of the Cnidians appeared on the upper terrace 
A peculiarity at Delphi was the theatre within the sacred 
precinct, which may have been connected with the 
musical contests at the Pythian festivals. Both at 
Olympia and at Delphi, the Stadion, the arena for the 
gymnastic games, was in close connection with the sacred 
precinct. The racecourse for horses and chariots at 
Olympia was in the neighbouring plain, but every trace 
of it has been washed away by the turbulent Alpheios. 
At Delphi it was necessary to descend to the Krisaian 
plain below to find sufficient room for the races. The 
sacred precinct, in both places, was surrounded by 
numerous other buildings, some only distantly connected 


with the sanctuary or the games. This is most clearly 
evident at Olympia (p. 132). 

Although the Amphiaraeion possessed a theatre and 
had games, it is too unimportant, when compared with 
other national sites, to deserve a lengthy description. 

At Delos the cult festival entirely took the place of 
the games, and the accessible harbour invited lonians 
from a great distance. Hence there is neither Stadion 
nor Hippodrome, but in the one narrow level space 
the island affords the town with the theatre and 
palaestra are close to the sanctuary. In consequence all 
appears very crowded : the temples of Apollo, of his 
sister and his mother, near the lake, the mythical birth- 
place of the twins, the treasuries, the halls are all close 
together, so that the market by the harbour formed the 
general meeting - place, and the temples of the foreign 
gods, the Egyptian, the Syrian, and the Kabeiri had to 
seek a place outside. 

The plans of the sanctuary of Asklepios were again 
quite different, as here considerations of health and cure 
outweigh those of the cult. The Athenian Asklepieion 
is so small that it can hardly be considered a health 
resort ; but it lacked neither a spring nor halls. The 
famous health resorts Epidauros and Kos afforded an 
open situation and extensive space. Colonnades which 
served as sleeping-apartments for the many pilgrims 
formed essential parts of the establishment, and there 
were besides numerous side buildings. The Hieron at 
Epidauros had places for gymnastic exercises and a 
theatre for entertainment, as the Hieron was at a distance 
from the town, while at Kos the proximity of the city 
made this superfluous. 

These are some of the results we owe to the combined 
efforts of thirty years' labour. It is, however, quite 
another matter that the work of these excavations has 
become the great school for the method and technique of 


excavation. Without neglecting single facts or details, 
excavation aims at creating again a picture of the whole. 
To ascertain the original form both of the general plan 
and of its separate parts, to follow the successive altera- 
tions that have come in the course of time, to assign to 
each detail its place in the development, and thus to 
make the excavation a reconstruction of the lost whole, 
is the distinguishing mark of the new method. 

Samothrace formed the beginning. Olympia stands 
midway, and the successive excavations of the Greek 
Archaeological Society and the French excavation at 
Delphi have confirmed the principles gained by ex- 


THE great endeavour to gain scientific knowledge of 
ancient sites could not remain content with the 
exploration of the sanctuaries alone, but aimed at a 
complete uncovering of certain ancient cities. The two 
inquiries advanced side by side, indeed in one instance 
the investigation of cities had taken the lead. It was 
only natural that this work should be resumed at Pom- 
peii, where it had been begun long before. 

In 1860, when the misrule of the Bourbon Government 
ceased, Pompeii entered upon a new era of research work. 
The Italian Government justly confided the direction 
of the excavations to Giuseppe Fiorelli, a thoroughly 
scientific man, who, during the Bourbon Government, 
had carried on his Pompeian studies always hampered 
by petty obstacles. The work was now pursued not 
only with greater energy, but with better methods. 
For the most part only single houses had formerly been 
excavated. It frequently happened that the upper 
part of the houses fell unavoidably into the more or less 
narrow trenches, thus making farther examination im- 
possible. In fact, hardly an upper storey was known in 
Pompeii, although many staircases indicated their former 
existence. Fiorelli now began to uncover entire blocks 
of houses (Insults) simultaneously from the top, stratum 
by stratum ; and where any characteristic part of a 
building or beam was laid bare, it was carefully preserved, 


propped, or replaced by a new beam ; thus the exca- 
vators worked gradually downwards. It was thus, for 
instance, that the projecting upper storey was recovered 
which is so characteristic a feature of the lane to which 
it has given the name of vicolo del balcone pensile. A re- 
construction now became possible of Pompeian houses 
of several storeys and their roofs, thereby extending 
our knowledge of the Italian construction of dwellings. 
Fiorelli also deserves the credit of abolishing former 
difficulties connected with the study of Pompeii, and 
opening it freely to all. A " Scuola di Pompei " was 
founded, open to foreigners as well as Italians, and mem- 
bers of the Roman Arcseohlogical Institute gratefully 
made use of it. Investigations began with those results 
of the excavations which appeared unique and popular, 
viz. the wall paintings. Helbig's work in connection 
with these has been mentioned above (p. 114) ; he 
recognized that these paintings essentially preserved 
the Hellenistic tradition. Otto Donner supplemented 
this by demonstrating that their much-discussed technique 
was fresco painting, which deviated somewhat from the 
modern, but was carried out with great skill in ancient 
times. With these inquiries the separation of Hellenistic 
tradition from original Pompeian art became a subject 
of debate. In 1873, in the year when Helbig's " Investi- 
gations " appeared, Fiorelli published the results of 
many years' study, dealing with the plan of the city and 
the history of its building. According to Italic usage the 
area of the city was intersected by rectangular main 
streets, cardo and decumanus ; we may omit all dis- 
cussions connected therewith, as we are only concerned 
with the artistic development. Mention may, however, 
be made of an Italic city, of about 500 B.C., excavated 
in 1888-9 by Brizio at Marzabotto, near Bologna, where 
the systematic plan of laying out streets at right angles 
is strikingly illustrated. 


But more important are Fioreili's investigations in 
regard to building materials and the technique of building, 
and the inferences drawn from them, respecting the history 
of the building of Pompeii. The fundamental facts were 
correctly recognized by Fiorelli, and as Richard Schone 
and Heinrich Nissen were carrying on studies in the same 
direction they helped to elucidate many details. The 
" Pompeianarum Quaestionum Specimen " of Schone had 
appeared in 1868, and in 1877 appeared a work containing 
the studies of both ; many supplementary and detailed 
results were published by August Mau in 1879. The 
main facts of these investigations may thus be stated : 

The most ancient Pompeii is found in the " limestone 
period," when simple houses were built of the limestone 
from the neighbouring river Sarno, with the help of clay. 
These " Atrium " houses were of one storey without 
columns, and without any painting, thus differing greatly 
from those of the later Pompeii. The best-preserved 
example of this original type we have in the casa del 
chirurgo. Then follows the " tufa period " (according 
to Nissen about 200, but it may be fifty years later), 
when tufa from Nocera is used with the limestone. 
Better material made better buildings possible. With 
the introduction of columns the plan of the old Italic 
house offered greater variety. To the old traditional 
type new Greek features were added, rooms of different 
kinds, the peristyle, and an upper storey. Until then 
the houses had been closed toward the street, now they 
were opened with shops. The walls were coloured, 
although still without paintings. At times the houses 
attain almost palatial dimensions and elegance, as in 
the casa del Fauno. Imposing public buildings arose on 
all sides, as the theatres, the baths, and palastrce, the 
beautiful Basilica, and the Temple of Apollo, with its 
Hellenistic court surrounded by columns. Everything 
in this architecturally brilliant period of the Samnite 



free city indicated strong influences of Greek art and 
culture, which apparently were derived from the East, 
but differ greatly from the architecture of Asia Minor, 
which had attained in Rome, about the same time, great 
popularity. All this glory ceased when Pompeii became 
a Roman colony under Sulla. Burnt bricks now ap- 
peared besides tufa and lava, as the popular material in 
the " brick period." The bricks required plaster, and 
the walls are no longer simply coloured, but decorated 
with paintings. 

How different is the picture of this gradual development 
from the former conception of a general brightly coloured 
" Pompeian style." These details, however, were not of 
foremost importance, but the fact that here, as elsewhere, 
the general tendency towards a historic view revealed 
itself in other words, towards the recognition of de- 
velopment, that is, of life. Pompeii becomes for us a 
growing city, in it we see an artistic progress combined 
with the development of the civic community and with 
great political events. It was the same ideal (only 
pursued more energetically and with a clearer knowledge) 
as that which Ernst Curtius set before himself on Greek 
soil. His attempts to reconstruct the histories of Perga- 
mon and Ephesos on the strength of topographical know- 
ledge, acquired on his journey in Asia Minor (1871), were 
unfortunately frustrated through lack of material. He 
aimed, however, at the same results as Nissen in his 
" Pompejanische Studien." 

August Mau's investigations were parallel with those 
of Fiorelli, Schone, and Nissen, and were first published 
in the " Giornale degli scavi di Pompei " in 1873, the 
same year in which Helbig's researches and Fiorelli's 
reports appeared. Nine years later Mau offered these 
to the public in a more complete form. His attention 
had been attracted to the coloured wall decorations in 
Pompeii, which, compared with the actual paintings, 


had received only scant consideration. Here also the 
term " Pompeian style " was used, when in reality it was 
a mixture of heterogeneous types. By introducing the 
historical method of observation Mau brought system 
into this chaos. 

This, of course, could only be established after the 
different building periods had been denned. The period 
of the colourless " limestone " was then excluded ; it 
was only when Hellenistic influence had taken possession 
of Pompeii that the Greek love of colour appeared. 
Pompeii's most illustrious age, the " tufa period," con- 
tented itself with " incrustation," i.e. covering the walls 
with an imitation of a variety of coloured marbles made in 
stucco relief. Pilasters and cornices also in stucco relief in- 
terrupted the monotony of the surface. It is a decorative 
scheme for the exterior, but transferred to the interior, so 
that purely architectural motives were employed in the 
rooms. This severe mode of decorating the walls was 
supplemented by mosaic floors (e.g. The Battle of Alex- 
ander, p. 68) ; Greek works of art, select Greek household 
furniture completed the picture. This incrustation style 
gave place to a totally different kind of decoration on the 
brick walls of Sulla's colony. The rooms, narrowed by 
their lining of stucco blocks, needed something to give an 
impression of spaciousness. This effect was aimed at 
by architectural designs in perspective. The wall re- 
mained smooth and the perspective was produced by 
pictorial means alone. At times the effect was obtained 
by flower garlands connecting columns, from which the 
wall appeared to recede; or, again, between dark columns 
an extensive landscape became visible, sometimes en- 
livened with figures (p. 70). The house of Livia is one 
of the best examples uniting both styles. The walls 
reflected a spirit at once sober and cheerful ; to the 
Roman artist Tadius we apparently owe the introduction 
of the landscape and figure motives. 


Mau established a third style, of Augustan times ; it 
was designated as the ornamental surface style. In it 
the surface of the wall again assumes its original im- 
portance, the perspective vista disappears. All decora- 
tions are in the plane of the surface, arranged as borders 
or carried out in the manner of inlaid work ; framed 
paintings of a severe type take the place of the open-air 
views. Colours are more restrained, but richer ones are 
not lacking. The whole decoration, refined and some- 
what cold, recalls the courtly poems of Horace ; the 
careful execution corresponds to the distinguished im- 
pression of the whole. Finally, the fourth style prevails 
in the later times of Pompeii, the fantastic architectural 
style. This is the style we moderns think of when 
Pompeii is mentioned. It is the consistent development 
of the second perspective style. The entire wall gradually 
dissolves into perspectives ; architectural figures do not 
resemble anything real, and the most extravagant 
fancies are indulged. Colours become more varied, even 
harsh ; the execution becomes coarser, more superficial, 
and is frequently merely mechanical. Numerous wall 
paintings repeat the same models, they reflect the world 
of Hellenistic or Ovidian love poetry, and show a pre- 
ference for the nude from which the former style quite 
abstained. This bent was fully exploited in the last 
years of Pompeii, between the earthquake in 63 and its 
destruction in 79. 

Thus appeared the development of this side of Pom- 
peian art. Mau believes the four periods to have followed 
each other consecutively. This is certainly true of the 
two earlier ones ; regarding the two latter doubts may be 
expressed whether they did not exist side by side. The 
third period may have developed as a conscious reaction 
against the perspective tendency of the second ; elegant, 
exclusive, and on account of its costliness only used by 
the wealthy ; while the fourth seemed a direct continua- 


tion of the second, and its effective representation and 
superficial workmanship appealed to the demands and 
means of the general public. This latest style soon sup- 
planted the earlier ones, in accordance with the general 
tendency of the times of Nero. 

Evidently these four styles were not confined to Pom- 
peii, nor did they originate there. Rome offers obvious 
parallels, particularly to the second and fourth styles ; 
the first has been discovered at Pergamon and at other 
places, while more recently the second has also been dis- 
covered at Pergamon. But the question of the origin of 
the different kinds of wall decoration and of the factors 
influencing this development or change remains unsolved, 
in fact, has hardly been touched upon. Certain facts 
are, of course, obvious. For example, the incrustation 
style could only originate in a locality where variegated 
marble was easily accessible. As regards the third 
style, a curious product of Augustan times, it is no mere 
accident that the frequent occurrence of Egyptian orna- 
mentation coincides with the subjugation of Egypt in 
the year 30. This style has so far not yet been dis- 
covered in the capital, and this still awaits an explanation. 
A notice regarding the Carian painter Apaturios seems to 
direct us to Asia Minor for the fantastic architectural 
style of the fourth period, so that we may almost con- 
jecture that the tendency to perspective originated there, 
in distinction from the earlier Alexandrinizing tendency. 
But these are all questions in regard to which new dis- 
coveries alone can offer solutions ; not only must we 
look to the East, but we may hope to find them in the 
Greek cities of Southern Italy. 

In considering these questions, just as in the case of 
the technique and the history of the building of Pompeii, 
we must remember that Pompeii was merely a Samnite 
country town which under Hellenistic influences de- 
veloped into a Roman colony of veterans. It is, how- 


ever, equally important to assign this picture its place 
in the more general history of art, which continued to 
gain its impress from Greece. We must therefore look 
toward the East to see whether a study of Greek city 
sites will not extend our vision. Greece proper declined 
more and more in later times, and cannot be considered 
so important as Asia Minor, which flourished both in 
Hellenistic and Roman times. Newton had by his 
discoveries at Cnidos proved the importance of such 

Alexander Conze was again the pioneer in the excava- 
tions at Pergamon. Gustav Hirschfeld had suggested 
them earlier, but it was Conze who started them, and 
gave them their direction. Texier had given some cursory 
attention to the capital of the Attalids. Later in 1871 
Ernst Curtius and Friedrich Adler had examined the visible , 
ancient remains, and Curtius attempted unsuccessfully to 
trace the broad outlines of the history of the city of Per- 
gamon. His acquaintance with Karl Humann was a valu- 
able result of this journey. Humann had lived since 1861 
in Asia Minor working as an engineer, and since 1869 had 
been chiefly occupied in Pergamon. This excellent and 
admirable man had become thoroughly familiar with the 
language, customs, and surroundings of his new home ; 
beloved by all, he at the same time preserved his German 
ideals, a practical mind and tenacious energy. Humann 
seemed to be the man above all others to render valuable 
services to archaeological research. Pergamon proved 
most stimulating to his great enthusiasm for antiquities. 
One of the most distinguished reigning families among 
the successors of Alexander the Great had here taken up 
its residence, and from here fought and conquered the 
Galatians, who were devastating the land. The kingdom 
was enlarged and the capital became a centre of learning 


as well as of the arts ; of the latter we still possess brilliant 
testimonies in the Dying Galatian in the Capitol and in 
the Ludovisi Group of Galatians in the Museo delle 

It was not surprising that Humann's eager mind con- 
ceived the desire to restore some of this former glory by 
excavation ; for he saw continually how precious remains 
of antiquity were consigned to the limekiln, a proceeding 
he soon successfully checked. Although, at first, Hirsch- 
feld's exertions promised success in carrying out this 
scheme, he received little support in Berlin, where Hu- 
mann had applied. Humann had sent to the Berlin 
Museum some fragments from the citadel at Pergamon, 
consisting of reliefs of more than life size and of extra- 
ordinary style, hoping to stimulate its interest, but the 
management, at the time, was so engrossed in the new 
cast collection, that it accepted the gift without t any 
thanks or consideration. And yet, shortly before, Brunn 
had drawn attention to a late record which mentioned 
the Altar at Pergamon, with its great Gigantomachia, as 
one of the wonders of the world, and archaeologists were 
not lacking who recognized in these fragments remains 
of this great work. These traces were, however, not 
immediately pursued. 

This only occurred in 1877, after Conze had come from 
Vienna to Berlin, and had taken charge of the depart- 
ment of sculpture at the Berlin Museum. He seized the 
first opportunity to place himself in communication with 
Humann, and consulted him as to the feasibility of ex- 
cavating for the altar of the giants. At last Humann 
had found some one to participate in his plans, and he was 
fired with enthusiasm at the prospect of combined work. 
The former remains had come from a Byzantine wall, 
above on the citadel, which now promised further rich 
spoil. Henceforth the two men worked in the closest 
friendship, and co-operated with one another in perfect 


confidence. The conditions were at the time so peculiar, 
that the Director-General of the Prussian Museums was 
not allowed to hear of the plan. Richard Schone, who 
later became Director-General, helped the work along, 
and the Crown Prince gave valuable assistance, so that 
it was possible to secure a firman in Constantinople, 
permitting the excavations, before any one heard of it. 
Prussia was to obtain two-thirds and the Porte one- 
third of the find. By taking certain precautions it was 
possible to keep the course of events secret. The eyes 
of the archaeological world were at that moment centred 
on Olympia, and the general public was so engrossed by 
Heinrich Schliemann's dazzling discoveries at Troy 
(Chap. VIII), that Pergamon was thrown in the shade. 
It actually happened that a cadet, who in the spring of 
1879 had helped in the shipment of some of the spoils from 
Pergamon, wrote home about these, and was reprimanded 
by his father for incorrectly writing Pergamon and 
Humann while the name of the place should have been 
Troy and that of the man Schliemann. The citadel of 
Pergamon crowns a mountain 1000 feet high, descending 
by a broad ridge towards the south. On 9 September, 
1878, Humann struck his spade into the ground with the 
following patriotic words, to which, in consideration of his 
audience he gave an Oriental colouring : "In the name of 
the Protector of the royal museums, the happiest and the 
best-beloved man, the warrior who has never been van- 
quished, the heir of the most illustrious throne in the 
world, in the name of our Crown Prince may the work 
prosper and be blessed." " My workmen thought I was 
uttering a magic charm, and they were not quite wrong." 
The old Byzantine wall which they proceeded to pull down 
proved a treasure-house of a remarkable kind, similar to 
the " longer the better " wall at Olympia. A great part 
of the magnificent frieze, partly in entire slabs, partly in 
fragments, was built into the wall with the sculptures 


toward the inside. At the very beginning important 
slabs were found : Helios guiding a chariot and an Apollo. 
The latter is comparable in beauty to the Apollo of Belve- 
dere. Toward the end of the year thirty-nine slabs had 
been recovered. Humann rejoiced : " We have discovered 
an entire epoch in art, we are at work on the most im- 
portant remaining work of antiquity." 

To transport these huge blocks to the harbour of Dikeli, 
some eighteen miles distant, the high road had to be re- 
paired and a landing-stage built at Dikeli. In the follow- 
ing year, 1879, with the co-operation of Conze, the altar itself 
was uncovered and a number of slabs were found. The 
following is taken from Humann's report : " Guests 
had arrived at Pergamon ; my wife had come from 
Smyrna and Dr. Boretius of Berlin, while making an 
Oriental tour, had landed at Smyrna and come over. 
On 21 July, 1879, I invited my visitors to come to 
the citadel to see the slabs turned, which stood leaning 
against the debris, with the sculpture toward the inside. 
While we ascended seven great eagles encircled the citadel, 
promising good luck. The first slab was turned. It was 
a huge giant with serpent-like feet, his muscular back was 
turned towards us, with the head towards the left, and 
a lion's skin hung over the left arm. ' Unfortunately it 
does not fit any known slab,' said I. The second fell, 
showing a splendid god, the full chest more powerful and 
yet more beautiful than any. A garment hung from his 
shoulders, floating about his striding legs. ' Nor could 
this slab be joined to any known part,' I said. The third 
slab showed a swooning giant sunk on his knees ; the left 
hand grasps, as if in pain, the right shoulder, the right 
arm appears paralysed before this slab had been quite 
cleared of soil the fourth one was turned over ; a giant 
falling backwards on a rock, the upper part of his thigh 
has been struck by lightning I feel thy presence, Zeus ! 
I ran about the four slabs excitedly, and discovered that 


the third could be joined to the first ; the serpentine 
legs of the great giant evidently fitted the slab with the 
giant sunk on his knees. The upper part of the slab is 
missing where the giant's arm extends, but it is evident 
he is fighting over the fallen one. Is he fighting the great 
god ? Yes, indeed, the left foot covered with his garment 
disappears behind the kneeling giant. ' Three can be 
joined together,' I exclaim, as I contemplate the fourth. 
It also can be placed. The giant struck by lightning falls 
away from the god. I am trembling all over. Another 
piece is uncovered I scrape off the earth ! It is a lion's 
skin it is the arm of the huge giant and opposite is 
a tangle of scales and serpents here is the ^Egis ! It is 
Zeus ! We had discovered a work as great and superb 
as any in existence, it was the climax of all our labour, a 
worthy counterpart to the group of Athena. We three 
happy beings, greatly moved, surrounded the precious 
find ; I then sat upon the Zeus and gave way to tears of 

During two years' labour the reliefs of the altar and 
countless fragments were secured. There remained for 
Berlin the wearisome and difficult task of fitting them all 
together, and of discovering the four different sides to 
which they belonged. 

Otto Puchstein deserves the chief redit for this. By 
methodical research he found indications which justified 
him in assigning the east side to the great Olympians ; 
the south side to the gods of the day ; the north side to 
the deities of the night, the constellations and infernal 
powers ; while the great staircase occupied the west side. 
Here was represented the struggle of the earthborn 
Titans with an Olympus of hitherto unknown variety and 
extent, exhibiting great diversity of bodily form, an 
endless surging and rushing. A second smaller frieze, 
representing the adventures of the Pergamene national 
hero, Telephos, was arranged and elucidated as far as 

Photo, Fitzenthale 


To face page 171 


its fragmentary state permitted by Carl Robert and Hans 
Schrader ; the latter was also engaged on the actual 
restoration of the altar ; while the complete plan of the 
whole with the colonnade above the Giant Frieze had 
in the main been already correctly interpreted by Richard 
Bohn, while he was at Pergamon. The altar was rebuilt 
in the new Pergamon Museum, and the frieze, with all its 
details, was placed in a proper light, but those seeing it 
under a flat glass covering can hardly realize its original 
position on the lofty heights of Pergamon " where 
Satan's seat is " (Rev. n. 13). 

With the acquisition of the relief altar (Turkey had sold 
her third) the Berlin Museum attained at one stroke an 
importance which its former collection of sculpture could 
not claim. These great powerful reliefs were at first 
overrated, the impression they created was so novel ; by 
some they were placed above the sculptures of the Par- 
thenon, by others they were regarded as an epitome of 
Hellenistic sculpture. Both views were exaggerations ; 
the frieze, however, gave an idea of the great capability of 
Hellenistic art, which had until then been looked upon as 
impotent and decadent. It became a double acquisition 
to the history of art, inasmuch as the frieze could with 
certainty be dated under King Eumenes II about 180. 
This showy baroque style with its parade of forms and 
motives, a style until then only known in single fragments, 
indicates an important tendency in Hellenistic art, and 
in particular of the Pergamene at a time when European 
Greece only produced insignificant after-effects of its 
classical period. The architectural parts of the altar 
likewise indicated the aspirations of the age. 

This much in regard to the Altar of Pergamon. But it 
was here as with Saul, who went to seek his father's 
asses, and found a kingdom. The altar proved only 
a detail on the Acropolis of Pergamon should the exca- 
vation of the whole be renounced ? This decision again 


is to the credit of Conze. By urging an extension of the 
original plan he made the exploration of the whole site, 
beginning with the highest part of the city, the object of 
investigation. For this new task, into which Humann 
entered with great energy, Richard Bohn was secured 
as architect in 1880. He had won his laurels at Olympia 
and in Athens (Chap. XI) ; he now came to reside at Per- 
gamon. With him co-operated the architects Hermann 
Stiller and Otto Raschdorff and the archaeologists Karl 
Schuchhardt and Ernst Fabricius. The "German House" 
situated in the Greek quarter at the foot of the hill was 
for years the scene of busy and happy activity, at times 
enhanced by the visits of colleagues and artists. On the 
cupboard, in the common dining-room, wherein our small 
library and some bottles of good wine were kept, the in- 
scription Nutrimentum Spiritus recalled the great Berlin 
library of Frederick the Great, and Litteris et Patrice the 
new University buildings just arising in Strasburg. 

The city of Pergamon is built on a series of terraces ; 
the altar occupied one of these. On the terrace above, 
within the citadel walls and by the abruptly ascending 
path, the oldest temple of Athene was found, built of 
brittle trachyte, of the period of the early Kingdom or 
even earlier. In its spacious court remains of the pedes- 
tals of the bronze triumphal monuments of Attalos I were 
found, of which we can gain an idea from the marble copies 
identified in the Ludovisi statues in the Capitol (p. 167). 
The son and successor of Attalos, Eumenes II, who made 
Pergamon a great city, had, according to Hellenistic 
usage, surrounded the court with a two-storey colonnade. 
The famous library of Pergamon occupied its north wing 
with book-cases for more than 100,000 volumes and a lofty 
reading-room. On the other side of the ascending path 
were two larger houses built around courts, according to 
Greek custom. They undoubtedly formed part of the 
palace, and in their simplicity indicate the characteristics 


of the Pergamene rulers ; a number of more important 
dwelling-houses, extending over the crest of the hill, are 
connected with them. From the summit, in a southern 
direction, all earlier Hellenistic buildings had disappeared, 
to make room for a great temple built on massive sub- 
structures. At first it was supposed to be the temple of 
the city goddess Athene, then that of Augustus, but was 
finally recognized as the Trajaneum built by Hadrian. 

One prefers to linger over the times before this pompous 
imperial building existed, when the Attalids gazed from 
this commanding position over their city and their king- 
dom extending to the Gulf of Elaea. A marble seat 
(Exedra) found there gives food for these reflections : it 
has now been placed before the Pergamon Museum, in 
Berlin, to brave the northern clime. 

To the south, below the altar court, the market terrace 
with its arcades and shops was discovered, and the un- 
pretentious Temple of Dionysos. Toward the west, 
below the hillside, extends a long terrace, supported by 
a lofty wall, and formerly flanked on the outer side by a 
colonnade, while opposite the theatre climbs up the steep 
hill, and at the end of the long avenue the eye was at- 
tracted by the finest architectural structure in Pergamon, 
the " Ionic Temple." Here, as elsewhere on the citadel, 
the grouping of the whole creates an artistic effect 
similar to that at Samothrace. This artistic effect 
is most strikingly observed from the western heights be- 
yond the Selinus, to which the citadel, as it were, turns 
its front. The theatre, above its long terrace, forms 
the central point ; to the left, above it, is the Temple of 
Athene, with its court, and at the top the Trajaneum ; 
to the right the court of the altar, and below it the terrace 
of the market. 

The excavations of the citadel were concluded in 1886 
after nine years' labour. The work might have been 
considered ended. But from the citadel descended 


a massive wall surrounding the city of Eumenes ; at 
its lower extremity a gymnasium had been partly ex- 
cavated at the beginning of the undertaking. Here 
was scope for work, if the plan of the city was to be 
studied further. While, under a new directorate, the 
Berlin Museum undertook other plans, of which we shall 
speak later, Conze always kept his eye fixed on Pergamon. 
The great publication devoted to the excavations of 
Pergamon at times required supplementary information, 
e.g. renewed examination of the high-pressure waterworks 
which supplied the citadel. Friedrich Graber had dis- 
covered these in 1886 ; Karl Schuchhardt had followed 
up the discovery by tracing the conduit to the Madaras 
mountains. But the main task had not yet been com- 
pletely accomplished. At Conze's suggestion the Berlin 
Museum renounced the work in favour of the Archaeo- 
logical Institute, and the Government grants an annual 
allowance of 15,000 marks (750). Since 1900, under 
Dorpfeld's wise leadership, excavations have been carried 
on at Pergamon for several months every year. Their 
reward has so far been : the main entrance gate to the 
city, a lower market-place, a copy of the Hermes Propy- 
laeos of Alkamenes (Chap. II), and a gymnasium of 
Roman times. A Russian architect Sergei Ivanoff left 
a fund in 1877, part of which was employed in 1905-6 to 
dig on some of the tumuli below the town, which are so 
characteristic of the plain. The largest still awaits ex- 
cavation, two smaller ones were opened in October, 1906, 
affording a holiday for the surrounding population. In 
each tumulus was found a sarcophagus of trachyte, con- 
taining a skeleton crumbling to dust. Some small offer- 
ings were in the first. 

" When on the second day the lid of the sarcophagus 
was raised " (thus writes an eye-witness) " an exclamation 
of surprise passed through the assemblage, for a gold 
wreath met the eyes of the beholders. The dead warrior 


had evidently been a man of massive frame wearing a 
sword and spurs. The design of the gold wreath con- 
sisted of oak leaves and acorns ; at the point where the 
two branches met there was a delicate little nude Nike 
holding a wreath. It was a beautiful work weighing 
400 grammes. But of greater importance than these 
objects is the general idea gained of the burial of a man 
of distinction during the times of the Kingdom. I 
almost felt ashamed to see the people congregating about 
the sarcophagus and disturbing one who here had made 
history. Science is an unpleasant trade." 

But another thing remained to be done. After former 
excavations, when the site had been completely exca- 
vated, it was left in that condition. And when it was 
only a question of removing sculpture or inscriptions 
this sufficed ; when, however, it became of importance 
to reconstitute the entire scene of a site which had been 
uncovered, its preservation became an imperative duty. 
In Greece, in former times, the care of monuments had 
been entrusted to old soldiers, who guarded them in a 
careless manner. It now became expedient to entrust 
the care of antiquities to a staff of custodians under 
competent supervision ; as, for example, at Olympia, 
where Greek caretakers were appointed immediately 
after the conclusion of the excavations ; the same has 
taken place at Delphi and other places. Hamdy Bey, 
the director of museums and excavations at Constanti- 
nople, experiences greater difficulty in Turkey, particu- 
larly in more remote places. Marble is of use in making 
lime, and hewn stones are wanted for building ; even the 
lead of clamps in the walls is the cause of their frequent 
destruction. Conze found in Samothrace, after two 
years, that a great deal of what had been uncovered 
was either destroyed or carried off. The Temple of Zeus 
SosipoKs at Magnesia was destroyed soon after it had 
been excavated ; stonemasons began making steps of 


the newly uncovered architectural remains of the Temple 
of Athene at Priene. And when an Englishman acci- 
dentally found a few coins and a gold olive leaf under 
the partly destroyed base of the statue of the goddess, 
which had been deposited when the foundations had been 
laid, the vandalism of the villagers seeking gold knew no 
bounds, until hardly one stone remained upon another. 
Blocks with inscriptions frequently share a similar fate. 
These barbarians look upon the lettering as a magic 
charm, by the knowledge of which Europeans know how 
to acquire the hidden treasure, while those in ignorance 
of this knowledge must destroy the stone to gain the 
treasure. All must be doubly safeguarded here. The 
guardians placed here and there by Turkish authorities 
do not suffice ; at Priene they were even discovered in 
the act of destroying the marble walls of the market- 
place, as they had run short of lead for their muskets. 
Prussia has therefore placed its own guardians at Perga- 
mon, and keeps them at its own expense and in its own 
house ; the same is done at Priene and elsewhere. It 
still remains to raise funds to make these permanent. 
The example should be followed everywhere, when it is 
a question of preserving for future generations in an in- 
telligible and clear form the records regained from the 
earth of the history of cities and their art. 

Pergamon is situated in the midst of the northern 
section of the coast of Asia Minor, once settled by ^Eolian 
Greeks. The district continued to be investigated. 
Thus the substructure of the Pergamene theatre terrace, 
which consisted of several storeys serving as magazines 
and shops, induced Bohn in 1886 to make a thorough 
investigation of the ^Eolian district of ^Egae (Nimrud 
Kalessi), discovered in 1881 by Salomon Reinach, and 
examined two years later by Michel Clerc. Here a 


similar structure supports and bounds the abruptly 
descending side of the market-place. That a favourite 
architectural motive of Hellenistic times had been dis- 
covered was demonstrated by another building in the 
Carian town of Alinda, compared by Ernst Fabricius. 

The same characteristics were not wanting in the JEo- 
lian town of Assos, situated on a height on the south 
coast of the Troad, excavated by the American Archae- 
ological Institute, and the architects Joseph Thacher 
Clarke, Francis H. Bacon, and Robert Koldewey, 1881-3. 
Besides the ancient Temple, the plan of the city 
attracted special interest, for it climbs up the steep rock 
on narrow terraces. The old proverb runs : " Go to 
Assos if thou wishest to leave thy life early." The 
market-place offered a vivid picture of the plan of a 
Hellenistic city, with its simple town hall of one storey, 
halls of one and two storeys and with one and two naves, 
a temple, baths, and gymnasium. It was not until 
twenty years afterwards, that an important work giving 
these details was made public. 

Some other investigations on ^Eolian soil may here be 
mentioned, although not all pertain to city plans. The 
architect Robert Koldewey, supported by Berlin art 
patrons, examined in 1889 the ancient little town of 
Neandreia, situated north of Assos. From its elevation 
the entire Troad and Bezika Bay are visible. Of the 
greatest interest here were the remains of a very ancient 
temple with two naves ; a type at that time little known, 
but which has frequently been found since. The columns 
showed a form of capital which Clarke and others had 
already observed, and which appears to be confined to 
jEolian territory ; the volutes which lie horizontally in 
an Ionic capital unroll here vertically, as in the capital 
of an Ionic pilaster. Koldewey tried to combine with this 
a more artistic piece, recalling late Persian capitals, but 
it would rather appear to be an independent capital 



belonging to other columns. Koldewey, at the direction 
of the German Archaeological Institute, travelled in 1885-6 
in the island of Lesbos, once the chief centre of olian 
life. Of architectural remains of earlier periods only 
scattered traces were found here and there, and some 
ancient city walls ; but at Messa on the Gulf of Kallone, 
Koldewey excavated the remains of a great Ionic temple ; 
this find proved of importance, inasmuch as the temple 
appeared to belong to the first half of the fourth century, 
and thus antedates the Ionic temples known in Asia 
Minor. Another great Ionic temple, the Smintheion, 
on the coast of the Troad, had been discovered in 1853 
by Captain T. A. B. Spratt. R. P. Pullan examined it 
in 1866, but some parts were not quite clearly understood. 
Although the structure may have originated in the fourth 
century, when Scopas made the Apollo Smintheus for 
the temple (Apollo watching a field mouse), it seems to 
have been completely rebuilt in Roman times. As long 
as these conditions are not yet quite clear, the temple 
with some peculiar details is not as important for his- 
torical sequence as it otherwise might be. 

The French School began another task on the ^Eolian 
coast. Edmond Pettier, Salomon Reinach, and Alphonse 
Veyries began in 1880-2 excavating the necropolis of 
the maritime town of Myrina, the site having been placed 
at their disposal by its owner Aristides Baltazzi. The 
chief result was a great number of terra-cottas of Hellen- 
istic times. Compared with those found at Tanagra 
(Chap. IX), they display the freer, more coquettish, and 
picturesque style of later times combined with charac- 
teristics of Asia Minor. Motives of the Praxitelean age 
appear, transformed by this more modern taste, and 
many new motives have been added, so that we can 
judge better of the originality and the spirit of sculpture 
in Hellenistic Asia Minor in these figurines and groups, 
than in most of the greater sculpture preserved to us. 


The exhibition of this find at the Louvre and its publica- 
tion by the discoverers give authentic evidence of this. 
Unfortunately forgers both at Smyrna and in Athens de- 
veloped a flourishing trade in these " Terra-cottas from 
Asia Minor," frequently made with great skill, and de- 
ceiving the confiding art lover. 

In the matter of the investigation of cities, to which 
Berlin owes its Pergamene treasures, new plans were 
organized, in 1889, after Reinhard Kekule had taken the 
place of Conze. More thorough investigations of the 
southernmost strip of Ionian country, the district about 
the winding Maeander, were planned. It had been the 
scene of several earlier attempts at its important cities 
of Magnesia, Priene, and Miletos. Magnesia, on the 
Meander, is well known in the history of art on account 
of its great Temple of Artemis of " the white mountain " 
(Leukophrys). It had been built toward the end of the 
third century by Hermogenes, the most distinguished 
architect of that late age in Asia Minor, and was admired 
as a model structure. In consequence of Charles Texier's 
negotiations, in 1843, the Louvre had become possessed of 
nearly seventy metres of its frieze with battles of the Ama- 
zons. At that time one felt inclined to date Hermogenes 
about the time of Alexander, and keen disappointment 
was therefore felt in regard to the monotony of the work 
carried out in a mechanical manner with trite motives. 
But when in 1874 Gustav Hirschfeld studied some slabs 
of a similar style in Teos, from another temple by Hermo- 
genes (these had been discovered by Pullan in 1862, and 
some had been removed to the British Museum), the 
date of Hermogenes had to be placed later, and the 
value, at least of the plastic decorations of his temples, 
decreased. In any case, it became desirable to study 
Hermogenes as an architect, and in other respects in- 


vestigations in Magnesia promised useful results. An 
inquiry made by Olivier Rayet and Albert Thomas in 
1873 did not add much to our knowledge. The German 
Archaeological Institute in 1890 sent Friedrich Hiller von 
Gartringen and Otto Kern to make an attempt ; the 
former excavated the theatre at his own expense. As 
the results were satisfactory, the Berlin Museum sent 
an expedition in the following years, 1891-3, consisting of 
Karl Humann who in the meantime had been made 
director of a museum the architect Rudolf Heyne, and 
the philologist Otto Kern, who gathered a rich harvest of 
inscriptions. The precinct of the Temple of Artemis and 
the market-place with the small Temple of Zeus Sosipolis 
formed the chief objects of research. The latter is a 
peculiar structure, the front an open colonnade, while 
the back was built in antis. The search was made most 
difficult by constant underground water. The market- 
place surrounded by halls, with double naves, proved 
an inexhaustible storehouse of inscriptions, which evi- 
dently had covered the walls of these halls. Of great im- 
portance was the discovery that the entire complex was 
of uniform design, and was therefore all the work of 
Hermogenes, dating from the two last decades of the 
third century. As Hermogenes is one of the chief sources 
of Vitruvius, and soon became an authoritative guide for 
Roman architecture, it was all the more desirable to 
study a larger example of his work. The Temple of 
Artemis, in fact, showed an extraordinary ground-plan : 
a small Cella, and in consequence a deeper Pronaos ; 
before the Pronaos and Opisthodomos were partitions 
with a door such as may be found in the Egyptian Hypo- 
styles of the Ptolemies. The front had eight columns, 
the central intercolumniation was rather wider, which 
latter novelty continued in favour. The plan of the 
temple cannot exactly be looked upon as novel, it being 
Pseudodipteros with a wide colonnade ; the latter had 


once been covered in wood; ancient Sicilian temples 
had displayed this form, and the Temple at Messa (p. 178) 
exhibited it also ; later it became more general. The 
huge columns are very slender with comparatively small 
capitals (the shrinking of this important architectural 
part is even more evident in the contemporary Doric). 
The whole is striking rather than beautiful, and corre- 
sponds with the purely decorative frieze. Three doorlike 
windows in the pediments were a tasteless innovation ; 
as the pediments had not the usual sculpture they seemed 
to require some other break in the great surface. On the 
whole, we have gained through this excavation a far 
more vivid idea of the Asian lonism of the Hellenistic 
age, as represented by Hermogenes ; it can be studied 
in the Architectural Room of the Pergamon Museum in 
Berlin, side by side with other remains of Asia Minor. 
The sculptured remains of the great Altar of Magnesia 
are instructive, inasmuch as they teach us that the Ionic 
sculpture of Southern Asia Minor differed widely from 
the art of Pergamon with its baroque tendencies ; it has 
less animation, and in consequence less force. In so far 
as the formation of the folds and certain technicalities 
in these sculptures are identical with those of the Venus 
of Melos, they may help to settle the perplexing question 
of its date (p. 51). 

Humann and Kekule directed their thoughts from 
Magnesia further south to Priene ; in the precinct of this 
city had been the common sanctuary of the twelve Ionian 
cities of Asia Minor. The work was begun by Humann 
in 1895, but the following spring he succumbed to a long 
illness against which he had bravely fought. His place 
was taken by Theodor Wiegand and Hans Schrader and 
the architects Rudolf Heyne and William Wilberg. 
The work continued until 1899. Nor was this entirely 
virgin soil. The Temple of Athene, dedicated by Alex- 
ander the Great, had figured in text books since Revett's 


survey as a norm of an Ionic temple. But it was only 
completely uncovered by Pullan in 1866, who gained 
valuable results. Before these had been published, in 
1881, the architect Albert Thomas who with Olivier 
Rayet, in 1873, excavated Miletos and its surroundings 
through the generosity of the brothers Gustave and 
Edmond de Rothschild made use of Pullan's results and 
published them in 1880 in a work on Miletos and the 
Latmian Gulf, a work never completed. Although this 
temple had apparently been well known, it remained for 
Hans Schrader and his colleagues to establish the fact 
that it never had possessed a frieze, thereby differing 
from the regular Ionic style. In the Hall of Architecture 
in the Pergamon Museum in Berlin, the design of the 
Temple of Priene may be compared with that of the 
Temple of Magnesia, and it may be observed how far 
the former exceeds the latter in workmanship and delicacy 
of outline. 

Far more important results were attained by the ex- 
cavation of the city of Priene than by the re-examination 
of the Temple. The situation of Priene is extraordinary ; 
it resembles Delphi in so far as the rocky ground upon 
which the city was built ascends steeply, and above it 
towers the precipitous castle rock 371 metres high, only 
accessible by a giddy bridle path. As at Delphi and 
Cnidos it is only possible to build by means of terraces. 
And yet Priene as well as Cnidos were planned in the 
fourth century, according to a strict system of rectangular 
streets : the six long streets west to east are, with only 
a slight elevation toward the middle, almost level ; 
while the sixteen north-to-south ones are very steep or 
actually flights of steps. 

The terraces are supported by great retaining walls ; 
while in earlier times a wall was made to appear as a 
smooth unbroken surface, now each hewn stone, according 
to the incrustation style, is tooled so as to remain distinct. 


The Temple of Athene Polias is upon an elevated terrace. 
Steep steps descend from it to the market-place below, 
the central point of the city. This adjoins the main 
street, with an altar in the centre, and is surrounded on 
three sides with colonnades behind which are shops. 
Ascending upon the north side there is a covered walk 
leading to a great " Sacred Hall " with two naves, used 
for festive rites, and other civic buildings ; as, for ex- 
ample, a theatre-like hall and offices. From the covered 
walk a view could be enjoyed of the market below. So 
complete a picture of a market-place had nowhere been 
uncovered. A fish and a meat market were situated 
rather off the main street. The Temple of Asklepios 
and other sanctuaries, scattered about the city, show 
that here too there was no monotony. Upon the heights 
the theatre is situated with a remarkably well-preserved 
stage a most instructive building ; below it a stadion 
and gymnasium, and finally city walls surrounding it all 
with three well-preserved gates ; the East, West, and 
a third one leading to a spring before the city. An ex- 
cellent water supply within the city supplied all the 
public fountains, and provided for the cleaning of the 
streets and the wants of private dwellings. 

Besides the Temple of Athene, the market and the 
ground-plan no other had been so extensively excavated 
in any ancient city many of the private houses aroused 
great interest, belonging mainly to the third and second 
centuries. While in Pompeii the Italic house with Greek 
accessories prevails, in Delos there are chiefly small 
Greek houses, beside those of Italic type, Priene shows 
the purely Hellenistic house in numerous examples. 

The normal house corresponding to the description of 
a Greek house by Vitruvius was not absent. The es- 
sential feature is still the main part of the Homeric house 
(Chap. VIII) ; a paved court, from which a vestibule 
leading south opens into the main apartment ; about the 


court are sleeping and living rooms, also an Exedra 
looking on the court, and a bathroom is not wanting. 
But beside the normal house there appear many variations 
of the main idea an open court (patio) surrounded by 
apartments according to space, means, and require- 
ments even in private dweUings. Some evidence still 
remained of the interior arrangement of the houses. The 
walls show an imitation in stucco of incrustation. A 
great number of terra-cotta figurines adorned the rooms, 
representing Aphrodite and Dionysos or scenes from 
daily life. In this modest country town of 5000 inhabi- 
tants, clay and iron took the place of bronze, which was 
used in wealthier towns, although the latter is not quite 
absent here. Thus a bronze bedstead (now in the Berlin 
Museum) appears to advantage by its tasteful simplicity 
when compared with a richer one (also there) found near 
Pompeii. The excavation at Priene furnishes one of 
the most valuable contributions to our knowledge of the 
Hellenistic city. 

As soon as Priene had been regained for science, the 
directors of the Berlin Museum directed their activity to 
Miletos, on the other side of the Maeander. The constant 
floods of the river have changed the land completely. 
The Latmian Gulf has become an inland lake, the penin- 
sula of Miletos, with the Island Lade before it, has become 
an inland portion of a marshy plain, which frequently 
is exposed to floods. Excavations can only be carried 
on under the greatest difficulties. Olivier Rayet and 
Albert Thomas experienced these in 1872-3 when they 
began^work here ; the chief results then were the theatre 
situated against a hill and part of a street of tombs with 
an antique seated figure. Theodor Wiegand in 1899 
began the task with such skill and energy that he un- 
doubtedly acquired a foremost rank among modern ex- 
cavators. The architects who assisted were Hubert 
Knackfuss, George Kawerau, Julius Hiilsen, and the 


epigraphists C. Friedrich, W. Kolbe, A. Rehm, E. Zie- 
barth, and the archaeologist A. von Sails. Through the 
generosity of Georg von Siemen and other patrons in 
Berlin, Wiegand has been able to acquire a great part of 
the site of Miletos, and continued to work it systematically 
from year to year. Excavations continued on the massive 
theatre, a great Roman structure upon older foundations, 
where the " Jews faithful to the Emperor " were entitled 
to special seats near the Emperor's box. The two- 
storeyed Nymph asum is also Roman, with its niches, 
columns, and coloured marble, a fountain and statues, 
a type of building frequent in Asia Minor. Roman is 
the great market gate leading to a huge square, sur- 
rounded by colonnades ; its baroque architecture has 
partly been restored ; great Roman Thermae completed 
the whole. From Hellenistic times dates the market 
near the harbour. The entrance of the harbour, now 
filled with marsh, is guarded by two marble lions. In 
the market-place remain interesting traces of the town 
hall, the design of which has been completely restored 
by Knackfuss. An impressive grave site was discovered 
within a court, surrounded by walls with a gate and 
columns, evidently the tomb of an honoured citizen. 
Behind this was a council hall, as in Priene, in theatre 
form, and accommodating five hundred persons. The 
Temple of Apollo Delphinios near by is also Hellenistic ; 
its walls and marble slabs housed the civic archives. 

If traces could be discovered of the more ancient 
Miletos, the splendid centre of Ionian life and trade, de- 
stroyed during the Ionian Revolt, how far more important 
this would be ! Some traces of old Ionic architecture 
have recently come to light at the Delphinion and at the 
Temple of Athene. It is, however, doubtful whether 
anything remains of early Miletos but tombs ; but there, 
at least, we may hope for some archaic sculpture. Such 
vestiges have been discovered in a late antique fortress 


wall, whereas at Olympia and Pergamon these had been 
preserved down to our times ; remains of sculpture, 
architecture, and inscriptions had in barbaric fashion 
been built into the wall. 

At the southern corner of the peninsula which formed 
the territory of Miletos, at Didyma or Branchidae, was 
the sanctuary of Apollo Philesios, the so-called Didymaion, 
which Herodotus mentions with the Temple of Artemis 
at Ephesos and the Temple of Hera in Samos as among 
the largest temples of his time. Revett had during his 
two days' stay in 1765 copied some details, but had not 
been able to make a complete plan. This had been 
attempted with some success by Sir William Cell and the 
architects J. P. Gandy and F. Bedford in 1812 by order of 
the Society of Dilettanti. Texier, in 1836, did not add 
much to the solution of the problem, and Newton, in 1858, 
was content simply to remove to London the seated 
statues from the "Sacred Way" (leading from the harbour 
of Panormos to the temple, p. 101). 

Rayet and Thomas, in 1872-3, finally began excavating 
the temple and established its plan. On account of the 
enormous size of the temple (evident from three remaining 
columns 65 feet high) the chief apartment was not a 
covered cella, but consisted of an open court surrounded 
by pilastered walls. The statue of the god, the archaic 
work of Kanachos, was probably placed here in a special 
shrine. Here also had been the olive tree under which 
Zeus and Leto had sat, and a sacred spring. It was un- 
fortunately impossible to excavate the central apartment, 
the Chresmographion (writing-room of the oracle), as 
a mill and other buildings covered it, which the owner 
refused to dispose of. Rayet's unfinished investigations 
of 1895-6 were continued by his friend Bernard Haussoul- 
lier and the architect Emanuel Pontremoli ; but they 
were unable wholly to overcome these difficulties. How- 
ever, they excavated the front of the temple with its ten 

SAMOS 187 

columns and its peculiar approach. The bases of the 
great Ionic columns are richly, if not tastefully, decorated. 
The temple proved to be of late date, extending from the 
time of Alexander into Roman times. Nevertheless, on 
account of its extraordinary size (49^ x io8 metres) 
and its technical peculiarities, it is most gratifying that 
Wiegand succeeded in 1905 in acquiring the mill and the 
surrounding land. As at Delphi, so here, the entire 
village of Hieronda had to be bought and pulled down ; 
it has, in consequence, become possible to continue work 
on broader lines. It is therefore to be hoped that, in 
connection with the excavation at Miletos, the Didymaion 
will at last be thoroughly and satisfactorily investigated. 

Looking from Miletos past Cape Mykale one can per- 
ceive the island of Samos, another great centre of Ionian 
life. Herodotus mentions its three most remarkable 
structures : the harbour, the tunnel piercing the town hill, 
and the Temple of Hera. There still remain in the water 
foundation walls of the great mole in the harbour. The 
great city walls extending into the country from the west 
of the hill are in a good state of preservation, but have 
not yet been examined. Presumably during the sixth 
century, under the tyrant Polykrates, a tunnel was made 
through this mountain ridge to bring spring water into 
the city. This tunnel was cleared for more than 1000 
metres, in 1882, by two Samian abbots. It corresponded 
to the description given by Herodotus, and showed that 
the tunnelling had been carried on (as had been done 
earlier in Jerusalem under King Hezekiah) from the two 
sides simultaneously. The two halves did not quite meet, 
but in the absence of compass and theodolite the achieve- 
ment is a notable one, for the error could be adjusted with 
a slight bend in the middle. 

Less successful are the results in the case of the Temple 
of Hera, although it can be dated back to the seventh 
century, and the names of the ancient architects Rhoikos 


and Theodores were connected with it, so that any know- 
ledge of it would be of the greatest significance for the 
history of early Ionic art. Since the days of Revett an 
unfluted column and the massive egg moulding of its 
capital had been known. Paul Girard, who acquired the 
statue of Hera, dedicated by Cheramyes, for the Louvre, 
attempted in 1879 by two months' work to complete a 
plan of the temple, but failed ; he assigned seven columns 
to the temple. In 1883 Michel Clerc resumed the work, 
but with little success, and yet as far back as 1862 Karl 
Humann had assigned eight columns to the temple with 
different intercolumnar intervals, which diminished 
equally towards the corners on both sides. Great diffi- 
culties were encountered in consequence of the Govern- 
ment of the island being opposed to the demands of the 
foreigners. The Greek Archaeological Society finally 
overcame these difficulties in 1902, and began under the 
direction of a Samian archaeologist, Themistokles So- 
phules, to excavate the temple. It is not merely on 
account of the difficulties experienced by reason of the 
climate, but, above all, through the lack of experienced 
and competent architects, that expectations have not 
been realized in these excavations. In any case the plan 
of the temple is known and its great extent established. 
Somewhat larger than the Didymaion (54! x 109 metres), 
it showed the extraordinary proportion, in a temple with 
only eight columns, of the width to the length 1.2. 

Besides, certain important details had been found, as, 
for example, part of an Ionic capital, which in the massive 
severity of its foliage recalls the capital of the column of 
the Naxians at Delphi. 

The Berlin Museum had the zealous co-operation of 
Austria in these investigations of ancient cities ; for Otto 
Benndorf had taken in 1877 Conze's place at the museum 


in Vienna, and promoted all archaeological work. His 
undertaking took a course like that at Pergamon : a 
single work gave the motive, but extensive investigations 
followed. Lycia formed the first objective. While 
Fellows and Spratt (p. 96) were travelling there in 1841-2, 
a German schoolmaster, August Schonborn, had wan- 
dered about the country alone, and in a remote region 
had come upon a large monument ; and the great beauty 
of the reliefs induced him to write as follows : "I had the 
Trojan war before my eyes, Homer's creatures represented 
in antique art, and I confess I could not take my eyes off. 
In the corner of the west side, the relief represented 
Achilles seated ' with wrath in his heart ' near the high 
prow of his ships, his head resting upon his hand. Next 
comes a herald calling the assembly together, warriors 
and battle scenes follow, the battle approaches the city, 
fighting continues at the gate, a company of elders are 
seated above the gate ; thus one picture after another 
reveals a wealth of life portrayed with Greek assurance 
in the groups, in the movements, and in the proportions 
of single figures. I do not hesitate to say that the reliefs, 
placed at a proper height, would be an ornament to any 
museum, no matter how rich it may be." 

After his return Schonborn tried in vain to induce the 
Prussian Government to send an expedition to remove 
the treasure. His notes were only used by Karl Ritter 
in his voluminous book on Asia, where again they lay 
hidden until I made use of them, sixteen years later, in 
1875, in elucidating the Nereid Tomb. Benndorf now 
turned his eyes toward this monument. In April, 1881, 
he and George Niemann, who had both taken part in 
the work at Samothrace, undertook a journey of inquiry 
upon an Austrian man-of-war. They landed on the steep 
south coast of Lycia, at Kkova, and directed their steps 
at once to the elevated region of Giolbashi, where, ac- 
cording to Schonborn, the monument was to be found. 


Benndorf writes : " The ascent of a steep rarely used 
path amid summer heat was very laborious. We arrived 
late and exhausted upon the border of the plateau 1800 
feet high, from which we were able to recognize in the 
distance the heights of Giolbashi. We increased our 
exertions, and when we arrived on the ridge of the steep 
mountain could recognize the ruins of the city described 
by Schonborn, and soon perceived at the east end of the 
Acropolis the long bands of a relief, which we knew must 
belong to the Heroon. I ran ahead, and worked my way 
breathlessly through thorn bushes and underwood to- 
wards the entrance gate, which opened in the wall at 
some distance from the steep slope. I climbed up the 
joints of the wall to the threshold of the gate above, and 
found myself within the ruins suddenly confronted by 
a mass of sculpture. Overshadowed by tall trees, and 
half -buried in abundant vegetation, it presented a 
marvellous sight, in the splendour of the sinking sun. 
I confess that among the most impressive moments of my 
life were those in which I first gazed upon the now happily 
attained goal of my prolonged efforts, amid the solemn 
tranquillity and solitude of nature, while around me lay 
a vast and majestic scene of mountain gorges and wild 
crags, bounded by snowy peaks and a broad expanse of 

It remained to acquire and secure the treasures thus 
happily found. 

Upon Benndorf's suggestion a society was formed in 
Austria of generous art patrons, who combined to supply 
means for an expedition, while the Government lent a 
man-of-war. It was possible thus to begin work in 1882. 
Benndorf and Niemann were joined by Eugen Petersen, 
then in Prague, and among younger men by Emanuel 
Lowy and Franz Studniczka ; and the engineer Gabriel 
von Knaffl furnished most valuable assistance. For a 
high road had to be constructed near the steep ravine of 


I li<- river Myra, upon which the heavy blocks from Giol- 
baslii, about 600 metres high, could be transported down 
to the river. The Heroon of Giolbashi is the court of 
a prince's tomb, dating from about the time of the 
Peloponnesian war ; its freestone wall at the entrance 
and all four walls in the interior were adorned with a 
double border of bas-reliefs. These revealed a collection 
of mythological scenes of, till then, unrivalled variety, for 
which Lycian sculptors with a Greek training had derived 
their inspiration from an abundance of examples and 
reminiscences, like the sculptors of the Xanthian Nereid 
monument, but in a far more spirited and picturesque 
manner. The general interest in this composition in- 
creased through Benndorf's demonstration that it sug- 
gested motives of Polygnotos. Had they been directly 
borrowed from the great Master of Thasos, or were they 
a common heritage of Ionian painting ? From this 
remote corner of the Lycian mountains important prob- 
lems, in the history of Greek art, hardly as yet touched 
upon, were suddenly unfolded. 

The reliefs were sent to Vienna, and soon appeared 
in an elaborate publication. By the acquisition of the 
Heroon the object of the expedition was, however, by no 
means fulfilled. The reports of Fellows and the de- 
scription of Spratt still formed the main sources of our 
knowledge of Lycia, but were too amateurish to satisfy 
strictly scientific demands. Benndorf and his compan- 
ions began a re-examination of Lycia and a great part of 
Caria. One result was an increase in our geographical 
knowledge of these countries. Heinrich Kiepert supplied 
the expedition with sketch maps, and its results were in- 
corporated in his new maps. Further, the chief known 
cities of Lycia, Xanthos, Pinara, Tlos, and Myra were 
carefully inspected and others discovered. The small 
town of Kragos-Sidyma, in the southern part of the Kragos 
Mountains, was carefully investigated. The results 


were so illuminating that Mommsen made use of them, to 
describe a provincial town in Asia Minor. 

" Upon a remote mountain top near the Lycian coast, 
where, according to Greek myth, the Chimaera dwelt, lay 
ancient Kragos, in all probability built of logs and clay 
bricks, and therefore it had disappeared without a trace, 
excepting the cyclopean fortress walls at the foot of the 
hill. Below the summit expands a delightful valley with 
fresh alpine air and southern vegetation, surrounded by 
mountains covered with forests. When Lycia became a 
province under the Emperor Claudius, the Roman Govern- 
ment transferred the mountain-city, the ' green Kragos ' 
of Horace, to this plain. In the market-place of the new 
town of Sidyma there still remain traces of the four- 
columned temple which had been dedicated to the Em- 
peror, and a colonnade, built by a citizen who had ac- 
quired a fortune as a physician, and who built it for his 
native town. The market was adorned with statues of the 
emperors and of distinguished citizens ; in the town was 
a temple of its patron-divinities Artemis and Apollo. 
There were baths and gymnasia for older and younger 
citizens ; outside the gates along the main road, which 
descended precipitously from the hill to the harbour 
Kalabatia, on both sides there were funeral monuments of 
stone, finer than those at Pompeii, and in great part still 
upright, while the houses, built probably like those of the 
ancient town of perishable material, have disappeared." 

In the plain below Xanthos it was possible to trace 
the sanctuary of the Confederacy of the Lycian League, 
which had enjoyed a great reputation in ancient times 
on account of its good regulations. 

But, above all, Lycia is the country of tombs. The 
different models were carefully examined, in particular 
the national Lycian ones, the high pillar tombs with and 
without reliefs ; those, whether carved in the face of the 
rock or standing free, which copied in stone wooden-frame 


buildings ; those family tombs of several storeys formed 
like a pillar and decorated with reliefs, their roof ap- 
pearing like the bottom of a boat turned upside-down, 
while in reality its form seems to be taken from an 

Not till the fifth century does Ionic architecture 
appear. But the later tombs are also noteworthy. 
Most conspicuous is the Heroon of Opramoas at Rhodia- 
polis, dating from the second century, quite covered 
with inscriptions, which form the family archives ; and 
there still remain fragments of sixty-four records. 

Roman remains predominate, on the whole, in Lycia, 
as in the rest of Asia Minor (the Roman province Asia 
was called the country of five hundred cities) ; for during 
centuries of peace the country experienced great pros- 
perity. The English expedition had taken the choicest 
pieces of the sculpture of earlier times, and it only re- 
mained to supplement these scientifically. The results 
of the Austrian expedition were rapidly published in 
two standard volumes, and made accessible for all 
scientific purposes. 

One of the patrons of the Lycian expedition was the 
enthusiastic art lover Count Karl Lanckoronski. In- 
terested by these events he travelled in Pamphylia, 
which adjoins it on the east, and decided to prepare 
personally an expedition to investigate this unknown 
country ; for the great work on the southern countries 
of Asia Minor by the French architect P. Tr6maux lay 
unknown and unused in a few libraries. Lanckoronski 
chose Eugen Petersen and George Niemann to assist in 
the carrying out of his plans, and in 1884 a trial journey 
was undertaken. 

Excavations were not attempted ; the aim of the 
journey was to gain a more thorough knowledge of the 
towns in the maritime region of Pamphylia, and in 
Pisidia, the mountainous country extending northwards. 


With these plans Petersen and Niemann went in 1885 
to Adalia. Besides examining Adalia (where are the 
remains of a fine gate of the time of Hadrian) they turned 
their attention to Termessos, which is situated above it 
to the west ; then to the long plain along the coast rising 
in terraces above the sea, where the cities of Perge, Sillyon, 
Aspendos were situated, each of which is recognizable 
from a distance by its flat-topped Acropolis. Lastly, 
toward the east they visited the seaport of Side. What 
was aboveground was surveyed, and it was possible 
nearly everywhere to acquire the general outlines of the 
plan of the city, and by that means to study the develop- 
ment of these historically little-known places. The 
well-preserved Roman model theatre in Aspendos, which 
had been examined by Texier and Schonborn, formed 
an object of interest. The Nymphaea so frequent in 
Asia Minor next attracted the attention of the travellers ; 
their plans were similar to those of the former Septizonium 
of Rome, and could conveniently be studied here. 

From Pamphylia they ascended the steep gorge of 
the Eurymedon to the rugged mountains of Pisidia which 
form the transition to the high plateau in the interior 
of Asia Minor. Nor were cities wanting here : Selge, 
Kremna, Sagalassos. At times, space for a city had only 
with difficulty been gained on the steep rocky soil ; and 
again, as at Kremna, a level plain had been utilized, 
where to-day the remains of a Roman city can still be 
traced, with its temples, markets, halls, and theatres. 
Some of the temples with their peculiar architecture 
testify to the more baroque style of the second century 
A.D. Numerous tombs exhibited a great variety of forms. 
The expedition proved thus very successful in extending 
our knowledge of what had been the significance of the 
Empire to Asia Minor, even to so wild and remote a 
district as Pisidia. A brilliant publication issued by the 
generosity of Count Lanckoronski and the skill of Nie- 


mann, with a full and clear text, formed a noble memorial 
of this journey. 

It had been decided, in Vienna, to collect again the 
inscriptions of Asia Minor, so as to take over part of the 
work of the new Berlin Corpus of Greek inscriptions. 
With this object Rudolf Heberdey, Ernst Kalinka, and 
other younger scholars were sent to Asia Minor to travel, 
geography and archaeology profiting at the same time. 
They extended their journey to Cilicia ; the Scotchman 
W. M. Ramsay had travelled, during the eighties, re- 
peatedly through the interior of Asia Minor, and numerous 
members of the French School at Athens carried on here 
and there similar investigations. The Austrian scholars 
kept their eyes fixed on Asia Minor, and in 1895 Otto 
Benndorf selected Ephesos for more extended archaeo- 
logical investigations. These excavations were begun in 
1896 with the aid of Austrian lovers of art ; and later, 
after the establishment of the Austrian Archaeological 
Institute in Vienna, in 1895, were taken over and con- 
tinued by the Institute. 

Ephesos had been as important a city of Ionia as 
Miletos and Samos, and survived the other two. But the 
same forces of nature as in the valley of the Maeander 
had from the earliest times separated the city more and 
more from the sea which originally had washed its hills. 
In consequence of the inundations of the Kaystros, first 
the oldest city with the Temple of Artemis, then the 
Hellenistic city, and finally the Roman one had dis- 
appeared into the soft marsh one city after another 
had followed the retreating sea-coast and only a few 
remains, chiefly upon the rocky heights above all, the 
great city wall of Lysimachos testified to former gran- 
deur. When, therefore, in 1862 E. Falkener tried to 
reconstruct the ancient city, where years before he had 


spent a fortnight, it could only be a fantastic picture. 
Ernst Curtius also failed in his attempt to connect the 
history of the city with the localities, through insufficient 
evidence. Only the Temple of Artemis had been identi- 
fied by Wood's excavations. In 1895 Benndorf and 
Humann examined the ground thoroughly and projected 
new plans ; a firman was secured, and the ground re- 
quired was purchased. In 1896, with Benndorf J s co- 
operation, the excavations of the Hellenistic Roman city 
began, between the rocky heights and the low-lying 
coast ; the harbour of the latest period can clearly be 
distinguished here in the marshes. The work is now 
annually continued under the able guidance of Rudolf 
Heberdey and the architect W. Wilberg. The Roman 
market-place forms the central point. The chief features 
of the city, which is Roman rather than Hellenistic in 
character, are colonnades, with columns placed before 
walls ; arcades, and a peculiar three-cornered two- 
storeyed hall which forms the connection between a 
street and a square. A library of several storeys, in 
which niches in the walls show where the bookcases had 
been, is decidedly different in plan from the one at Perga- 
mon. A number of single finds were made a bronze of 
the fourth century (which we shall meet again in Chapter 
XI) had to be pieced together out of 234 fragments. 

In all the excavations made in Asia Minor the great 
distinction to be kept in view is between the Hellenistic 
and the Roman. The first predominates in certain 
places, as Pergamon, Magnesia, Priene ; but on the 
whole the peaceful times of the empire seem to have 
covered this earlier stratum. Thus the great majority 
dates from Roman times. Here may be mentioned an 
expedition undertaken by Conrad Cichorius and Karl 
Humann, with the assistance of Franz Winter and Walter 
Judeich, in 1887 to Hierapolis in Phrygia ; they were un- 
aware that Tremaux had surveyed it. The hot springs 

THERA 197 

to which the city owed its renown had formed lime de- 
posits of enormous extent, upon which the remains of a 
Roman city partly covered in its turn by later deposits 
may be recognized. A broad street with colonnades 
traversed the city in a straight line from one gate to 
another, intersected by the other streets at right angles ; 
traces of the agora are connected with it. Extensive 
Thermae, two structures which may be termed a Basilica 
and an Imperial Lararium, according to Pompeian 
analogies, and above the town a well-preserved theatre 
may be recognized, nearly all in a late and clumsy style 
of architecture. Outside of the city walls an incredible 
number of sarcophagi and tombs are crowded together, 
from which the ruins have acquired the native name 
Tambuk - Kalessi a " city of troughs." The entire 
site affords a striking picture of the inexhaustible forces 
of nature overwhelming the habitations of men. One is 
reminded of the medieval town of Ninfa on the Volscian 
hills ; only there the water and the luxuriant vegetation 
produced by it caused the devastation, while in Hiera- 
polis it has been accomplished by the calcareous incrusta- 
tion of the stream. 

The investigation of two Greek islands was connected 
with the quest for inscriptions. Baron Hiller von 
Gartringen had undertaken to prepare the latter for the 
Berlin Academy. Preparatory work took him to Thera, 
and it was not surprising that the island exerted such a 
charm over him that he decided to extend his investiga- 
tions over the entire island. 

Thera, now called Santorin, is a solitary volcano 
rising out of the sea. The crater has been pierced at 
three places, and the sea has entered and filled a basin 
nearly 400 metres deep. This crater-lake is surrounded 
by precipitous walls, which with their variegated hori- 


zontal strata attain a height of 360 metres. The old city 
of Thera was situated on the eastern outer slope of the 
island, upon a limestone mountain towering 567 metres 
above the island. A marvellous picture is unfolded to 
the eye. The surface, descending from the edge of the 
crater to the sea, is covered with a thick white layer of 
pumice-stone, on which low vines form a carpet-like 
pattern. From the upper edge deep furrows descend, 
caused by heavy rains, and cross this flowered carpet in 
dark streaks ; in the walls of these clefts wine-cellars, 
wine-presses, and even human habitations have been 
hollowed out. Where the pumice-stone meets the sea it 
has been gradually washed away, leaving a dark edge 
which separates the white island from the deep blue sea. 
In the south extends distant Crete, with its three snow- 
covered peaks, toward the east is the coast of Asia Minor, 
and to the north are the numerous and varied islands of 
the Cyclades. Below in the crater are small newly formed 
volcanoes and the gently boiling sea, from which even in 
our times have risen new volcanic cones. Any one who 
has had the good fortune to look down from the convent 
of Hagias Elias must have felt his heart deeply stirred 
by this great beauty. 

In 1834 Baron von Prokesch-Osten had discovered 
upon the rocks of the town ancient inscriptions, which 
became famous through Bockh's publication. Ludwig 
Ross soon after visited Thera (1835-7, I ^43)> an d dis- 
covered, in the south of the island, remarkable rock tombs 
and a well-preserved marble sanctuary or Heroon. 
And in the city above, on the mountain, he noted and 
described a number of buildings, without, however, 
recognizing it as the capital of the island. It is to the 
credit of Hiller von Gartringen to have brought to light 
again this ancient city on the rocks. He continued to 
work here for six years from 1896, defraying all ex- 
penses ; with him co-operated the architects Dorpfeld 

THERA 199 

and Wilberg ; the archaeologists Schiff, Wolters, and 
Dragendorff, and the surveyor P. Wilski. This remote 
little town, laid out with terraces and steps on its wind- 
swept heights, now clearly exhibits again its private 
houses, public buildings, and sanctuaries. The Doric 
temple of Apollo Karneios dates back in parts to the 
archaic period, while a great part of the town belongs 
to Hellenistic times, partly again covered by a Roman 
stratum. The narrow little lanes, frequently only stairs, 
as well as the houses, do not indicate the luxury of 
Hellenistic times one seeks here in vain colonnades, so 
that the stoa near the market-place is a remarkable ex- 
ception. It had two naves, and served for market 
purposes, e.g. as a testing-place for weights and measures. 
The old building had received repeated additions, and 
was restored in the second century A.D. under the name of 
a Basilica, proving that this much-discussed name was 
not confined to the hall-like building with a raised nave, 
as at Pompeii. In consequence of the proximity of the 
island to Egypt, Hellenism in Thera received a peculiar 
character. The Temple of Dionysos was later adapted 
to the cult of the Ptolemies, and one of the most striking 
features in this rock city is a sanctuary, cut into the rock, 
of the Alexandrian trinity Serapis, Isis, and Anubis. 
Of peculiar interest are the ancient burial-places to the 
north of windy Sellada the depression uniting the town 
with Hagios Elias. The most ancient times and Roman 
times are represented by a great variety of tombs ; while 
tombs of the Hellenistic period have not been found. 

Some plastic decorations of the town both of Alexan- 
drian and of Roman times have been preserved. But, 
above all, pottery, of many different periods, has been 
extensively found on the island. Upon the island of 
Therasia (one part of the volcano) were found, during 
the sixties, potsherds in the lava. Their archaic decora- 
tions caused astonishment, and the problem of placing 


them in the classification then current awoke serious 

Thera now provided an abundance of this indestructible 
testimony of ancient civilization, in an almost unin- 
terrupted series, so that the progress of painting, which 
in the meantime had been elucidated by much research, 
could be followed here clearly, particularly its older 
periods, and its study could be further advanced. A 
great publication, the united effort of all who had taken 
part, formed a worthy conclusion to this brilliant work. 

The Rhodian expedition of the Danish Society of the 
Sciences falls beyond the limits of the last century ; this 
was equipped from the Carlsberg Fund established by Carl 
Jacobsen. On the old Acropolis of Lindos C. Blinkenberg 
and K. F. Kinch excavated 1902-4. The island of 
Rhodes, sacred to Helios, lies furthest east and nearest 
the sun of all the islands in the ^Egean Sea, and of its 
cities Lindos juts out most boldly into the broad Eastern 
sea. On its rocky citadel Ross had, in 1844, discovered 
a number of Greek artists' inscriptions, which seemed to 
throw light upon the Rhodian school of art. Paul 
Foucart had made similar discoveries in 1864. With the 
exception of a more accurate survey of the Temple of 
Athene, inscriptions formed the main objects of the Danish 
expedition. Two facts testify to their value. It has 
now become possible to establish definitely the date and 
home of the artist Boethos, the creator of the Boy with 
the Goose ; and also to settle the much-disputed date of 
the Laocoon (this had varied from the third century to 
the time of the Emperor Titus). It has now been placed, 
with some certainty, in the middle of the first century B.C. 

Let us point out the chief results of these investigations 
of ancient cities. Two groups can be distinguished 
according to the situation of the cities. Either the cities 


show what we may call a naturalistic conformity to the 
configuration of the land : the castle hill, the springs, 
and the courses of rivers, the slope and contours of the 
ground ; or, it may be, the relation to the sea determines 
the position of the market, the gates, and streets, which 
are bound by no rules. Or, on the other hand, the entire 
city is treated as a work of art ; the squares and streets 
are planned according to fixed rules and formulae, without 
considering the conditions set by nature. Very popular 
is this method, which strikes us as so modern, of making 
the streets cross one another at right angles, in which 
case the main streets are generally distinguished by their 
breadth from the narrower lanes. It is not by chance 
that this second system was not invented by a practical 
architect, but by an ingenious theorist Hippodamos of 
Miletos. The first examples of this method in Periclean 
times were the seaport of Piraeus and the Attic colony 
of Thurioi, on the Gulf of Tarentum. In rebuilding the 
modern Piraeus, in the forties of the last century, it was 
only necessary to follow the street plan of Hippodamos. 
We will mention among later plans of this kind only 
" Beautiful Rhodos," 408 (it was impossible, however, 
to demonstrate its ancient plan on account of frequent 
rebuilding) ; and Alexander's oriental capital Alexandria, 
332-1 ; the rectangular plan of its streets was recovered 
by Napoleon I IPs excavations carried out by Mahmud 

Among recently investigated cities this " Hippo- 
damian method " is most strikingly displayed in Priene 
and Cnidos, near the home of the inventor. In both 
places the rectangular plan was ill adapted to the very 
irregular ground, but evidently insisted on, as the entire 
city site was cut up into terraces. Most of the streets 
become stairs, so that wheeled traffic could not have 
been very important in these ancient cities. It has 
been noted above (p. 182) how imperative the supporting 


walls became in these cities. In a modified form this 
same plan was adopted in Thera with its narrow rocky 

Greater difficulties even than at Priene were experi- 
enced in very steep Assos ; while at Hierapolis it was not 
difficult to carry out such a plan on the level surface of 
the lime deposits. In Pompeii the system of the city 
plan is founded on the Italic system, the two main lines 
crossing each other, the Cardo and Decumanus ; most 
completely carried out at Marzabotto. In Pompeii 
certain irregularities have arisen in consequence of 
natural conditions, which interfere with the regular 
system. The cardo had to follow toward the south a 
diagonal trend of a lava hill, upon the ridge of which 
most of the city is built, while toward the north-west the 
Gate of Herculaneum, with its famous Street of Tombs, 
necessitates a slight deviation from the normal right 

The case is quite different at Pergamon. The great 
height of the citadel and the steep mountain, which the 
city of Eumenes covered, necessitated an ascending 
main street (as at Delphi, p. 149) with sharp curves. 
This main street formed the cardinal feature of the entire 
plan. How far the city descended on terraces, how far 
the system of rectangular streets was carried cannot yet 
be determined. If great irregularities should appear, it 
would not be surprising. In the upper part, near the 
citadel, and within it, the streets perforce ascend on 
terraces. These exhibit no stiff regularity, but adapt 
themselves to the bend in the main street or according 
to the configuration of the land. Thus the capital of the 
Attalids is in great contrast to the Hippodamian cities, 
and also to Halicarnassos, the capital of the Carian rulers. 
Here the circular harbour forms a central point to the 
city, which, like an orchestra, rises in tiers above it, 
with wide main streets. In one respect Pergamon re- 


sembles all cities not situated in a plain : terrace walls 
were indispensable, and some were of considerable height. 
The wall below the theatre terrace, several storeys high 
and 200 metres long, was an important work, evidently 
forming a model for other cities in Asia Minor. 

These strict Hippodamian conditions seem to have been 
less observed later on. They had been most pedantically 
carried out at Nikaia, the capital of Bithynia, and strictly 
at Antioch in Syria. Delos, and most Roman cities in 
Lycia, Pamphylia, and Pisidia, were planned more ac- 
cording to natural conditions, while, on the contrary, at 
Hierapolis the regular plan was the result of conditions. 

Apart from these distinctions in the general plan, we 
have learnt to know many details of cities in consequence 
of recent excavations. The Forum at Pompeii had 
practically, until of late, been the only city market known 
to us, while now we are able to follow the gradual trans- 
formation of the forum. We have become acquainted 
with a normal market at Priene with modifications at 
Assos and Pergamon ; a harbour market at Delos, and a 
Roman market at Ephesos. 

The town hall was situated in the market-place ; at 
Assos its council hall was very simple, at Priene it was 
more ornate and adapted to its purpose, while at Miletos 
it was most imposing, and stood in an enclosure with other 
buildings. Colonnades, usually with shops in the rear, sur- 
rounded the market as well as the court of the Milesian 
town hall and nearly all the temple courts. They had 
either one or two naves, and were one or two storeys high ; 
those at Pergamon and in the Stoa of Attalos II in Athens 
were very imposing. As many of the market halls were 
built by kings, they frequently retain their names or the 
more general designation Basilica (hall of the King), a 
name they share with the enclosed halls (such as the 
splendid Basilica at Pompeii), which seem copied from 
Egyptian models. 


The streets are frequently paved, as at Pergamon, 
Priene, and Miletos, and drains have been found most 
clearly at Pompeii. The houses were at first completely 
closed toward the streets, but gradually shops were added 
in the lower storey, thereby adding animation to the 
street life. At Pompeii this is very evident, but it can also 
be seen at Pergamon. But in the recently discovered 
Hellenistic cities we do not find an extension of the 
colonnades from the squares to the streets, as is recorded 
in Hellenistic times of Athens and Smyrna. 

Rome had also at an early date these sheltered streets. 
Later the custom became general. Ephesos is an ex- 
ample, and in Hierapolis the main street had colonnades 
with shops on either side. 

A further requirement of a city would be a theatre ; 
the one preserved at Aspendos is one of a number of 
fine examples. The Gymnasia were usually courts sur- 
rounded by colonnades with different rooms and niches, 
often separate ones were provided for the older and 
younger men. Examples are at Sidy ma, and notably 
at Pompeii, where the gladiators' barracks, with their 
great court, had originally been the athletic ground for 
adults (corresponding to the Palaestra at Olympia), 
while the small so-called Palaestra was devoted to the 
youths of Pompeii, and was thus an Ephebeion. Miletos 
and Hierapolis, with their hot springs, show us Roman 
watering-places. The knowledge we have gained of 
Hellenistic houses at Priene and Delos has been mentioned 
above ; until then we had been limited to Pompeian 
houses, which are of a peculiar type, as they combine 
the Italic with the Greek. 

Pompeii afforded us the most vivid and touching 
picture of a Street of Tombs, leading the traveller from 
the city gate into the country. It dates almost entirely 
from Roman times. A picture of classic times was 
obtained when the Athenian burial-ground was un- 


covered in 1870 outside of the Dipylon, the main city 
gate. Many of the incomparable grave reliefs of the 
fifth and fourth centuries remain here still upright ; the 
aristocratic Hegeso ; the Knight Dexileos, who dis- 
tinguished himself at Corinth, and fell there in 394 at the 
age of twenty ; two rather dignified Greek ladies, Demetria 
and Pamphile, who look pleasantly at the beholder. 
These are only single examples of a class of monuments, 
which in noble simplicity and quiet dignity compares 
favourably with any other. Owing to the numerous ex- 
cavations in Asia Minor, our knowledge of these burial 
grounds has greatly increased. Lycia has long been 
famed for these, but of late has again been explored with 
this object mainly in view. While Miletos has yielded 
some of its archaic seated statues, Pamphylia and Pisidia 
afford a great variety of different monuments which in 
part lead us on to the forms which prevailed in the de- 
cadence of antiquity ; Hierapolis surprises by the mono- 
tony of its sarcophagi. 

In these investigations of ancient cities the lion's share 
falls to Hellenistic times. It was that age, however, 
above all that called for elucidation, at least in so far 
as its imperishable traces are concerned, for in our 
literary traditions no other period of Greek history 
affords such a picture of a confused, desolate heap of 
ruins. The stones had to speak here, and they have 
spoken, partly through inscriptions, partly in the re- 
mains of architecture and sculpture. 


FROM the decline of antiquity we may turn our 
eyes back to its beginnings. It is again the un- 
obtrusive painted pottery which has extended our 
horizon beyond all formerly known bounds. 

The orientalized or Corinthian class of vases, which 
could be dated back to the seventh century, had long 
been looked upon as the most ancient. And as the 
records of Greek artists did not extend beyond this, it 
appeared to be the beginning of all Greek art. At most, 
the Homeric poems may have gone back a little farther 
into a vague and uncertain region, into which the flowery 
ancient vases or the " studded " bronze shields of the 
Regulini-Galassi tomb, or some Assyrian analogies, 
threw a faint light. But, on the whole, we might have 
said that Greek art began where the Homeric poems 
ended, and that beyond them yawned chaos. 

It was again Conze who first tried to fill this gap. He 
had published in 1862 some pots from Melos, resembling 
Corinthian vases, except that besides the orientalized 
conventional plant-forms (rosettes, palmettes, etc.), 
there appeared simple linear decorations (zigzags, rect- 
angles, etc.), revealing an entirely different origin. 
Thomas Burgon had, in 1847, drawn attention to these 
linear designs, and in 1863 Gottfried Semper had followed 
this suggestion, but it remained for Conze, in 1870, to 
distinguish this Geometric style as that of a particular 
archaic class of vases. Its characteristic is, that the 



decorative scheme is entirely linear, consisting of straight 
lines, zigzags, cross lines, circles, spirals, and meanders, 
forms evidently taken from the ancient technique of 
weaving, plaiting, and chasing. These were sys- 
tematically combined, usually covering the surface in 
bands, in this respect differing from the art of savages, 
who make use of many of these elementary motives. 
The conventional plant motives so common in the 
orientalized style are absent here, as well as the lions, 
panthers, sphinxes, and griffins of the Orient. 

Where animals are used they are domestic animals 
geese, storks, horses at the manger, and so on. In Italy 
the Geometric style is especially frequent in the incised 
patterns of metal utensils, and the ornamentation on 
clay vessels in that country is frequently incised with 
a graving tool. 

It is evident that this was the original method, as the 
prevailing character of the designs on Greek pottery is 
rather linear than pictorial. All the decoration as well 
as the animals, which serve a decorative purpose is 
merely drawn, and the surfaces are filled with linear 
designs ; a brushful of paint is rarely used. 

Such was the appearance of the sixty examples by 
which Conze demonstrated the Geometric style. As soon 
as the eye had become accustomed to this phenomenon, 
their number increased with great rapidity, and our 
knowledge was extended in two directions. 

A great discovery of vases at the Athenian Dipylon in 
1871 showed that this linear style was extended to human 
beings, or rather to schematic representations of them, 
and indeed, with these simple means, attempts were 
made at representing funeral processions, naval combats, 
etc. This more elaborate manner was called the " Dipy- 
lon style." Other examples of a more advanced style 
showed Geometric designs closely connected with lions, 
flowers, and other characteristics of the orientalized style. 


Taken as a whole, it became evident that the Geometric 
must be older than any known style, and rilled the gap 
beyond the Oriental influence, probably brought in, as 
in Homer, by the Phoenicians. 

Another thing did not escape Conze. This Geometric 
style coincided in the main, in its decorative schemes, 
with the ornamentation of the old pottery and bronze 
implements of Central and Northern Europe. 

New and extensive perspectives were opened here. 
Was the Geometric style a common heritage of the entire 
Aryan family ? Or did it represent a peculiar European 
expression of Aryan ornamentation ? Had it reached 
Greece from the north, in consequence of those migrations 
of peoples which we call by the far too narrow term, the 
Dorian Invasion, and which we usually date in the first 
century of the last millennium before Christ ? This last 
view has been widely accepted, and still obtains to-day. 
We may, however, consider later whether another 
somewhat different view does not deserve more attention 
(p. 214). At present we must look beyond the Greek 
horizon into the fields of prehistoric research. 

By the word prehistory we mean research into an- 
tiquity before there were any written records. It com- 
prises different sciences, as anthropology, ethnology, and 
the history of civilization. But these are as foreign to 
our studies as the questions of currency, trade, and history 
would be to numismatics. The archaeology of art is not 
concerned with the questions whether the people were 
dolichocephalous or brachycephalous, whether there 
was inhumation or cremation, or whether cist graves 
existed, nor does it inquire into their mode of living, 
their dress, or their furniture ; all these points are not 
touched upon. It is only concerned with the creations 


and expressions of the artistic feeling among these primi- 
tive peoples. 

The study of prehistoric relics was early awakened in 
the north, where this ancient culture continued much 
longer, and its remains are more obvious. Scandinavia 
took the initiative in this science. In 1832 Christian 
Jiirgen Thomsen of Copenhagen determined three dis- 
tinct periods of prehistory : the Stone Age, the Bronze 
Age, and the Iron Age, giving to each period the name 
of the material most in use, and at the same time indi- 
cating a gradual development. For a long time doubts 
were expressed as to these distinctions, but they have 
been fully justified, and are accepted to-day. With 
this, the outline of a scheme is given for the study of 
artistic productions, but the different periods are by 
no means restricted to the chief material in use. At 
first the Stone Age, afterwards known as the Late Stone 
Age, attracted most attention. Its character is best 
exhibited in those buildings of huge stone blocks, chiefly 
found in Scandinavia and Western France. These 
" megalithic " monuments were either for religious 
purposes as the upright colossal blocks (Menhir) or 
the circles made of such blocks (Cromlech) or they 
form tombs, as the simple stone chambers (Dolmen) or 
stone passages covered with huge blocks of stone ; 
next, the barrows or graves covered with mounds of 
earth ; finally, the great subterranean " giants' cham- 

All these structures, although the origin of each in- 
volves a great length of time, impress only by the co- 
lossal size of the materials ; any form of art, even any 
dressing of the rough surface is unknown. 

On utensils, however, both of earth and metal, es- 
pecially the latter, appear ornamentations, which, it 
would seem, although the theory has been challenged, 
derive their origin from the primitive arts of plaiting 


and weaving. The designs are, therefore, linear or 

About the middle of the century investigations ad- 
vanced in both directions : backwards to the beginning 
of civilization, and forwards to the Iron Age. 

To the Late Stone Age the Earlier was prefixed (the 
designations Paleolithic and Neolithic originated with 
Sir John Lubbock, now Lord Avebury). France has 
been the chief place of research, as it was not ice-covered 
during the glacial period, but always remained habitable 
for human beings. Jacques Boucher de Perthes of 
Abbeville began a series of investigations upon stone 
implements and other vestiges of human culture in 
the river-beds of Northern France, in his " Antiquites 
celtiques et antediluviennes " in 1846-65, and in his 
writings " De Phomme antediluvien et de ses ceuvres " 
in 1860. Other investigators, as E. Lartet and Gabriel 
de Mortillet, followed his footsteps. A new direction 
was given to these investigations in 1853 by the im- 
portant discoveries of caves in South-western France. 
Caves, the dwelling-places of prehistoric man, had fre- 
quently attracted attention, at first at Gailertsreuth 
in Franconia in 1774 ; later in Great Britain ; gradually 
at a number of places in Central and Southern Europe. 
The best results were attained in the departments of 
Dordogne and Charente, and from there southward to 
the Pyrenees. In these caves bones were found of 
cave bears, of mammoths, and of reindeer, all remains 
of the glacial period, extending back many thousands 
of years, but representing different periods. The periods 
were soon distinguished by the names of the places 
where the most important finds had been made, as of 
Chelles, Solutre, and Madelaine. Human habitation 
in these caves was not only indicated by the rude stone 
utensils (pottery did not yet exist), but above all by 
the remarkable drawings on the bones of the mammoth 


and reindeer. The first bone with incised drawing had 
been found thirty or forty years previously at Chaffaud 
(Vienne), and although exhibited from 1851 in the Muse 
de Cluny in Paris, its significance was only recognized 
in 1869 by the Danish antiquary, J. J. A. Worsaae. 
At that time E. Lartet, Henry Christie, and E. Piette 
had discovered a great quantity of material in the caves 
of PeYigord (Grotto d'Aurignac, Madelaine, Laugerie 
Basse, Eyzies). These drawings are of very different 
artistic merit, some exhibiting a close observation and 
an accuracy in execution which are equally amazing. 
Some found in the seventies in the Canton of Schaff- 
hausen (Kesslerloch near Thaingen), and during the 
nineties at Schweizerbild near Schaffhausen, aroused 
the greatest interest, as, for example, the masterly 
representation of a reindeer browsing. The perfection 
of the drawing seemed so inconceivable, for that primitive 
age, that doubts as to its genuineness were expressed 
and were unhappily strengthened by the appearance of 
forgeries. Suspicion, however, was soon silenced. Re- 
cent discoveries in France have almost surpassed these 
drawings on bones, in the paintings of animals which 
have been discovered on some of the cave walls at Fond 
de Gaume (Dordogne). The study of the artistic sense 
and achievements of savage races has proved the uni- 
versal validity of a fact which seemed incredible so long 
as it was known only in isolated instances. A very 
primitive stage of art does not exclude an artistic eye 
and a correct reproduction ; a valuable observation in 
regard to the origins of art. 

The Earlier Stone Age (paleolithic) was separated by 
thousands of years of the glacial period from the Later 
Stone Age (neolithic). To the colossal stone monuments 
of the latter wooden structures were added. A year 
after the discoveries of some of the greater caves in 1854 
the first pile dwellings were discovered in Switzerland. 


These villages had been built on piles out into the lakes. 
The houses were chiefly of wood, and their refuse heaps 
indicate the mode of life of the inhabitants. The re- 
mains of these pile villages increased rapidly in number, 
and were soon discovered outside of Switzerland. They 
were eagerly studied in the valley of the Po, where the 
villages in the lakes (palafitte) and in the plain (tenemare) 
anticipate the later Italic cities with their rectangular 
plan. The custom of building on piles extends from 
the Late Stone Age to far more advanced periods. Re- 
mains of weaving and pottery discovered in these dwell- 
ings show the Geometric style of ornamentation, which 
was characteristic of the period of transition to the Bronze 
Age. Innumerable bronze utensils have been found 
throughout a vast area which again can be subdivided 
into earlier and later. The Bronze Age of Southern 
Europe may, on the whole, be assigned to the second 
millennium before Christ ; all the Mycenaean or ^Egean 
artistic productions soon to be reviewed belong to this 

Shortly before the discoveries of the caves and pile 
dwellings, some finds had been made which threw light 
upon the Iron Age, the last period of prehistoric times. 
The name Iron Age merely refers to the use of iron 
which had formerly been rarely employed beside bronze 
for all kinds of implements. In the development of 
the arts during ancient times, iron never played an im- 
portant part ; on the contrary, bronze always remained 
the chief material of artistic work. 

Above the picturesque little town of Hallstatt in the 
Salzkammergut, wedged in between mountain cliffs and 
lake, there was explored, in 1846, and in the two decades 
following, an old burial-ground, which yielded great 
treasures. The entire art and civilization which here 
came to light for the first time received the name of 
Hallstatt, from the place of their discovery. Artistically 


considered, the forms and incised ornamentations of the 
metalwork represent a peculiar late expression of the 
Geometric style. Examples of the Hallstatt civilization 
were soon found all over the Alpine region and beyond ; 
toward the west as far as Burgundy, and toward the east 
as far as Hungary and Bosnia (the graves of Glavinae"). 
This Central European civilization, the ethnological 
origin of which has not yet been definitely fixed (the 
Illyrians have been suggested), was presently found in 
a particularly rich form and in various stages of develop- 
ment south of the Alps, in the plain of the Po. In 1853 
Count Gozzadini discovered a burial site with rich finds 
of an early type at Villanova, near Bologna ; in 1865 
followed the discovery at Ma^zabotto, situated where 
the Reno leaves the Apennines ; and in 1871 the older 
cemetery near the Certosa at Bologna was found, both 
representing a later period, in which figures were more 
richly developed. Both stages of this development 
were represented at Este. 

The civilization of Hallstatt may, on the whole, be 
assigned to the first half of the last millennium before 
Christ, and is thus contemporary with the earlier cen- 
turies of the development of Greek art. 

Later developments of the Iron Age have recently 
come to light. During the excavations carried on by 
Napoleon III in 1862 at Alesia (Alise Sainte-Reine) to 
recover Caesarian relics, unusual objects of art were 
discovered, to which others from the Champagne were 
added. These discoveries of 1876 deserved special 
study, and were soon followed by those of La-T&ne, 
on the Lake of Neufchatel, exhibiting a similar form of 
art. It was observed, however, that these were decidedly 
different from and of later origin than the art of Hallstatt. 
A. W. Franks gave in 1869 to this new form of art the 
name of Late Celtic, but more widespread is the name of 
La-Tene art, suggested by Hans Hildebrand, and pro- 


posed by him at the Prehistoric Congress at Stockholm 
in 1874, in contrast to the older art of Hallstatt. La-Tene 
art, the national art of the Celts, is more restricted in 
extent and scope, and corresponding to the warlike 
character of the Celts, it appears chiefly on weapons. 
This form of art was superseded by the Roman in the 
last century B.C. ; its beginning may be traced to the 
middle of the last millennium. 

The further back we go, the more uncertain are chrono- 
logical data, and yet many scholars believe that the 
different stages of development can be definitely assigned 
to certain centuries, even in those times when we are 
left without records. One of the most distinguished 
investigators, Oskar Montelius, represents these views. 
And again scholars are not all in accord, whether the 
north developed under the influence of the south, or 
whether the north contributed its share ; whether there 
were influences from the Orient, or again, whether the 
north and south did not develop simultaneously. It is 
evident that the chronology of the several stages of de- 
velopment is very different in various districts. In the 
north, for example, the Geometric style prevailed until 
the introduction of Christianity, while in Southern 
Europe it disappears in the first centuries of the last 
millennium, and its prime is to be sought in the second 
millennium. We have seen that the Geometric style 
appeared in Greece about this time. Had this actually 
come late from the north with the " Dorian Invasion " ? 
We shall presently see that there existed in the second 
millennium an entirely different art in Greek countries, 
an art for the aristocracy of the Greek Heroic Age. 
But would this special style in Greece exclude an art 
existing at the same time all over Europe ? The suppo- 
sition recently expressed deserves special consideration, 
that the plebeian Geometric style existed side by side 
with the Mycenaean art of princes, and that only after 


the collapse of the Heroic Age did the former attain 
supremacy. Certain data seem to support these ob- 
servations. If we are not mistaken, this conception 
will be justified in the future. 

While our outlook was thus extended back into the 
immeasurable past, and the artistic tradition of Greece 
seemed to be linked with that of the rest of Europe by 
channels till then unsuspected, facts of a new order 
came to light on Greek soil. We refer to Heinrich 
Schliemann, whose name represents an entire epoch. 

Discussions concerning Schliemann have not yet quite 
ceased. Although the voices of those who were totally 
opposed to him have been silenced, yet at times the 
pseans are still heard of those who, knowing little of 
archaeological science, look upon Schliemann as an ideal 
investigator. It is, however, possible to judge him im- 
partially to-day ; his merits and his deficiencies, as far 
as they affected science, can be balanced, and an opinion 
can be expressed which will have the support of all those 
who are capable of a scientific decision on archaeological 

As a boy, Heinrich Schliemann became inspired by 
Homer, and in his eighth year he decided to excavate 
Troy. In 1836, at the age of fourteen, he was apprentice 
to a small shopkeeper ; at the age of twenty-seven he 
had become a wholesale merchant in St. Petersburg, 
without ever losing sight of his ideals. He had passed 
the middle of the forties, when in 1868 he ventured on 
his first journey to the Homeric sites. The aim of his 
life was now before him : to rediscover the Homeric 
world, every detail of which he held for gospel truth. 
Then began a series of enterprises, the successes of which 
were announced with an amount of advertising that 
frequently made the world rather distrustful. Work 
was begun at Troy in 1871, Mycenae followed in 1874, 


Troy was again explored in 1878, Orchomenos in 1880, 
and Tiryns in 1884, and Troy once more in 1890. 

If it was ever demonstrated that " Faith alone makes 
blessed," it certainly was in this case. It endowed 
Schliemann with a divining-rod to bring the treasures 
forth from the earth, and led him to the places where to 
dig. At that time every one believed that Homeric 
Troy had stood on the heights of Bunarbashi, where the 
Scamander enters the plain, and the new Ilion of Hellen- 
istic times on the hill of Hissarlik. Schliemann began to 
dig at Hissarlik, at the suggestion of Frank Calvert, 
and found Ancient Troy. 

At Mycenae hardly any one would have thought of 
digging immediately behind the Lion Gate, but the mis- 
understanding of a word in Pausanias induced Schlie- 
mann to look for the graves of the Atridae there, and he 
found, if not these, far older and more surprising burial 
sites. At Tiryns, the soil upon the rocks appeared to 
be so light that excavations hardly promised anything. 
Schliemann began, and uncovered a model Homeric 
citadel. Besides the firm belief in Homer, in the accuracy 
of whose descriptions he had implicit confidence, he 
preserved the ideals of his youth, coupled with great 
generosity, which led him to spend yearly 5000 on his 
excavations. Finally he possessed indefatigable energy 
and tenacity of purpose. Such were the qualities which 
brought him fame and repeated success. 

And the result was nothing less than the recovery of 
a lost world, underlying what till then was known, one 
may say the world of Homer although not in so literal 
and narrow a sense as Schliemann understood it. For 
this undeniable and inestimable gain science must always 
remain most grateful, and the Homeric world will ever 
be associated with his name and that of the noble 
Greek woman his wife, who\ shared all his labours and 
cares, as well as his success and his fame. 



To face page 216 


But there is a reverse to the medal. Schliemann's 
education and talents were quite foreign to all scientific 
thinking and method. He cared neither for history 
nor art, as his indifference to the Hermes of Praxiteles 
proved ; primitive culture, curiosities, and vague ima- 
ginings exhausted his interests. He was a dilettante in 
both senses of the word : in the good sense of an enthusi- 
astic lover of art who makes sacrifices for it, and in the 
other sense of a man who pursues his aim without method 
or thorough knowledge. He was a dilettante in things 
architectural and archaeological ; he was a dilettante in 
excavating, for he had no idea that it is based upon 
method and technique. It appeared self-evident to 
him that all traces of Homeric antiquity had to be 
sought at a great depth. Thus he recognized in Hissarlik 
the site of Ancient Troy, but pushed his shafts so deep 
into the hillside as almost to disregard the true Homeric 

He only called a halt at the second lowest stratum, 
" the burnt city," in which he believed that he recognized 
the Troy destroyed by the Greeks, though it actually 
was a much older and more primitive settlement. 

At Mycenae some of the grave reliefs still remained 
upright, but Schliemann to reach the shaft graves below 
had these removed with great difficulty, without noting 
their position or their relation to the different graves. 

At Tiryns, Schliemann was on the point of destroying 
the walls of the palace, as he thought he recognized 
therein mortar, the common characteristic of Roman or 
medieval buildings. Dorpfeld fortunately arrived in 
time to save the valuable remains, and in the supposed 
mortar he recognized the remains of marble slabs de- 
composed by fire. 

His reports abounded in peculiarities, as, for example, 
his predilection for cow- or owl -headed goddesses 
which he recognized in many " face-urns," etc. How- 


ever much this impressed the general public of amateurs, 
it could safely be disregarded. His reports were equally 
well filled with actual facts ; e.g. as to the depth at 
which each sherd was found. But as, according to 
an eye-witness, these data were only recorded every 
evening after the day's work, one can see how uncertain 
they must be, for all their apparent exactitude. The 
reports, as well as the excavations, only became trust- 
worthy where competent specialists assisted at the work 
or reported on it. 

Among these Dorpfeld deserves the foremost place. 
He not only saved the remains of Tiryns, but he put them 
in order, as it were, so as to make them comprehensible 
in every respect. Dorpfeld first made the architecture 
of Troy clear, and after Schliemann's death he uncovered 
in the Sixth City the Homeric Troy, as far as the Hellen- 
istic city had not destroyed it. Dorpfeld unfortunately 
did not take part in the Mycenaean excavations, and the 
reports of the Greek overseer have until recently been 
withheld ; some compensation has been offered by recent 
excavations undertaken by the first-rate authority 
Chrest6s Tsountas. 

The results of Schliemann's excavations have become 
so well known through popular publications that a few 
remarks will suffice here. 

The fortress-hill of Troy, with an elevation of only 
twenty metres, shows a series of strata (Schliemann 
counted seven, recently nine have been distinguished), 
in which a development of the settlements can be followed 
from primeval to Roman times. Schliemann's objective, 
as has been stated, was the second lowest stratum, in 
which he believed he had found Homeric Troy. The 
castle wall appeared, with the Scaean Gate ; the Palace 
of Priam, with a court, a porch, and the main apartment 
exhibiting the archetype of the later Greek house. The 
" golden treasure of Priam " has the simplest designs. 


Finally a mass of pottery and sherds was found, showing 
uniformly the most primitive character. The civilization 
uncovered here did not correspond with the descriptions 
in the Homeric poems. The entire find dates much 
further back than to the one we have since learnt to 
know as Homeric, and it presumably belongs to the 
third millennium. After Mycenae and Tiryns had been 
excavated, Schliemann returned again to Troy with 
Dorpfeld in 1890, in which year Schliemann died, and in 
1893-4 Dorpfeld worked here alone, and only then un- 
covered in the second uppermost city Homeric Troy, 
or at least the city whose entire character corresponds to 
the two citadels mentioned above. In the meantime 
we had become accustomed to apply the term Mycenaean 
to its character. Unfortunately the central part of 
the settlement had already been destroyed in ancient 
times, to make room for the new city of Ilion. Schlie- 
mann had found a beautiful metope with Helios driving 
his car heavenwards, belonging to the Temple of Athene 
in that city. Of Mycenaean Troy only the massive walls 
remained, and some apartments (megara), one of which 
showed two naves. We need not necessarily suppose 
this to have been a temple ; enclosed temples only became 
general in the Greek world in the last millennium B.C. 

At Tiryns the plan was much simpler ; here is a citadel, 
which, according to its form and situation, might be 
termed a diminutive Orvieto. It is a low isolated rock, 
about the shape of the sole of a shoe, surrounded by 
cyclopean walls. In the Homeric poems this city is 
called "well-walled" Tiryns, this epithet testifying to 
the impression the massive walls produce. The area 
may be divided into the southern, more elevated half 
with the citadel, and a northern half recently again ex- 
cavated, without yielding important results. The former 
gives us a distinct and clear picture of an Homeric 
palace, protected by walls, the gate surmounted by a 


tower ; a main entrance with several gates which could 
be well defended ; at the side a staircase and another 
entrance ; a court with entrance gates and porches ; 
besides a series of magazines like casemates in the thick- 
ness of the walls for the storing of provisions ; two 
megara, one for men and one for women, separated, as 
in the palaces of Assyria, by numerous courts and pas- 
sages. From the men's wing a special entrance leads 
to the paved court, surrounded by columns and containing 
an altar. A short passage leads to the luxurious bath- 
room ; its floor consisted of one huge stone of twelve 
square metres, and the earthenware bath had painted 
decorations. On entering the main court one faces 
the pillared vestibule leading into the men's chief apart- 
ment, the Megaron ; in the centre of the latter is the 
round hearth, about which were placed four wooden 
columns supporting the roof. An open structure above 
the fireplace allowed the smoke to escape. The marble 
frieze of the main hall, the bases for wooden columns, 
tapering towards the bottom and with heavy capitals, 
the remains of wall paintings with conventional forms 
and occasional figures, complete the picture. The 
imagination readily fills the halls with Homeric scenes. 
Telemachos enters the gate " the men are led into 
the hall divine," " they went to the polished baths and 
bathed them," " white-armed Arete is seated near 
the hearth," " in the hall where the sweet singer Demo- 
dokos showed forth his minstrelsy," or again " Athene 
still for a while made trial of the might and prowess of 
Odysseus and his renowned son." It is true these are 
ideal creations, which one delights to place in their 
proper environment, while more prosaic beings assume 
every legend in the poems to have been actual history. 

The women's apartment at Tiryns is still on the ground- 
floor, and not as in the palace of Odysseus in an upper 
storey; this merely indicates simpler conditions than 


To face page 220 


were assumed by the poet of the Odyssey. Tiryns itself 
shows traces of later reconstruction. 

If the palace at Tiryns, with its delightful and ex- 
tensive view towards the sea, suggests only cheerful 
thoughts, the situation, remains and legends of Mycenae 
suggest serious and sombre ones. The complete clearing 
of the Treasury of Atreus and the neighbouring sepulchral 
monuments has revealed more clearly the majestic 
character of these superb royal tombs, which can be 
compared with the Roman Pantheon for impressiveness. 
The dignified fa9ade was decorated in colours, and the 
interior of the beehive tomb had metal ornaments. 
The ceiling of the inner chamber was missing, but its 
character can be inferred from the Minyas Tomb at 
Orchomenos, an Egyptian design of rosettes and palm- 
ettes evidently taken from a woven carpet pattern. 
The Lion Gate gained greatly in impressiveness by being 
quite uncovered down to the threshold. 

Although the citadel at Mycenae with a similar ground 
plan has suffered greater destruction than Tiryns, yet 
the burial site surrounded by upright standing slabs 
behind the Lion Gate proved a great surprise. Schlie- 
mann discovered in this circle five shaft graves (a sixth 
was later discovered), in two of which, in particular, the 
dead were completely covered with gold ; and so nu- 
merous were the gold vessels found in them as to justify 
the Homeric fame of Mycenae " rich in gold." A mass 
of gold disks was found with most exquisite designs of 
cuttlefish, butterflies spirals, and palm leaves, each 
artistically filling the space ; a little gold sanctuary of 
Aphrodite, resembling a high altar with two doves, 
gold cups graphically recalling Homer's description ; 
golden masks which, according to a widespread custom, 
covered the faces of the dead ; and a silver cow's head 
with horns covered with gold leaf. A curious fragment 
of a silver vase, representing a battle scene on the castle 


Walls, recalls a famous scene on the shield of Achilles. 
But the most perfect specimen of workmanship was only 
discovered later in 1880, when Athanasios Kumamides, 
with great care and skill, cleaned certain daggers in 
the Athens Museum of rust, and discovered underneath 
the most delicate work in gold, silver, and electron, 
representing a lion hunt, or cats hunting wild-fowl 
among reeds, while fishes are visible in a river. Another 
dagger is adorned with lilies. 

Many of these gold ornaments show peculiar designs, 
which can be recognized more clearly still on innumerable 
potsherds found on this ancient cult site. They differ 
from all known earlier styles, particularly from the 
Geometric, with which they have only the spiral and boss 
motives in common. Otherwise this art is suggested 
chiefly by the life of the sea. Seaweeds seem almost in 
motion by the action of the water ; cuttlefish with ex- 
tended tentacles, shellfishes and other animals of the 
Mediterranean are represented. Fantastic aquatic beings 
are not absent ; only rarely does this art venture on 
other forms, as when it represents lean warriors with 
sharp features, wearing plumed helmets, and carrying 
great 8-shaped shields of ox-hide. On the whole, we gain 
the impression of an art fresh in perception and in re- 
production ; the plants are conventionalized, but very 
different from the stiff forms of the orientalized style. 

In these productions it is not difficult to distinguish 
earlier and later, or again simpler and more ornate 
designs. This shows that the period lasted a long time, 
and yet one must deny it any capacity for development. 
Evidently certain conservative influences have to be 
taken into consideration to explain its long duration. 

Hardly had Mycenaean antiquity been revealed in 
the Argolid when there appeared numerous evidences of 
it in different parts of Greece, as had been the case when 
the Geometric style was discovered. It seemed as if 


the earth had only been waiting to disclose her treasures. 
Attica came first ; south of Pentelikos, at Spata, the 
ancient Deme of Erchia, Mycenaean tombs were opened 
in 1877, while near Athens the dome-shaped tomb at 
Menidi, in the village of Acharnai, made famous by the 
charcoal-burners in Aristophanes, disclosed in 1880 
similar rich treasures. Mycenaean remains were dis- 
covered all along the east coast of Greece from Thessaly 
to Laconia. 

In Bceotia, upon an island in Lake Kopais, a Mycenaean 
stronghold was unexpectedly revealed, which may be 
the ancient Arne. Chrestos Tsountas, who had dis- 
tinguished himself at Mycenae, made one of the most 
remarkable finds in 1888. In Laconia, south of Sparta 
near Vaphio, on the site of the Achaean Pharis, he opened 
a Tholos tomb, in which he discovered two gold cups 
with reliefs in a vigorous style of workmanship. On one 
are represented bulls peacefully grazing in a wood, 
while on the other they are being caught in nets by men 
(again two pendants as in the Homeric description of 
the shield) ; both evince the realistic observation and 
the technical skill of the Mycenaean Age at a rare level 
of truly artistic power. 

But traces of this art were not confined to the coasts 
of Greece ; Mycenaean vases and potsherds were soon 
found on all the islands of the ^Egean as far as Cyprus. 
Adolf Furtwangler and Georg Loschcke set a good 
example by issuing at once a complete publication of 
these. Since then the geographical area in which this 
art is known to occur has been greatly extended, for it 
has been found on the coast of Italy and as far as Spain. 
It is evident that we are dealing with a civilization of 
long duration and of great extent. 

The student soon realized that this culture was richer 


and more ancient than that called forth by the so-called 
Dorian Invasion, which required several centuries before 
it produced the beginnings of the true Hellenic art, and 
that this newly discovered art in its technical perfection, 
its definite and at times excellent designs, anticipated 
actual Hellenic art. This art then had to be placed before 
the beginning of Greek history in the second millennium. 
Was it the long-sought Homeric art ? 

We must distinguish, as Wolfgang Reichel did in 1894, 
between the time of the Ionian singers, to whom we owe 
the Homeric poems as they have come down to us, and 
the time in which the action of the poems took place. 
The singers found numerous old sagas which had actually 
originated in those heroic times described, and may 
even, in some cases, have already received definite shape, 
but the singer bestowed upon them the poetic form of 
his time and of his tribe, adding numerous features 
derived from his own surroundings. It becomes necessary 
to differentiate between the old in Homeric language, 
Achaean Heroic sagas of the second millennium and 
the Ionian additions to them. We are aided in this 
frequently by the contents, the character of the motives, 
the tone of the representation, the more formal or the 
freer description, but our most certain guide is often to 
be found in works of art. To give the most striking 
example : neither Mycenaean art nor the older portions 
of the Iliad know the round Ionian metal shield, but 
only the great 8-shaped or small crescent-shaped shield 
of ox-hide ; wherever we meet the former we may know 
we are dealing with Ionian additions. Therefore My- 
cenaean art was not the art familiar to the Homeric 
Ionian singers, but the art of older ruling families, in 
whose honour all these sagas had been composed, and 
from which the Ionian poet borrowed the colour and 
circumstances of the Heroic Age. We may, therefore, 
term it the art of the Homeric Heroic Age. 


Both in Homeric poetry and in Mycenaean art gold 
plays an important part, and yet is rarely found on 
Greek soil. Ivory, which must certainly have come 
from foreign countries, was known to Homer, and has 
been discovered at Spata. Lions were as little known 
to Greece as cats or the papyrus, and yet Homer knows 
them, and they were known in art, and cats and papyrus 
as well, if indeed these are the objects represented on 
the dagger-blade. Art then was strongly permeated 
with foreign elements ; were these wares imported ? 
This idea arose while this newly discovered early age 
and the extent and perfection of its art were little known. 
But all doubts disappeared when the universality of the 
decoration and style on different materials was remarked ; 
e.g. the very peculiar formation and dress of the slim 
men are the same on wall paintings, gold cups, pottery, 
and gems. And this unity of style becomes the more 
convincing in view of the wide dispersion of the sites ; 
the potsherds in particular testify to the ubiquity of 
one type of art. It must have been an indigenous art, 
an art familiar to the old sagas ; all agree on that point. 

The foreign elements in Mycenaean art demanded 
another explanation : intercourse with foreign countries 
must have existed. It was Newton who first discovered 
in Mycenaean strata, in the island of Rhodes, Egyptian 
scarabs dating from the fifteenth century. From re- 
cently discovered records, Egyptology has established 
that extensive intercourse, chiefly of a warlike nature, 
had existed between Egypt and the " Islands of the sea," 
but this would not in any way exclude the influence of 
trade or art. If, on the one hand, Egyptian traces 
appeared in Mycenaean art, as the cat and the papyrus, 
there appeared in the first half of the fourteenth century 
under Amenhotep III and IV distinct traces of Mycenaean 
influence. The favourite palace of the latter king, 
Tell-el-Amarna, differs greatly from the usual Egyptian 


type (Chap. X) ; a floor in the palace has a representation 
of animals in a thicket of reeds, vying in delicacy and 
animation with the famous dagger. Mycenaean pot- 
sherds have frequently been found in Egypt. Thus 
some intercourse in trade and an exchange of objects 
of art between Egypt and the Greek peoples of the Archi- 
pelago are established for that period. But it hardly 
appears as if Egypt had been the one to bestow her 
culture, for in comparing an Egyptian dagger of c. 1500 
with the Mycenaean one of the same date, the superiority 
of the latter is very evident. The art of Egypt was at 
that time already growing old and stiff. It was the 
Mycenaean influence with its youthful vigour that in- 
fused a little fresh life into it. The art of Mycenae, 
on the other hand, possessing greater vitality, borrowed 
at most some externals from Egypt. After the short 
episode of Amenhotep IV, 1375-58, the reaction which 
followed seems to have broken off foreign intercourse 
more and more. It can only rarely be traced in Egypt 
beyond the thirteenth century ; whether the internal 
conditions of Egypt brought this about, or international 
complications, or the collapse of Mycenaean civilization, 
cannot be determined. This connection with Egypt 
only strengthens the impression made by the remains 
of Mycenaean culture. The civilization found in the 
islands and along the coasts of the ^Egean suggests the 
idea of a powerful and brilliant development of an in- 
dependent and vigorous genius. We may take it for 
granted that this precious art of the Achaean ruling 
families which, with the exception perhaps of the pottery, 
was not shared by their dependents, lasted as long as 
the rule of the heroes themselves, that is, until the slow 
racial migrations known as the " Dorian Invasion." 
When this inundated Greece, and brought in, with the 
germs of progress, for a time more barbarous conditions, 
it extinguished the last remnants of this highly developed 


culture, which henceforth only lived in the Heroic legends. 
In the practice of art all this aristocratic splendour 
was superseded by the plebeian art of the Geometric 
style, whether this was introduced by the emigrants, 
or whether, as has been hinted above (p. 214), and, as 
we believe, it was the old art of Central Europe, which 
had existed side by side with the princely Mycenaean 
art, and only now gained supremacy. 

As soon as we had come to know Mycenaean civilization 
the question arose where had it originated and by what 
races had it been cultivated ? It has always retained 
the name of Mycenaean from the first site where it was 
discovered, and the fame of Mycenae in the Homeric 
poems may have increased the tendency to look upon 
these fortress-palaces in the Argolid as the starting-point 
of this civilization and art. And although these citadels 
occupy a prominent place in the Heroic saga, in reality 
they were too unimportant in the history of civilization 
to justify the name of a Mycenaean culture. These 
petty princes of the Argolid were only members of that 
Achaean Heroic world whose fame filled the prehistoric 
age. Does this indicate the correct name ? 

The Achaeans were not only settled in the Argolid, 
but in many other places on the Greek mainland, and 
even beyond, as far as Crete. They were even known 
in foreign parts, if the Aquaiusha mentioned in Egyptian 
records under Meneptah, 1225-15, the Pharaoh of the 
Exodus of the Children of Israel, are correctly identified 
with the Achaeans, which is not by any means certain. 
The name Achaean would thus appear more acceptable, 
in any case, than Mycenaean, but it will hardly be ad- 
visable to adopt it, as it is not descriptive as regards one 
main point. 

It was F. Dummler who first referred to the vast ex- 


tent of this culture through the whole Archipelago. It 
has been seen that the favourite motives were derived 
from the sea. The sea is, as it were, the chief element in 
the art, and the great extent of this art in all the islands 
and along the coast of the ^Egean presupposes a great 
sea power, a Thalassocracy. It was therefore not strange 
that U. Kohler should think of the Carians, a non-Hellenic 
race to whom ancient historians attribute the mastery 
of the sea at a very early period. They are said to have 
been followed by the Cretans, whose most powerful 
ruler was Minos. 

At the beginning of these investigations in 1883 
A. Milchhofer had designated Crete as the main seat of 
this newly discovered culture. The so-called " Island 
stones," or pebbles cut with designs, which had recently 
been found in various islands, and in Crete in particular, 
led him to this conjecture. Their style was Mycenaean ; 
their frequently fantastic designs Milchhofer successfully 
proved to be free from Asiatic influence, and he connected 
them with other monuments of Mycenaean art. 

Crete had been the destination of numerous travellers, 
and the remains of its cities had been frequently in- 
vestigated, but prehistoric Crete still remained completely 
unknown. For it was of no importance that a Cretan, 
Minos Kalokairin6s, had in 1878 uncovered some walls 
of the Minoan capital Knossos, which W. J. Stillman 
had in 1881 declared to be the Labyrinth of Minos, the 
scene of Theseus' struggle with the legendary Minotaur. 
Of far greater importance were the peculiar pictographs 
noticed by Stillman. A year after the appearance of 
Milchhofer 's book in 1884, attention was again drawn 
to Crete by excavations carried on by the Italians on 
the south coast, together with a Cretan, Georgios Pas- 
parakes, the directors being Federico Halbherr and Paolo 

In ancient Gortyna, the chief place in Southern Crete, 

CRETE 229 

the famous old municipal laws were discovered and soon 
copied by Halbherr and Ernst Fabricius. But of greater 
significance for archaeology was the discovery of the 
Grotto of Zeus on Mount Ida by Paspardkes in 1884, 
and published by the two Italians mentioned. Besides 
very primitive bronze figures, bronze shields were found 
with chased decoration, exhibiting Oriental motives, 
which at first were thought to be Phoenician, until H. 
Brunn, in 1893, declared these products to be indigenous, 
although influenced by the East. Incited by Milchhofer 
and the success of the two Italians, Schliemann made, in 
1886, an attempt to secure Knossos for excavations, 
the direction of which would have been in the hands of 
Dorpfeld. But the plan failed owing to the excessive 
demands of the Cretans ; partly owing to political 
complications, and partly to the needless quarrel in 
which Schliemann became involved with T. E. Botticher 
(Botticher could only see in Troy a great crematorium). 
For some time Crete remained in the background. The 
work was resumed again in the nineties, in the north 
and in the south simultaneously. In the north Arthur 
Evans, the son of Sir John Evans, the eminent antiquary 
and savant, chose Knossos as his object. Although 
he had to contend with similar demands of the Cretans, 
he succeeded by patient endurance where Schliemann 
failed, and finally bought a great area, where he has been 
engaged since 1900 in uncovering what may be termed 
the Palace of Minos. It is a more complex and extensive 
series of courts, rooms, and labyrinthine passages than 
has been met with anywhere on Greek soil. A survey 
of the whole is difficult, as it is not a homogeneous struc- 
ture, but numerous very different palaces, separated 
by centuries from one another, and built one above 
the other in strata. For one at a distance it still remains 
difficult to disentangle this maze, but one must be im- 
pressed with the mighty royal residence of the ancient 


Cretan rulers. The great Palace of Knossos, situated 
in the open country and undefended by walls, compares 
with the small walled fortress-palaces of Tiryns and 
Mycenae as the palace of Versailles compares with the 
Wartburg. The power of a Minos, who ruled the sea, 
may have borne a similar relation to that of a Proitos 
or an Atreus, only no poet recorded his fame in so brilliant 
and lasting a form as was accorded to the Achaean princes. 
Even the tablets with ancient Cretan pictographs which 
Evans found will hardly, even if they yield information 
in regard to language and nationality, render this service. 
Broad stairs lead from the court through anterooms 
into spacious apartments, often divided by columns 
longitudinally or transversely. Wooden columns, taper- 
ing towards the base, were a main feature in Cretan 
architecture. We first encounter this column in the 
Mycenaean Lion Gate, and it is distinctly seen, with 
the wooden beams belonging to it, in a wall painting at 
Knossos, which represents a structure resembling an 
altar. One of the smaller rooms of the palace provided 
with an anteroom has stone seats around the wall, and 
in the centre a marble throne with a high back. Oppo- 
site columns extend to a staircase which descends to a 
bathroom lighted from above. Light-wells were very 
usual in these palaces of several storeys ; one may be 
seen, for instance, on a staircase, the steps of which 
are in good condition to-day. At one of the main en- 
trances the visitor was received by a row of life-size 
cup-bearers of both sexes painted upon the walls. On 
another wall we see painted in a clear, graphic miniature 
style men and women thickly crowded together as if 
eagerly witnessing a performance, the latter in the usual 
costume with a full, elaborately flounced skirt and a very 
low-cut bodice. Most perfect examples of stucco reliefs 
have been found. Neither bathrooms nor latrines are 
wanting in the palace. The great wealth of the ruler 


can be more fully realized when we see the underground 
magazines within which huge earthen pithoi were ranged 
side by side, filled with grain or provisions, while in 
the floor were ingenious openings for the safe-keeping 
of treasures. 

The palaces uncovered on the south coast at and near 
the beautifully situated Phaistos, by the Italians Federico 
Halbherr, Luigi Pernier, and Luigi Savignoni, present 
the same pictures on a smaller scale, and therefore more 
simply and clearly. All the main features of the palace 
at Knossos are found here in the chief palace on a more 
modest scale ; the small palace at Hagia Triada at first 
suggested a summer villa. Painting and sculpture 
played an important part here. The fragment of a wall 
painting shows with masterly skill a wild cat pursuing 
a pheasant in a thicket, and again a fragment of a steatite 
vase exhibits in low relief a procession of men in excellent 
drawing. Every new find deepens our sense of a great 
civilization and of an art which, by virtue of its frank 
naturalism, united to a well-trained artistic eye and a 
technical skill by no means contemptible, succeeded 
in representing men in as individual and characteristic 
a manner as Hellenic art only attained nearly one thou- 
sand years later, at the beginning of the fifth century. 
Such remains as could be removed are preserved in the 
Museum at Herakleia (Candia). What a brilliant light 
do these discoveries throw upon the Greek Heroic Age 
of the second millennium, which now rises out of the 
mists of legendary tradition ! These discoveries breathe 
also new life into the portrayal of the Homeric epos, 
and help us in distinguishing the older and more vigorous 
parts from the delicate and more winning, but at the 
same time partly modern, partly conventional additions 
of the Ionian singers. 

The Cretans certainly had intercourse with Egypt. 
At least, the Keftiu represented on Egyptian wall 


paintings holding Mycenaean gold vessels are identified, 
in all probability, with the Cretans, the Caphtor of the 

But investigations have only just been inaugurated 
which aim at establishing the relation of early Cretan 
civilization in its various revolutions (for that such took 
place has been proved) with the civilization of the main- 
land, and which may some day show to what extent 
Cretan and Achaean influences may have been reciprocally 

Certain characteristics are peculiar to Cretan art, 
others to that of the mainland, but in spite of this a 
homogeneous art and culture cannot be doubted. The 
great island of Crete, the seat of the Thalassocracy, 
was apparently the chief centre of this old civilization. 
Shall we therefore call it "Cretan" or " Minoan " ? 
We should only be justified in this, if we were certain 
that it had originated only in Crete, and spread thence 
northwards. On the other hand, " Achaean " can 
hardly be used, on account of the preponderance of 
Crete, which in its entirety can by no means be termed 
Achaean. Let us rather use the terms Cretan, Mycenaean, 
and Achaean to designate special local groups, while 
to the civilization as a whole we may, without prejudicing 
the issue, apply a name derived from the area over which 
it is mainly distributed, the coasts and islands of the 
^Egean, and call it simply " ^Egean." 


THE new movement which in the " Archaeology of 
the Spade " has been inaugurated since 1870 we 
have now pursued in three directions. The chief sites 
of Greek civilization have led us not only into classic 
but also into late Greek times ; the plans of cities belong 
mainly to Hellenistic and Roman times. Schliemann 
and his successors have led us backwards, a full millen- 
nium and more, and disclosed pre-Hellenic culture and 
art. Besides these great results in research a series 
of single finds has occurred partly by accident, partly 
in consequence of a preconceived scientific plan. It will 
not be possible to pursue here all in detail, we will only 
mention those on classic soil, which have yielded the 
greatest results for archaeology, or have offered the most 
important new problems. 

The science of vases has been extended back in an un- 
expected manner by the discovery of the Geometric, 
and later of the Mycenaean style. Pottery, which is 
almost indestructible, and is found everywhere, affords 
one of the most certain indications of human civilization. 
The different classes of potter} 7 , and their development 
in form and decoration, furnish us with the most valuable 
assistance in recognizing more distant periods of civiliza- 
tion and their affinities. Its significance and ethnology 
in the history of civilization far exceeds its value in 
the history of art. This only comes again into the 



foreground when to the simple decorative scheme is 
added the pictorial element, constantly growing more 
independent. In the $gean period it only appears in 
isolated cases.; it occurs more frequently in the later 
phase of the Geometric style, the so-called Dipylon 
(p. 207). For the succeeding periods of painted vases 
of the historical times, the old views still obtained in 
1870, which Otto Jahn had developed in 1854. 

Only in one point had we advanced, with the help 
of palaeography, and not through the study of style. 

Adolph KirchhofF s epoch-making " Studien zur Gcs- 
chichte des griechischen Alphabetes " appeared in 1863. 
Among the many important new results of this masterly 
investigation was a special class distinguished by Kirch- 
hoff amid the great number of " Corinthian " vases by 
virtue of the alphabet ; this alphabet is referred to 
Chalkis and its colonies. For the first time an Ionian 
city was ranked among the places of manufacture of 
painted vases. The stylistic test justified the inference, 
and subsequently many may have asked themselves 
why this active and artistically endowed Ionian race 
should have contributed nothing to this province of art ? 
But the old point of view was deep-rooted, and the Italian 
horizon still so narrow that when soon after in the tombs 
at Caere (Cerveteri) a very peculiar class of archaic vases 
appeared, the Cseretan vases were looked upon as an 
Etruscan imitation of the Corinthian style. It required 
a long time to recognize here also an Ionian style, differ- 
ing, it is true, greatly from that of Chalkis. Whoever 
has contemplated the Busiris Vase at Vienna, with the 
graphic representation of the yellow hook-nosed Egyptians 
in their linen garments and of the snub-nosed and woolly- 
haired Nubians, must be convinced that the painter 
gained his impressions in a country where a personal 
knowledge of Egypt was attainable. We conjecture 
to-day that Samos which participated in colonizing 


Naukratis may have been the home of these vases, 
which are without inscriptions, and, until now, have 
only been found at Caere. A possibility, of course, re- 
mains that they may have been manufactured by Ionian 
settlers at Caere or at its seaport, Agylla. 

Cyrene revealed in 1880 a class of vases partly known, 
with peculiar characteristics and a special alphabet ; 
silphion, the chief product of the country, indicated the 
home of the vases. A vase in the Paris cabinet of coins 
represented King Arkesilas II as a silphion merchant, 
and exhibited certain characteristics which revealed 
familiarity with native customs. Finally, the Phineus 
bowl at Wiirzburg, which became known in 1874, and has 
since been greatly damaged, leads us to infer, from the 
character of its inscription, that the place of its manu- 
facture must have been one of the Ionian islands or cities. 

Ionian painting thus disclosed is fundamentally different 
from the Corinthian. Even when the drawing is found 
to be awkward and clumsy, it is never stiff nor lifeless. 
Ionian mobility and volubility are evident everywhere, 
frequently with drastic humour, so that it even influenced 
the more sober Corinthian art. We have learnt to 
distinguish the earlier pure Corinthian from the later 
style, subject to Ionian influences. The number of 
independent Ionian communities accounts for the great 
variety of Ionian vases, in spite of general characteristics 
in common. An eager search began in the eighties for 
other Ionian examples, even without the help of in- 
scriptions ; herein F. Diimmler distinguished himself by 
his great acumen. Two definite facts helped in this 

In the old Ionian city of Clazomenae, on the Gulf of 
Smyrna, until then hardly known to the archaeological 
world, there were found in 1882 remains of painted terra- 
cotta sarcophagi ; to which others were soon added. 
The great museums of Berlin, London, and Paris made 


efforts to acquire examples of these clay sarcophagi, 
which until now have only been found at Clazomenae. 
The paintings on these sarcophagi give us an excellent 
survey of a certain class of painting on clay of the sixth 
century, how it developed from simple silhouettes into 
the painting of light figures on a dark background, or 
again of mere outlines delicately traced (the Attic de- 
velopment is here clearly indicated) ; how the severe 
symmetrical style of ornamentation and traditional 
scenes of war and the chase were rendered. These are 
apparently reminiscences of the devastating invasions 
of the Cimmerians in Asia Minor, a clear parallel to the 
oldest Ionian painting known from literary tradition, 
the Battle of Magnesia, by Bularchos. 

The second illuminating discovery was made in Egypt, 
when, in 1884-6, Flinders Petrie and Ernest A. Gardner 
excavated Naukratis, the great factory on the Nile, 
in which a number of cities in Asia Minor participated. 
Besides fragments of an early Ionic capital, a vast 
number of potsherds were found, wherein Georg Loschcke 
was able to distinguish three groups, which could be 
distributed among the three cities : Miletos, Samos, 
and Mytilene. This grouping was confirmed by the 
investigations carried on by J. Bohlau in 1894 in Ionian 
burial-grounds, particularly at Samos. The Egyptian 
Daphne (Tell Defenneh) offered another coloured style 
in 1888, and our increased knowledge of Ionian art even 
led us to attribute to the lonians the vases found in 
the Dorian island of Rhodes, by Salzmann, at Kameiros 
in the sixties. These Rhodian vases, however, form a 
class by themselves, and their Ionian origin has been 
often disputed. 

All these discoveries and researches threw unsuspected 
light on the artistic activity of Ionia in its golden age, 
the sixth century. An important and until then blank 
page in the history of art had been filled, and the influence 


of Ionia was perceptible everywhere. As we shall 
presently see, early Ionian sculpture, of which fine ex- 
amples had been found at Delos, was resuscitated on 
the Acropolis of Athens. In Attica the search for and 
the study of vases continued, the intermediate period 
was gradually being filled between the Dipylon and the 
old Attic style of the time of Solon ; vases found in 
Bceotia helped to differentiate the peculiarities of different 

Bceotia was also the scene of a discovery which at the 
time created immense interest. Tanagra, the little 
town in Southern Bceotia, need only be mentioned to 
fill our imagination with those delightful little figurines 
that bear its name. Since 1870, when secret excavations 
began there, great numbers have emerged from the 
graves of this town once famed for its ceramic industry. 
Unfortunately forgers soon began to carry on a great 
trade in copying these figurines. 

The Tanagra terra-cottas are made of Boeotian clay, 
but with Attic spirit and Attic grace. Erotes, trans- 
formed here into pretty children, hover in swarms about 
girls and women, who are represented now grave, now 
playful, usually modestly draped, often wearing a round 
pointed hat or delicately tinted garments, at times 
seated upon rocks, or holding a fan, or with a dove 
upon the shoulder, or again, looking down upon a mask. 
They are Praxitelean forms taken from daily life, with 
touches of their surroundings, preserving all the modest 
dignity of good Attic times, as in the Grave Reliefs, and 
utterly different from their luxurious and coquettish 
Hellenistic sisters of Asia Minor. 

And beside these refined girls appear graphic repre- 
sentations of daily life the stern pedagogue, the skilful 
barber, the dawdling street-arab, groups recalling the 
simple realism of Egyptian sculpture of the Old Kingdom, 


but entirely wanting in the piquant realism of the Alex- 
andrian bronzes of Hellenistic times. The terra-cottas 
of Tanagra thus illustrate the after effects of a great art 
upon the handicraft of the following generation. 

The activity of the Archaeological Society in Athens 
led to important results. By continuing to uncover 
the Theatre of Dionysos, which Strack had begun in 
1862 (the Odeion of Her odes Atticus had been excavated 
in 1858), a stately row of seats of honour was revealed, 
upon which Athenian priests and high officials witnessed 
the performances as they sat about the priest of Dionysos 
in his arm-chair, the latter covered with beautiful reliefs. 

A more thorough investigation of the stage-building 
was undertaken by Dorpfeld in 1886-95. The burial- 
ground before the Dipylon and the Sanctuary of Ask- 
lepios have been mentioned above (pp. 205, 135). Below 
the latter there was discovered in 1887-8 a long hall with 
two naves. It had been built for Athenian audiences 
by the Pergamene King Eumenes II, and resembled the 
Stoa of Attalos II, built near the Athenian market, and 
uncovered 1859-62. This had two naves, and was 
two storeys high, and provided with shops, and formed 
a model of Pergamene architecture, and had been known 
before excavations had begun at Pergamon itself or 
the Hall of Eumenes II had been found there. But all 
these minor excavations appeared insignificant compared 
with the work carried on on the Acropolis. 

On all early pictures of the Acropolis there can be seen 
a high clumsy tower erected near the south wing of the 
Propylaea in the Middle Ages. In 1876 Schliemann 
provided the means for removing this tower. The 
immediate result was the elucidation of the plans of the 
Propylaea and of the Temple of Nike. These successes 
strengthened the desire, frequently expressed, to make 


a more thorough investigation of the entire citadel. 
The Acropolis, as is well known, was completely devas- 
tated and destroyed by fire at the time of the Persian 
conquest in 480. On the top of this rubbish heap the 
Periclean Age erected its famous buildings : the Parthe- 
non, the Propylaea, the Temple of Nike, and the Erech- 
theion, which constituted its glory, and important 
remains of which have come down to our times. 

In this manner all older pre-Persian traces had been 
covered under the Periclean soil which has come to be 
simply termed "Perserschuit " rubbish of the Persians. 
Probably only one seated statue of Athene survived the 
stress of time ; Pausanias saw this near the Erechtheion, 
near which it was in fact early discovered. Only rarely 
had any pre-Persian work come to light by reason of 
deeper excavations, as the relief of a youthful charioteer 
(the so-called "Wagenbesteigende Frau "), or the statue 
of a man carrying a calf on his shoulders. Excavations 
at the massive foundations of the Parthenon during 
the thirties had clearly shown the abundance of re- 
mains in these lower strata. It was reasonably hoped 
that a thorough search would yield new disclosures. 
It is true, a trial excavation by the French School in 
1879, under the direction of the architect Paul Blondel, 
west of the Erechtheion, proved fruitless, so as again to 
cause hesitation. However, the direct or-in-chief of the 
excavations, Panagiotes Stamatakes who had done 
good work at Mycenae would not allow his resolution 
to be shaken, and in the autumn of 1884 the work of 
excavating the entire citadel was begun, with the object 
of reaching the living rock everywhere or proceeding 
until the ancient foundations or remains were reached. 
Unfortunately Stamatakes died soon after, but his 
successor Panagiotes Kawadias, who had distinguished 
himself at Epidauros, resumed the work with great 
energy. The architectural part of the task remained 


in the hands of G. Kawerau, but Dorpfeld's sagacious 
advice was constantly available. Thus the entire sur- 
face of the Acropolis was systematically uncovered 
during 1885-91 ; every detail and the circumstances 
of each find were carefully recorded, and Kawerau 
drew a plan of the whole, which he had carefully 
surveyed, but unfortunately its publication has not 
yet appeared. Excavations were begun at the north of 
the Propylaea, and continued in a circuit all round 
the citadel. 

Rarely has a plan begun and carried out systematically 
yielded such valuable results. Only those points will be 
touched upon which have been of great moment to science, 
or have presented new problems. 

The discovery of the old " Pelasgic " wall proved of 
the greatest significance for the study and history of the 
Acropolis. This wall, built of irregular blocks, conforms 
more closely to the original form of the citadel-rock than 
the post-Persian walls ; hence its characteristic windings, 
chiefly toward the south, where it sinks lower, following 
the level of the rock. West of the Propylaea only had a 
part of the Pelasgic wall always remained. Toward 
the north were found, beside walls, numerous other 
remains of ancient buildings, as of an ancient royal 
palace and a back staircase similar to the one at Tiryns ; 
thus at Athens also a regular feature of these ancient 
fortress-palaces was proved to exist. 

South of the Erechtheion a great artificially levelled 
surface had been observed. Soon after the beginning 
of the excavations, traces were here discovered in which 
Dorpfeld's sagacity recognized the remains of an ancient 
temple. Further research confirmed this, and an in- 
scription, found later and pieced together out of in- 
numerable small pieces, proved to have belonged to 
the temple, and gave its authentic ancient name as the 
Hekatompedon (sanctuary one hundred feet long). 


< 2 


r o 


The second official name, " the old Temple," which 
is also referred to it, appears to me incorrect. 

From the different periods of the foundation Dorpfeld 
recognized further that the original Hekatompedon only 
the temple a hundred feet long had had a cella 
toward the east, and a treasury, of two apartments, 
with an opisthodomos toward the west, the outer colon- 
nade being, however, a later addition ; this seemed at 
first a strange assumption, but soon an analogous struc- 
ture was found in Lower Italy, and the theory was con- 
firmed by later discoveries. Both conditions of the 
temple belong undoubtedly to the sixth century ; if, 
however, the temple is simply designated as a Peisistratan 
temple, the path to true knowledge is obstructed here as 
so often by " provisional truth." The original structure 
may belong to pre-Peisistratan times, or to the times of 
Solon ; it may even be conjectured that it can be brought 
into connection with the institution of the Great Pana- 
thenaean, in 566. 

The chief significance of these finds has been in con- 
nection with the history and conditions of Athens, but 
now a series of results throw light beyond it into the 
history of Attic art. While our knowledge of it in pre- 
Persian times had been only fragmentary and discon- 
nected, the great wealth of plastic art now revealed in 
the lower strata of the Acropolis has permitted us to 
follow distinctly Attic sculpture during the sixth century. 

The Attic poros stone, of both the hard and the soft 
variety, carved in the manner of wood, appeared as the 
oldest material. Several pediments of poros stone, 
with remains of brilliant colour, demonstrate in low 
and high relief the development of the Attic style of 
relief, as well as that of the composition of the pediments. 

One of these pediments, that called the Typhon pedi- 
ment, proved, as the result of Theodor Wiegand's investi- 
gation, to be of the Hekatompedon in its original con- 


dition ; as it represents the end of the period of limestone 
sculpture, it gives the relative date of the first temple. 
Besides these sculptures numerous later marble frag- 
ments were found, out of which Franz Studniczka, and 
later Hans Schrader, restored parts of a pediment group 
of a Gigantomachia with Athene as the central figure, 
which had taken the place of the Typhon in the Hekatom- 
pedon, when it was enlarged and a colonnade added. 
Not only had our knowledge of Attic plastic art been 
greatly extended, but we also acquired definite chrono- 
logical data for the rebuilding of the Hekatompedon. 

Another glimpse of the plastic art of Peisistratan times 
was afforded by the discovery on the Acropolis of the 
wondrous series of maidens or Korai. These had stood on 
pillar-like bases, and must have given a peculiar charm 
to the pre-Persian Acropolis. 

Each single statue had to be pieced together out of 
numerous fragments, a laborious task, shared by a 
number, but in which Franz Studniczka greatly dis- 
tinguished himself. The older of these statues indicated 
distinctly the islands as their home. One resembles 
closely the Hera of Samos, dedicated by Cheramyes, 
while another (" the cheerful Emma "), with red hair 
and green eyes, betrays her descent from the log-like 
statue dedicated by Nikandra of Naxos. Women in 
richer attire suggested Chios as their home, where a 
school of sculpture flourished in ancient times. It was 
difficult to decide on the origin of others, but this can 
safely be stated : the more advanced plastic art of the 
Ionian Islands entered Athens about the time of Peisis- 
tratos, and with its over-refined Rocco style it supplanted 
the more sturdy Attic art, and drew the Attic artists into 
its school. Soon the pupils surpassed their masters, 
for the statue of Antenor unites in the happiest manner 
Ionian grace with Attic dignity and Attic serenity. 
So that when towards the end of the century Dorian 


influences from the Peloponnese where in the meantime 
bronzework had been developed became perceptible 
in Attica, Ionian-Attic art was sufficiently refined to 
produce such graceful figures as the girl's head of the 
votive gift of Euthydikos, which recalls the art of Fran- 
cesco Francia. 

A lost chapter in the history of art had hereby been 
recovered from the rubbish heap of the Persians an 
important and attractive one, for it forms the intro- 
duction to the great Attic art of the fifth century. 

The sculptor Antenor, who later, after the expulsion 
of the tyrants, in his group of the Tyrannicides adopted 
the method of the Peloponnesian bronze-workers, was, 
according to the inscription on the base of his archaic 
female statue, the son of the painter Eumares, who, 
according to Pliny, was instrumental in the development 
of Attic painting. This coincidence is of interest, 
inasmuch as painting on archaic marble statues is very 
evident, although not in so great a degree as on the older 
limestone sculpture. The limitation of painting to 
certain parts of sculpture clearly overthrows the old 
theory, that either every part had been painted or none 
at all. But the close connection of the two arts became 
very apparent, and recalled the words of Plato, that the 
sculptor supplied the drawing and the form, but the 
complete effect of his work was only produced after the 
addition of painting. 

Better understanding of painting on sculpture was, 
however, not the only contribution to our knowledge of 
painting gained during the excavations on the Acropolis. 
For from the depths of the Persian rubbish heap 
there emerged numerous specimens of clay tablets and 
potsherds. A fixed date, which the chronology of vases 
had until then lacked, was gained, as the origin of none 
of the objects could be later than 480 ; the greatest 
care being taken in determining the position of the finds 


in the strata, and in demonstrating in each instance that 
they belonged to the original deposit. The consequences 
of this conclusion we shall point out in a later chapter 
(Chap. XI) ; it will suffice here to state that our historical 
conception was in consequence completely revolutionized, 
and that the entire period of red figured painting had to 
be pushed back two generations, its beginning dating 
from the time of the tyrant Hippias, before 510. Un- 
fortunately the publication which will give a full account 
of this new material is still delayed. 

The examples quoted clearly demonstrate how very 
important the excavations on the Acropolis proved. 
The work can, in every respect, be placed by the side 
of Olympia and of Delphi. Athene has assumed her 
place with dignity beside Zeus and Apollo. To complete 
the task, it remained to carry on the excavations outside 
of the Acropolis walls. The south side has been cleared 
of the rubbish accumulated by earlier excavations and 
the magnificence of its rock formation is clearly visible. 
At the north-west corner Kavvadias began in 1896-7 
to clear the Pan grotto and its surroundings. Un- 
doubtedly a continuation of the work along the " Long 
Rocks " of the north and east sides will solve other 
problems. The west slope is unfortunately not accessible 
to the excavator, in consequence of a modern thorough- 
fare. But at the foot of the Pynx Dorpfeld uncovered 
in 1892-7, with funds supplied by the Archaeological 
Institute and some patrons, a great fountain of Peisis- 
tratan times which received its supply by a long tunnel. 
Is this the old Kallirrhoe transformed by Peisistratos 
into the Enneakrounos, the Fountain with the Nine 
Spouts ? 

Discussions still continue, but opinion leans more and 
more to Dorpf eld's point of view. In any case, we are 
confronted with magnificent waterworks of the age of 
the Tyrants, to be compared with the waterworks of 


Polycrates in Samos and the great fountain house of 
" one hundred columns," constructed by the tyrant 
Theagenes, uncovered by Dorpfeld's direction at Megara 
in 1899 by R. Delbriick and K. G. Vollmoller. 

Nor have investigations ceased outside Athens. Besides 
the Archaeological Society, the various Archaeological 
Schools in Athens share in these excavations. To re- 
count all would be tedious ; it will suffice to mention only 
those of the greatest importance. The American School 
has worked at Corinth since 1896, from 1896-1904 under 
the direction of Rufus Richardson and others.* At 
Sikyon in 1887 M. L. Earle carried on extensive investi- 
gations with successful results. The excavations carried 
on by the Dutchman Wilhelm Vollgraf at Argos 1902-4 
take us back to prehistoric times. On Aspis, the hill to 
the north of the city, a prehistoric fortress was discovered ; 
upon the citadel Larisa opposite, rock-tombs of Mycenaean 
times, and the remains of a city built upon these are of 
the Geometric period these all afford new glimpses of 
the antiquity of this plain, so important in ancient Greek 

The British School, under the guidance of its director, 
Ernest A. Gardner, and the architect Robert Weir 
Schultz, worked at Megalopolis in 1890-1 with excellent 
results. In most of these excavations, in the Peloponnese, 
the theatre was the principal object of investigation ; 
at Megalopolis, behind the theatre was situated the 
Thersilion, a pillared hall more artistically designed than 
the Temple at Eleusis. Recently, in 1906, the British 
School has begun work at Sparta under its present 
director, R. M. Dawkins. The archaic sanctuary of 

* From 1904-5, the director of the American School, Theodore 
Woolsey Heermance, continued work at Corinth, and died in Athens 
29 September, 1905, of fever contracted there. The present director, 
B. Hill who has done work on the Hekatompedon inscription is 
continuing the work at Corinth. 


Artemis Orthia, the site of a cruel cult, has been dis- 
covered, and a great quantity of votive offerings have 
formed the main results. 

At Tegea in 1888-9 Victor Berard, of the French 
School, recognized the city walls, the Agora, and other 
important points in the city. But on account of the 
stubborn resistance of the inhabitants, only scant frag- 
ments of the famous Temple of Athene Alea, the master- 
piece of the young Scopas, were revealed, sufficient, 
however, to allow us now to determine more definitely 
the style of Scofcas (Chap. XI). Since then the French 
School has continued these investigations with great 
success. In the neighbouring Mantineia, Gustave Fougere, 
1887-8, discovered three important slabs, part of the 
base of a group by Praxiteles, illustrating the drapery 
motives of Praxitelean art. More surprising even were 
the disclosures from the excavations carried on in 1889-90 
by B. Leonardos and P. Kavvadfas at Lycosura tra- 
ditionally the oldest city of the human race. The 
Messenian sculptor Damophon was the chief artist 
to decorate these sanctuaries, and for want of more 
accurate information he had been placed in the fourth 
century. But it now appears from architectural evidence 
of the temple remains, as well as the style of the sculpture, 
that Damophon belonged to the decadence, about the 
second century before Christ. In 1900 divers off the 
little island of Antikythera, near stormy Cape Malea, 
discovered rich treasures at the bottom of the sea. In 
Roman times a ship had foundered here (near the point 
where Lord Elgin's ship, the Mentor, was wrecked) 
laden with marble and bronze works of art. Piecemeal, 
these were brought up, and among them a bronze statue 
of beautiful style has been restored, which has been made 
a criterion for the historical determination of style 
although its significance remains uncertain. This will 
be discussed more fully in Chapter XI. 


The Peloponnese had had the lion's share in these 
investigations. But even ^Etolia, which had yielded 
little in the arts, could now claim some success. The 
sanctuary of Apollo at Thermos, situated amid the 
mountains of the interior, formed the centre and meeting- 
place of the ^Etolian League. In 1897-9, under Georgios 
Soteriades, a very archaic temple was excavated. It 
was of peculiar construction ; a row of columns not only 
divided the long and narrow cella, but the apartments 
in the front and back of the temple as well. Where 
had the image of the god stood in a cella with two naves ? 
It had been conjectured that two deities must have 
presided in such a temple, but here it is only a question 
of Apollo. Thus a new question has been raised, which 
still remains unanswered. A couple of metopes, only 
painted and of very archaic style, offered something 
novel. Until now all metopes found had either been 
bare or with reliefs; painting taking the place here of 
painted reliefs again testifies to the equal value attached 
by the Greeks to the two arts. 

The old Attic grave reliefs of the sixth century had 
given this impression. Beside the painted relief stele 
of Aristion, we have the stele of Lyseas, which is only 
painted ; upon the latter a rider is figured in the space 
below, upon the stele of Aristion a space had been left 
for painting, and upon a third stele the main figure, as 
well as a rider in a secondary space, are represented in 
relief, formerly painted. According to Plato, quoted 
above, the relief formed the groundwork for painting, 
giving it definite outline, and producing slight shadow 

From Greece we must now turn to Italy. Under the 
influence of Luigi Pigorini the young Italian scholars 
have devoted themselves almost exclusively since 1870 
to prehistoric research. This flourishes in all parts of 


Italy. To this must be added the successful work 
carried on by Italians in Crete. Thus it may have come 
about that only in single cases have Italians devoted 
themselves to their classical treasures, which have 
mainly been taken in hand by foreign scholars. The 
German Archaeological Institute in Rome carries on a 
great part of this work. In 1887 Eugen Petersen suc- 
ceeded Wolfgang Helbig, and has since then, until 1906,* 
been its director. While scholars living in Italy, and 
especially Italians, frequently acquire a narrow outlook 
limited to things Italic, Petersen, returning from his 
travels in Asia Minor and a year spent at the head of 
the Archaeological Institute in Athens, had a more ex- 
tended horizon, and recognized at once, as a long-neglected 
field of activity, the pursuit of Greek traces in Italy. 
Since Francois Lenormant's journey along the coasts of 
Magna Graecia in 1880 no one had investigated Lower 
Italy in connection with Greek art. Petersen undertook 
this task, and in 1889 at Locri, on the south coast of 
Calabria, recognized, with his practised eye, the remains 
of an Ionic temple, which Paolo Orsi excavated. In 
Lower Italy, where Doric architecture prevailed, an 
Ionic temple was unique, and its excavation proved 
important, as its ground plan was archaic ; so that it 
filled a gap in our knowledge of the more ancient Ionic 
style. The Temple was peculiar in many respects, 
having, for example, two naves, and the addition of a 
colonnade to the original temple is evident here, as had 
been the case with the recently discovered Athenian 
Hekatompedon (p. 251). 

What had thus been attempted in a single case was 
successfully pursued in the following years, 1892-4, 
during two journeys by Otto Puchstein and Robert 
Koldewey. Although carried on without excavations, 
their renewed examinations of all the ruins of Lower 
* When Korte succeeded Petersen. 


Italy and Sicily were of great significance, and greatly 
extended our knowledge of old Doric architecture in 
the Greece of the West. 

Some examples may be quoted. Near Selinus a 
pre-Dorian sanctuary appeared, of which the date could 
approximately be fixed ; the result has been a general 
reduction in the estimated age of the Doric buildings. 
The ends of the pediments of two very ancient temples 
the temple C at Selinus and the Temple of Ceres at 
Paestum showed that they had been turned down at the 
extremities, an otherwise unknown phenomenon of un- 
certain date. At Girgenti the position of the figures of 
Atlas was fixed with probable accuracy. By a close 
study of the altars before the temples, the so-called 
Basilica at Paestum, with two naves and a facade of nine 
columns, was recognized as a temple ; formerly it had 
been thought a stoa. A peculiarity of certain Doric 
capitals, a sharp narrowing of the column below the 
echinus, was proved to be characteristic of the Achaean 
city Paestum. 

A sequel to these studies of the architecture of Magna 
Graecia was the discovery by H. Graillot, in 1896, of 
a temple at Conca, near Antium, which Petersen im- 
mediately investigated. He demonstrated that about 
500 a temple in Latium need not necessarily have had 
the Italic, but could have had the pure Greek ground 
plan, and thereby confirmed a fact that had only been 
known from scattered records the influence of Greek art 
upon the Rome of the early Republic. According to the 
traditional view, Rome in those times had been entirely 
under the influence of Etruscan art and culture. 

The studies undertaken by Petersen led to the dethrone- 
ment of Etruria in favour of Greece in many respects. 
He proved that a bronze chariot, covered with reliefs, 
found at Perugia in 1812, which until then had been 
looked upon as one of the greatest Etruscan works of 


art, was not Etruscan at all, but Ionian, presumably 
derived from one of the Ionian colonies of Southern 
Italy. What applied here to the chariot applied to 
other " Etruscan " works, for instance, the famous 
bronze candelabrum of Cortona. It has long been 
known that the Chimaera of Arezzo was Greek, in spite 
of the Etruscan inscription. And there can be no doubt 
as regards the superb statue of a youth known as the 
Idolino of Pesaro. 

Petersen extended his verdict even to the famous 
Capitoline she-wolf which bears no trace of Etruscan 
character, but, as Central Italian art of this early period 
could scarcely produce so good a work, and as certain 
features suggested Ionian art, Petersen conjectured that 
it had been made by Ionian artists for Rome, at the 
beginning of the Republic ; a parallel to the contemporary 
Athenian Tyrannicides, inasmuch as the twins under 
the she-wolf represented the founders of Rome in con- 
trast to the kings. To-day certainly early Ionian art is 
viewed with a more critical eye, and distinguished from 
Etruscan copies, and thereby new insight has been gained 
into Ionian art, particularly that of Southern Italy. 

For example, the marble relief found at Nemi in 1791 
representing the murder of ^Egisthus, and now in Copen- 
hagen, is undoubtedly a genuine old Ionian work ; this 
is confirmed by certain resemblances to the frieze of the 
Treasury of the Siphnians at Delphi (p. 150). 

Beside Greek models in Italic art, there appear the 
creative productions of Central Italy. The Etruscan, 
or rather the old Italic temple had, until recently, been 
only known to us from the not very clear description of 
Vitruvius, hence attempts at its reconstruction varied 
greatly. But light has gradually penetrated this domain 
as well. 


In the garden of the Palazzo Caffarelli, in Rome, there 
had been uncovered in 1865, and again in 1875-6, the 
foundations of the Temple of the Capitoline Jupiter ; 
measurements were taken, so that an idea of the general 
plan was gained. At Ancient Falerii (Civita Castellana) 
there were discovered in 1887 the remains of the ancient 
tripartite temple of Juno Curitis, the whole in a very 
damaged condition. At Marzabotto, however, in 1888-9, 
a number of ground plans were obtained, giving a clearer 
idea, and again at Alatri in 1889, and at Florence in 1892. 
The result was the same everywhere : in the place of the 
strict rules of Vitruvius a great variety of actual ground 
plans appeared. 

A wall closed the back, a wide porch or vestibule for 
the observation of the heavens, the threshold of the cella, 
or the middle one of the three, which formed the con- 
secrated central point of the whole : these features 
always recurred as demanded by the ritual. Otherwise 
great diversity existed in the plans, for example, whether 
the temple was on a level surface or on an elevation ; 
if so, steps only in front led to it. Discoveries were also 
made of the terra-cotta decoration which had covered 
the wooden framework, thus illustrating its very ornate 
character ; ceramics had been a favourite branch of 
Etruscan industry. An entire pediment group of terra- 
cotta of the Roman Age had been found in 1842 at Luni, 
near Carrara, but its significance was only recognized 
by Luigi A. Milani in 1885. 

Beside the study of the older forms of Italic temples, 
attention was drawn to the long-neglected subject of 
the gradual transition from the Italic style to the Greek. 
The fantastic work in Roman architecture of Luigi 
Canina had long enjoyed a reputation it hardly deserved. 
But a more thorough study was undertaken by Carlo 
Promis in 1836 of the remains of Alba Fucens in the dis- 
trict of the jEqui. R. Delbriick has recently begun 


connected investigations of the temples in Central Italy, 
and traced in the Temples of Signia, Norba, and Gabii 
the Greek influence on the form of the temple and its 
development, as well as the transition from wood to 
stone construction ; finally, he has shown how towards 
the end of the war of Hannibal, the Asian mode of 
construction of Hermogenes was transferred to Rome, 
only to degenerate in strange soil. Temples that had 
long been known, as the Ionic Temple of Mater Matuta 
(the so-called Fortuna Virilis) in Rome, or the round 
Corinthian Temple at Tivoli, only now appeared in 
their true connection. The Temple at Cori, in the 
Volscian hills, in a most beautiful situation, shows how 
the Doric style deteriorated in Italy, and soon gave 
way to the Tuscan style. 

So great a transformation as was caused in Rome by 
the change of the quiet Papal residence into the capital 
of the Kingdom of Italy had not been witnessed since 
the days of Sixtus V. The topography of Ancient Rome 
became better known in consequence of new data. 
Eager and able workers, like Rjtlolfo Lanciani, Henri 
Jordan, and the secretary of the German Institute, 
C. Hiilsen, were very active. The laying out of new 
streets and the erection of new buildings led everywhere 
to the discovery of fragments of ancient buildings or of 
sculpture, so that the Municipal Museum on the Capitol 
soon became too small to contain the incessant stream 
of treasures. Besides the accidental finds, systematic 
research was carried on. 

The work begun by Napoleon III on the Palatine 
was continued, and extended nearly over the entire 
surface of the hill, so as to obtain a clear idea of this 
part of the city, which became a fashionable quarter 
towards the end of the Republic, and where the palaces 


of the world-ruling emperors had been. The palace of 
Augustus, known from ancient prints, although only in 
a late reconstruction, is beneath the Villa Mills ; the 
latter, it is said, is now to go. It is a question whether 
the gain to archaeology will counterbalance the loss of 
the poetic cypresses. Many years of work in the Forum 
have enlightened us on numerous points of Roman to- 
pography and antiquity, and even shed rays of light 
upon the prehistoric times of the city, but the Campo 
vaccino, once so lovely, has now become an ugly pit full 
of trenches and mounds of earth. It is difficult to find 
compensation for this unattractive sight in the much- 
vaunted lapis niger over the grave of Romulus, or in 
the remains of the palace of the Vestal Virgins, or in the 
Temple of Augustus. The impression made by the Arch 
of Titus has certainly been enhanced, for only since the 
excavations has the ridge of the Velia, upon which it is 
situated, produced its full effect ; seen from the Forum, 
the monument of the conquest of Jerusalem now appears 
on an imposing height. 

Among the most valuable archaeological acquisitions 
is the house of the Augustan Age, discovered in the garden 
of the famous Villa Farnesina in 1878, in consequence 
of the regulation of the course of the Tiber. Its well- 
preserved wall paintings exhibit the second style 
in a wealth of form, a beauty of design and brilliant 
colouring, which, as in the paintings of the Palatine, 
mark the artistic superiority of the great capital to the 
Pompeian country town. 

The stucco decorations of the ceilings, imaginative and 
subtly suggestive as they are and free from all suspicion 
of the mechanical, exhibit one of the most artistic ex- 
amples of decorative work in antiquity. These treasures, 
recovered at a place hallowed by modern art, are now 
the valued possessions of the newly found Museo Nazionale 
in the Thermae of Diocletian. 


Many other treasures discovered during the last 
decades are stored in the Museo delle Terme. One of 
the loveliest pieces of sculpture revealed in Roman soil 
was found in 1887, when the Villa Ludovisi was wantonly 
wrecked and transformed into lodging-houses. It is 
the back of a marble throne with a representation of 
Aphrodite rising from the sea, while to the right and left 
she is tenderly received by a nymph. A masterpiece 
of Greek sculpture, dating from the transition to the 
best period. This valuable piece has found a home in 
the Museo delle Terme with the entire Ludovisi collection, 
one of the most important private collections of papal 

Here, in the upper storey, we meet the noble Vestal 
the prototype of an aristocratic abbess found in 1883 at 
the Temple of Vesta in the Forum. Among the bronzes 
is the unkempt pugilist, found in the Via Nazionale in 
1884, a seated figure with a broken nose, swollen ears, 
and scratched arms, but nevertheless full of indomitable 
brutality, a work well executed and characteristic of the 
taste of later times ; beside it the bronze head of a victor 
found at Olympia, although also of ungainly form, appears 
as the representative of a nobler race. 

Some consideration was now devoted to old and well- 
known statues of the time of the Empire. Archaeology 
had hitherto treated Roman art very grudgingly. The 
great number and great significance of the ever-increasing 
Greek works had pushed the Roman ones into the back- 
ground. Friedrich von Duhn had in 1879-81 drawn 
attention to some scattered reliefs as belonging to the 
Ara Pacis. This the Senate had vowed in the year 13 B.C., 
after the Emperor Augustus had established peace in the 
empire, and had dedicated it to the goddess of peace 
three and a half years later. Eugen Petersen began its 
investigation in 1894, and finally established its form, 
the extent of the walls about the altar, and the distri- 


bution and significance of the decoration. The true 
Roman solemnity of the frieze and its extreme fidelity 
to nature soon gained for the Ara Pacis its place as the 
foremost work of Augustan sculpture and as a character- 
istic parallel to the frieze of the Parthenon which repre- 
sents Periclean Athens. 

We had acquired something quite novel here ; but 
what was its bearing on our knowledge of the presumably 
well-known official sculpture of the Empire ? The work 
begun by Adolph Philippi in 1872 was resumed by 
Edmond Courbaud in 1890. But the most important 
task still remained. Franz Wickhoffs analysis of the 
reliefs on the Arch of Titus in 1895 and some works 
connected therewith, gave us a clearer view of art in the 
time of the Flavian emperors, although this work was 
somewhat impaired by the over-estimation of Roman 
sculpture to the disadvantage of the Hellenistic. 

Konrad Cichorius' publication in 1896-1900 of the 
reliefs on the Column of Trojan first prepared the way 
for a more thorough historical and archaeological treat- 
ment of a work which till then had been unduly depre- 
ciated. The photographs and casts taken of the Column 
of Marcus Aurelius at the expense of the German Emperor 
in 1895, under the direction of Petersen, A. v. Domas- 
zewski, and the architect Calderini, provided a basis 
for its scientific study. On the one hand we have ethno- 
logically instructive representations of the Marcomanni 
and other enemies of the emperor, while on the other 
hand appeared the transformation of the frequently 
poetic tale of Trajan into a dry matter-of-fact chronicle. 
Finally, on the Arch of Constantine Petersen distinguished 
the parts dating from the time of Trajan, the round reliefs, 
from the oblong panels, which belong to the time of 
Marcus Aurelius, thus definitely establishing important 
points in the art of the Empire. A frieze of Poseidon at 
Munich, which Heinrich Brunn in 1876 felt inclined to 


ascribe to Scopas, but Overbeck and others more cor- 
rectly ascribed to Hellenistic art, Adolph Furtwangler 
recognized in 1896 as belonging to the front of a great 
altar now in the Louvre representing a great Roman 
sacrifice, the Suovetaurilia, and belonging to the Temple 
of Neptune, erected by Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus 
about the time of the battle of Actium : Brunn had 
also thought of this as its original place. The great 
barriers found in the Forum in 1872, with representations 
in relief of the Forum and of official acts of Trajan, were 
ascribed by Petersen in 1898 to the balustrade of the 
tribune as their original place. This will suffice to show 
that our knowledge of the historical sculpture of the 
empire has been placed upon a secure footing. How- 
ever, the most important examples of the architecture 
of these times still await investigation, which so far has 
only taken place in single cases. 

Work continued at Pompeii on the lines described 
above (p. 159). One part after another of the ancient 
city was uncovered. Public buildings, as the so-called 
Stabian Thermae or as the completely destroyed temple 
of the city divinity, Venus, appear only rarely. The 
greatest interest was roused in 1894-5 by the discovery 
of the rich and well-preserved house of the Vettii with 
1 88 paintings ; efforts were made to preserve this private 
house as completely and perfectly as possible. The 
same method has since been applied at the Casa degli 
Amorini dorati, with its wealth of art objects. Gilt 
cupids below mirrors have given to the house its name. 
An unusual discovery was made in the neighbourhood 
of Pompeii at Boscoreale, where in 1894-6 a country 
house and a farm were excavated by A. Pasqui. Here 
everything was quite different from the town residence 
of Diomedes, and for the first time did we gain an idea 
of a villa rustica. 


Recently our hopes had been revived that the long- 
neglected excavations at Herculaneum might be re- 
sumed. Charles Waldstein projected plans by which 
this great work would have been carried on by inter- 
national subscription, and greatly exerted himself in 
its behalf. The Italian Government was at times favour- 
ably inclined and again opposed to these plans, according 
to the ministry in power, but finally the proud word 
prevailed, Italia jar a da st. We can only wait patiently 
and hope that our descendants may see the sister town 
to Pompeii brought back to the light of day. 

The owner of the country home at Boscoreale was 
not able to save his superb silver, which had been gathered 
together, before the same catastrophe overtook his 
property as the neighbouring Pompeii. It formed a 
large collection when discovered, and, in spite of the 
Italian law prohibiting the export of works of art, soon 
found its way to Paris, and was acquired by Baron 
Edmond de Rothschild, who presented it to the Louvre, 
with the exception of two interesting cups, which he 
retained. It forms a magnificent treasure, a combina- 
tion of Hellenistic and Roman objects. A cup which 
rapidly became famous represents a dance of death of 
Greek poets and philosophers, and probably origin- 
ated in Alexandria ; another cup with handles has such 
graphic representations of storks that it must have 
come from the home of storks, presumably Asia Minor ; 
a sumptuous cup with a medallion of Alexandria or 
Africa was, undoubtedly, copied from an original from 
Alexandria. Tankards with historical scenes from the lives 
of the Emperors Augustus and Tiberius, and cups with 
Roman portraits, leave no doubt as to their Roman origin. 
Thus a distinction was clearly indicated between Hellen- 
istic (not merely Alexandrian) and Roman art, a dis- 
tinction which extended to certain marble reliefs having 
pictorial characteristics. The opinion of scholars has 


recently inclined more towards Roman art, particularly 
in the better examples of the Augustan Age ; this by no 
means excludes Hellenistic models, which in many in- 
stances may be assumed. Involuntarily one thinks 
of the relation of Roman poetry, under the empire, to 
Hellenistic models. 

The discovery of the silver treasure at Boscoreale was 
not the first of its kind. In Normandy, at Berthouville, 
near Bernay, there was found in 1830 a great silver treasure 
from a Temple of Mercury, now preserved in the Cabinet 
de Me* dailies in Paris. It can probably be dated later 
than the treasure of Boscoreale, and testifies to the 
ostentatious and less pure taste of the late empire. 

Some time after this, in 1858, there were taken from 
the Rhine at Lauersfort, near Xanten, silver decorations 
(phalerce) of a Roman officer, viz. nine silver medals with 
representations protecting the owner from evil or magic. 
More important artistically was the great silver treasure 
found in 1868 on the parade ground at Hildesheim ; it 
belongs mainly to the early empire, and may have been 
the dinner service of a Roman general, even if not of 
Varro. It has been restored with great care at the 
Berlin Museum. On the whole very similar to the trea- 
sure of Boscoreale, in some single pieces it excels it, 
as, for example, the great mixing bowl and the Athena 
cup and it offers the same problems. 

It cannot be doubted that the craft of the silversmith 
was most zealously carried on in imperial Rome. Pliny's 
saying, that the art of the silversmiths and engravers 
had expired, must be applied to their inventive genius, 
and not to technical finish. 

These later examples have taken us beyond the boun- 
daries of Italy into foreign countries, which we will rapidly 
traverse in the next chapter. 



THE two lands of classical fame are surrounded on 
all sides by countries of such great diversity as to 
render an entirely different point of view necessary, 
according as the art of a country developed along the 
lines of indigenous tradition or developed through Greek 
or Roman stimulus. The east naturally comes under 
the former, the west and the north under the latter point 
of view. 

In consequence of the preponderating political in- 
fluence of France in Egypt, scientific investigations there 
had practically been in her hands since the middle of 
the century. Auguste Mariette, rather a fortunate 
discoverer than a profound investigator, excavated a 
series of temples of the New Kingdom or the times of 
the Ptolemies and the empire of Edfu, Dendera, Karnak, 
and Deir-el-Bahari. Abydos also owes to him its dis- 
covery. At the beginning of Mariette's activity, of great 
importance was the complete clearing from sand of the 
Serapeum at Memphis, a work of four years (1851-5). 
Unfortunately to-day it has again disappeared under 
the sand, and is awaiting a thorough excavation by the 
Egyptian Government, which began work at Sakkara 
in 1905. The main sanctuary of the later chief divinity 
of Egypt had then been visible with its graves of Apis 
and a great variety of sculpture ; in one passage two 



adjoining chapels, one Egyptian, the other Greek, made 
the twofold character of the Ptolemaic Age very evident. 

Mariette, as the director of the Museum founded by 
him at Bulak, transferred to Gizeh and now at Cairo, 
excavated some neighbouring graves with very different 
contents. One need only refer to the squatting figure 
of a scribe at the Louvre, to recall the remarkable dis- 
covery that a vigorous art existed under the Old King- 
dom in the fifth Dynasty. 

Here was an undreamt-of new outlook into early 
Egyptian art. Free, as yet, from the conventional 
limitations and subservience to architecture of the later 
plastic art, this sculpture, though observing the law of 
frontality, and its own canons of style, exhibits greater 
freedom and independence, is based upon the closest 
observation, and possesses a wonderful mastery of tech- 
nique and that too in the middle of the third millen- 
nium ! And the scribe was not a unique instance, 
for the village sheik soon surpassed him in popularity, 
and a great number of animated figures engaged in the 
occupations of daily life appeared beside these. 

As director of Egyptian antiquities Mariette was 
succeeded in 1881 by Gaston Camille Maspero, who 
emphasized the historical and philological sides of 
Egyptian research and brought these studies to a high 
pitch of excellence. Besides the great Pyramids of 
Gizeh, he investigated the smaller and somewhat later 
Pyramids of Sakkara, structures of the fifth and sixth 
Dynasties. Long religious texts were disclosed in their 
interiors, affording insight into the religion of the age 
of the Pyramids. The oldest period of the Egyptian 
language was here for the first time discovered, and there- 
by a foundation acquired for Egyptian grammar, as 
established by Adolf Erman. 

The perfect method with which excavations were 
carried on marked a further advance. The Egyptian 


Government, under the direction of the French, ex- 
cavated and partly restored the great Temples at Medinet 
Habu, Luxor, and Karnak. Other nations soon vied 
with the French, foremost among them the English, 
whose political influence in Egypt had greatly increased ; 
the Americans soon followed, and, lastly, the Germans. 
The Egyptian Exploration Fund, founded in 1882, and 
the German Orient Society, which has been active in 
Egypt since 1902, are both carrying on thorough re- 
search work at important sites. For example, the former 
excavated under Edward Naville at Deir el Bahari in 
1894-6 the great terrace-temple of Hatshepsut, and in 
1903-7 he uncovered the oldest Theban Temple, that 
of the Dead, erected by King Mentuhotep, about 2100 ; 
it is a terraced structure leaning against the rocks ; 
a pyramid once adorned the top, a later peculiar variety 
of the old type of pyramid. Flinders Petrie, who had 
gained some experience at home with British antiquities, 
has distinguished himself greatly by the energy with 
which he has undertaken new excavations. He has 
since 1880 transferred the zeal of an enthusiast to his 
work in Egypt, displaying the energy of a Schliemann 
combined with a much more scientific mind. After 
some investigations of the Pyramids he directed his at- 
tention to the uncovering of entire cities, according to 
the tendency in classic lands, recorded above (Chap. 
VII). His lucid reports followed at short intervals, 
always immediately after the excavations. Naukratis 
(1884-6) has been mentioned above ; it had been of the 
greatest importance in ancient Greek commerce with the 
country of the Nile. 

In 1889 he excavated near Illahun, a city of pyramids 
of the Middle Kingdom; not only did this disclose the 
character of Egyptian dwellings, but when the excavations 
were resumed there in 1899 a great find of papyri made it 
possible to fix astronomically the date of the Middle 


Kingdom. It was here that the first Mycenaean sherds 
were found in Egypt, which Petrie discovered in great 
numbers in 1895, although of a later date by 500 
years. Tell-el-Armana, the residence of the reformer 
King, Akenaton or Amenhotep IV, was excavated and 
aroused extraordinary interest. A realism quite un- 
known in Egypt distinguished the pictures of this heretic 
King, who would not worship the sun-god Ra, but the 
sun itself with its fiery rays. The landscapes and animal 
scenes in his palaces suggested a foreign " Achaean " 
influence at that time in Egypt ; a view, however, 
recently opposed by Egyptologists. The clay archives 
of this palace had already been found in 1887, giving 
in cuneiform a surprising view of the diplomatic corre- 
spondence of the great powers, Egypt and Babylonia, 
c. 1400 B.C. Since 1895 the architect L. Borchardt has 
greatly distinguished himself by his scientific and 
methodical explorations. He excavated in 1899-1901 
for the Berlin Museum with generous support from 
W. van Bissing the sanctuary of the sun-god Ra, near 
Abu Gurab, on the summit of which there had been 
an obelisk. The elaborate reliefs of this temple refuted 
the earlier views that the temples of the Old Kingdom 
had been without decorations. 

We are indebted to Borchardt, in consequence of his 
excavations carried on in 1902-4 for the German Orient 
Society at Abusir, for a better understanding of the his- 
tory of the building of pyramids and the extensive 
structures of which the pyramids only formed a part ; 
an entrance gate on the shore of the Nile, during the in- 
undations, led to a covered ascending passage, this to 
the funereal temple, behind which rose the pyramid. 

The French at Abu Roash have worked along the same 
lines, and the Americans at Gizeh have investigated the 
funereal Temple of the Pyramids. 

Borchardt has also illuminated to some extent the 


form of the column in Egypt, and the excavation of the 
great Temple at Thebes mentioned above has afforded 
him an opportunity to develop the complicated history 
of the main parts of this gigantic structure (1905). 

The investigations of the Tombs of the Kings of the 
Middle Kingdom have been most successful, rather in 
regard to the remarkable offerings found with the dead 
than architecturally. The fame of the valuable find 
made by J. de Morgan in the Tombs of the Princesses 
of Dahshur is fully justified. Incomparable technique 
combined with sumptuous material produced model 
creations in Egyptian artistic productions. The Tombs 
of the Kings of the New Kingdom at Biban-el-Muluk, 
excavated in recent years by the generosity of the 
American, Theodore Davis, have disclosed art treasures 
of equal merit and beauty. As the Egyptian soil is 
so very dry, even wooden furniture and utensils are 
perfectly preserved. It is owing to this circumstance, 
combined with the excellent embalming methods of the 
ancient Egyptians, that certain distinguished dead Kings 
of the New Kingdom have come down to us so well 
preserved that we know their features better than from 
statues or pictures. 

The latest stages of research in Egypt have here, as 
elsewhere, extended the limits of our knowledge back- 
wards, to the earliest dynasties, beginning with King 
Menes, and, indeed, further still to the dawn of Egyptian 
civilization. During the last ten years there have been 
engaged in this field E. Am61ineau at Abydos ; J. de 
Morgan at Nagada ; Flinders Petrie at Abydos ; and 
J. E. Quibell at Kom-el-achmar. 

Borchardt recognized at Nagada in 1879 the tomb of 
King Menes about 3400, very different from later tombs, 
but instructive as to their origin. The wall paintings 
at Kom-el-achmar (Hierakonpolis), and the decoration 
on the numerous pots found in the prehistoric burial- 


grounds revealed a childish art, while the ivory statuette 
of an aged King displayed a closely observant naturalism. 
The forerunners of the art relief of the Old Kingdom 
are to be found in the reliefs of the great cosmetic palettes 
of the older Kings. 

By placing the older possessions of their temples aside, 
the ancient Egyptians have allowed us, who follow, to 
recover here and there remarkable glimpses of antiquity. 
Thus Quibell found in the Temple of Kom-el-achmar, in 
1897, besides numerous examples of the first Dynasty, 
a life-size statue in copper of King Pepy, of the sixth 
Dynasty. And Legrain discovered near the Temple at 
Karnak in 1904 a pit filled with hundreds of statues, 
which had evidently been put there in Ptolemaic times. 

In consequence of these finds of prehistoric and ancient 
art, the same questions arise in Egypt as in Greece, as to 
the origin of Egyptian art, and as to the age of the con- 
ventional forms which are so characteristic of it. Some 
progress is being made towards the solution of these 
difficult problems. 

Our knowledge of the Ptolemaic-Roman period has 
also been extended. The unexpected information we 
have acquired of the administrative history of Egypt, 
which has come to us through the numberless papyri 
found, can only be mentioned here. Greek literature 
has likewise been enriched from the same sources by 
fragments of Bacchylides and Menander and Aristotle's 
Athenian Constitution. 

There were found, in 1887, in the Fayum a great num- 
ber of pictures painted on thin slabs of wood, which 
created great interest ; these had originally, like the 
Egyptian and Mycenaean gold masks, covered the faces 
of mummies. These very interesting paintings, although 
of very different degrees of artistic merit, were at first 
placed in the times of the Ptolemies, but have later 
been recognized as mainly productions of the Roman 


period. Besides adding greatly to our knowledge of 
portrait painting, those tablets have informed us as to 
the technique of tempera and encaustic painting and 
their occasional combination. Efforts have also been 
made to acquire fresh material in the domain of Hellenistic- 
Alexandrian art, a task to which T. Schreiber has devoted 

While Egyptologists are devoting themselves almost 
exclusively to Ancient Egypt in the days of her glory 
and independence there still remains a great deal to be 
done for our knowledge of Alexandria, as the centre of 
" Alexandrian " art ; only a few decades ago the very 
existence of an Alexandrian art was doubted. Unfor- 
tunately the excavations undertaken at Alexandria by 
Schreiber, in 1898-9 and in 1900-1, at the expense of 
E. Sieglin, did not result very favourably. Giuseppe 
Botti has established in the Alexandrian Museum a 
definite place for the collection of this material. Besides 
collecting many single objects, he succeeded in preserving 
in 1900 a Graeco- Roman tomb at Kom-esh-Shukafa, of 
several storeys and of rather complicated plan. While 
the art of Ptolemaic times was marked by a sharp separa- 
tion between the native and Greek elements, we find 
during the Empire a syncretism of form and contents 
such as is peculiar to the later art of Egypt. 

The Museum in Alexandria has found in E. Breccia a 
zealous director for its rapidly increasing treasures ; and 
it is to be hoped that he will gradually collect and save 
the scattered remains of Hellenistic and Roman Alex- 
andria. How little care has been taken in certain cases 
is demonstrated by the fate of a sanctuary of the early 
times of the Ptolemies erected by the admiral Kalli- 
krates, on the seashore, near the capital, to Arsince, the 
wife of Ptolemy II, who was worshipped as Aphrodite. 
It was cleared of sand and hastily surveyed in 1865, 
and, so far as the stones have not been carried off as 


building material, is now again completely enveloped 
in sand. 

Only recently has it become possible to investigate 
the antiquities of Abyssinia, the fanaticism of the in- 
habitants and its inaccessibility rendering the work most 
difficult. The connection Germany has established with 
the Negus Menelik and the generosity of the Emperor 
William resulted in an expedition in 1906, in which the 
orientalist Enno Littmann, and the architects D. Krencker 
and T. von Liipke, took part. Near Adua, at Aksum, 
the capital of the ancient Aksuman Empire, which flour- 
ished during the first four or five centuries after Christ, 
there were discovered besides remains of temples and 
palaces the great " Kings' chairs," erected in honour of 
the gods, and a number of huge monolithic stelae. The 
latter, while rivalling the obelisks in height, imitate 
ancient wooden architecture with separate storeys and 
beams, and are of peculiar interest, inasmuch as they 
do not resemble any art in the land of the Nile. South 
Arabian influences have been conjectured, and in certain 
details Hellenistic influences can be traced. 

The civilization of Egypt had formerly been considered 
far more ancient than that of Mesopotamia, but of late 
this view has been strongly contested. 

On the Tigris and Euphrates, as elsewhere, excavations 
have opened vistas into entirely unknown ages. The 
Assyrian discoveries mentioned above (p. 88) did not 
date further back than the ninth century, but the field 
of research was now transferred further south, to Baby- 
lonia, where the two rivers approach one another and 
finally unite. Here it was possible to penetrate to the 
most remote antiquity. Babylonia had frequently been 
the object of scientific journeys. Since the middle of 
the century the geologist W. Kenneth Loftus, 1849-52 


and 1853-5, and the British Vice-Consul J. E. Taylor, 
1853-5, had distinguished themselves by work done in 
the lower river basin. Our first glimpse into ancient 
Babylonian decoration and architecture was afforded 
by a carpet-like wall decoration at Warka, and by the 
remains of a step-pyramid at Mugheir. 

But the results of the work carried on by the French 
Vice-Consul Ernest de Sarzec, who lived there some 
years, were of greater importance. His excavations 
carried on at Telloh in 1877-8 and 1880-1 secured for 
the Louvre a series of reliefs and statues of the petty 
Prince Gudea, which testify to an art, combining critical 
observation with eminent skill in overcoming technical 
difficulties in hard material, and in some respects ex- 
hibiting more freedom than all later Mesopotamian art. 
According to the results of late finds, these works will 
probably have to be dated about 2600, and thus would 
be contemporary with the beginning of art in Egypt 
under the Old Kingdom. That the art of Telloh is 
not the beginning or an early stage of an art can hardly 
be questioned, when its technical perfection is considered. 
A little later than de Sarzec's time the Americans began 
work at Nippur, in 1888-1900, under the direction of 
Peters, Haynes, Hilprecht, and Fisher. Great structures 
were discovered, step-pyramids (Ziggurat) and temples 
such as the " House of Bel " ; while at Abu Habba the 
Temple of the Sun was excavated by the Turkish Museum 
under Father Scheil and Bedri Bey. The archaic plastic 
art which had been disclosed at Telloh was here supple- 
mented by heads of bulls and goats cast in bronze. For 
Mesopotamia these discoveries signified the revelation of 
a highly developed early culture, comparable with the 
disclosure of the ^Egean civilization in the Greek coun- 

Besides these single sites of Sumerian and early Semitic 
art (the latter had existed early in Northern Babylonia), 


Babylon appeared as the capital of the Empire of Ham- 
murabi (c. 2200). The ruins of Babel, near Hillah, also 
those of the Tower of Babel, which were sought for at 
Birs-Nimrud (Borsippa), had early attracted attention, 
and were examined and described at various times by 
Layard, Rawlinson, and Rassam. In 1851-4 Jules 
Oppert, with Fresnel and the architect Felix Thomas, 
carried on extensive investigations -here. But thorough 
excavations, on a great scale, were not undertaken, and 
the transportable results of the last expedition were lost 
in the river. Georges Perrot wrote in 1884 as follows : 
" There is more than one mound in the plain which no 
spade has ever disturbed, and each of these hillocks 
certainly corresponds to some structure of great age, to 
some group of houses or fragment of walls. It would be 
a creditable task to excavate these three or four great 
ruins, which are on the site of Babylon, to their very 
foundation, and to examine carefully their surroundings. 
Such an undertaking might be costly and tedious, but it 
would greatly extend our scanty knowledge of ancient 
Chaldaea ; it would be an honour to the Government 
which would undertake it, but even more would it profit 
archaeological science, if the task were carried out sys- 

The German Orient Society, founded in 1898, has 
undertaken this task, while the Prussian Government has 
provided the greater part of the funds, and placed them 
at the disposal of the Board of Administration of the 
Prussian Museums ; the Emperor also has lent his sup- 
port. The society fortunately selected the architect 
Robert Koldewey to conduct the excavations ; he has 
been assisted by Andra, Noldeke, and Jordan. In the 
vast area of the city the chief group of mounds, " El 
Kasr " (the castle), was selected, and a start was made in 
1899. It was not Old Babylon which was uncovered 
here, but the Babylon of Nebuchadnezzar, of the first 


half of the sixth century. There is a double castle with 
a court, a hall decorated with tiles, innumerable rooms 
(in this castle Alexander the Great died) ; east of it the 
Temple of Ninmach and the huge entrance gate, covered 
with reliefs of the goddess Istar ; an elevated paved 
processional way led up to it, the side walls of which 
were decorated with splendid lions on glazed tiles. 
Finally there was Esagila, the great sanctuary of the 
city god Marduk. These remains show great resemblance 
to those of the Assyrian palaces, to the latest of which 
they are near in point of time, but they surpass them in 
the delicacy and strength of their representations on 
coloured tiles. The temples show features not found in 
those of Assyria. The German Orient Society has in- 
vestigated, besides Babylon, other places in the neigh- 
bourhood, as, for example, Fara and Abu Hatab, where 
very ancient cylinders with remarkable impressions 
proved of great interest. 

In the year 1903 the excavations were extended to 
Assyria. To the south of Nimrud there towers above 
the right bank of the Tigris the steep hill of ruins of 
Kalat Shergat, the site of Assur, the oldest capital of 
Assyria. Layard had begun excavating the mound, and 
discovered a seated figure of black basalt, but then 
abandoned the enterprise. Andra has recently uncovered 
here a number of structures, dating from the time of 
Assurnasirpal (ninth century) : walls with great city 
gates, palaces, temples, and Ziggurat. Besides these, 
of somewhat later date (seventh century), there were 
found for the first time private Assyrian houses in a 
special quarter of the city. Andra has also penetrated 
into more ancient strata, thus, for instance, he dis- 
covered down near the Tigris a quay wall of the fourteenth 
century. But, above all, there has appeared the chief 
sanctuary of Assyria, the temple of the national god 
Assur ; its complete excavation may be hoped for. 


A temple has recently been discovered outside of the 
city limits, which is equally remarkable for its extraor- 
dinary plan and for the stones used in its construction. In 
Assur a number of statues have been found, which is most 
uncommon in Assyrian art. Finally, numerous structures 
and works of art of the Parthian age have appeared. 

Far to the west of the Tigris, midway between Marash, 
on the upper Euphrates and Alexandretta, on the Bay 
of Issos, but still under the influence of Assyrian culture, 
is the mound of Senjirli. A private Berlin society, the 
" Orient Committee," has repeatedly excavated here, 
in 1888, 1890-1, and 1894, at first under Humann and 
F. von Luschan, and again under von Luschan and Robert 

In the midst of the city, which was surrounded by a 
double circular wall, was situated a fortified citadel. 
Different plans of palaces of the ninth and eighth cen- 
turies have been recovered. In the main they have 
the same characteristics as the corresponding Assyrian 
buildings : an entrance hall with two columns, flanked 
by towers (the Hittite Chilani), behind this a great 
transverse main hall with small apartments at the side 
and back. The entrance gates have an outer and an 
inner court flanked by towers. The lower row of free- 
stone had rather clumsy reliefs, which have partly gone 
to Berlin, partly to Constantinople. As is frequently the 
case in Assyrian and Romanesque art, the columns rested 
on the backs of lions or sphinxes. Hittite or Assyrian 
influences seem to meet at Senjirli. A relief stele of 
Asarhaddon (671) points to Assyrian rule. 

At the same time as the excavation of Senjirli, investi- 
gations were begun, with the object of tracing earlier 
civilizations in Palestine. The indefatigable Flinders 
Petrie began in 1890 work at Tell-el-Hesy, the Idumaean 
city of Lachish, east of Gaza. In a huge rubbish heap 
twenty metres high, he was able, with the help of pottery 


found, to establish four periods : a prehistoric, a pre- 
Israelitic with many foreign influences, an Israelitic, and 
a Hellenistic. In Judaea, between Jerusalem and the 
sea, R. A. Stewart Macalister investigated in 1902-5 
the great mound of Geser (Gazara) for the English 
Egyptian Exploration Fund ; while further north along 
the west border of the plain of Esdraelon, opposite 
Nazareth, E. Sellin, supported by Austrian patrons, 
excavated in 1902-4 Tell-Taannek, and G. Schumacher, 
for the German Palestine Society, and with the support 
of the Emperor, in 1903-5, Tell-el-Mutesellin (Megiddo). 

All these and minor investigations proved that the 
state of civilization had in antiquity been practically 
the same all over Palestine. They afforded an insight 
into Canaanite (pre-Israelitic) times, which had been 
more Egyptian in the southern parts of the country, 
and more ^Egean and Hittite in the north, with cyclopean 
walls, great gates, and cult sites. At Megiddo a sub- 
terranean passage was found, as at Mycenae, built of 
huge undressed stones. The time of the Israelites was 
here represented by altars, sacrificial columns, and private 
houses ; at Tell-Taannek there appeared an altar of incense 
decorated with reliefs of rams' horns, " the Horns of the 
Altar. ' J At Geser a palace of Maccabean times was discovered. 
Of the later Hellenistic times only the scantiest traces 
have been found. Numerous elucidations have followed 
the discoveries of pottery, gems a seal of Jeroboam 
was found at Megiddo and cylinders, while at Tell- 
Taannek a small document in cuneiform on terra-cotta 
was found. The latest important excavations are those 
begun at Jericho by Sellin. As all traces of the times 
of the Israelites and later settlements have disappeared, 
it is hoped that a picture of Canaanite civilization may 
be gained. 


To the east of low-lying Babylonia there rises in the 
form of terraces the Persian province of Susiana, where 
researches have recently been carried on. Persia had 
frequently been visited from the eighteenth century ; 
in 1765 Karsten Niebuhr carried out his famous journey 
of investigation ; in 1817-20 Ker Porter ; in 1840-1 
Charles Texier, the architect Pascal Coste, and the 
painter Eugene Flandin, travelled there. These journeys 
had been chiefly undertaken to the two famous ruins in 
the province of Persis, north of the Persian Gulf, to 
Pasargadae and Persepolis ; Stolze had in 1878 taken 
photographs here, and F. C. Andreas recorded his ob- 
servations. In Pasargadae are monuments of the time 
of Cyrus ; the tomb of that great King has, in accordance 
with Arrian's description, been conjecturally identified 
with the so-called " Tomb of Solomon's mother " ; 
while in the tower-like structures some seek grave-towers, 
though others, probably more correctly, consider them 
to be connected with the fire-worship. 

At Persepolis was the famous terrace covered with 
reliefs, which had been founded by Darius, and enlarged 
by his successors, also palaces and reception halls rich in 
columns (the celebrated " Tchihilminar " or forty col- 
umns), chief of which was the hundred-columned hall of 
Artaxerxes. Besides these are the vast rock-tombs of 
the Kings of Nakshi Rust am. 

Mention must here be made of the copying and de- 
ciphering of an inscription by H. C. Rawlinson, in 1837, 
at Behistun, giving an account of the reign of Darius. 

While these palaces of the Persian Kings in their 
ancestral province had long been known to science, it 
remained to Marcel Dieulafoy and his wife Jane, thor- 
oughly to investigate the rubbish heap of the most 
famous Persian capital Susa, which in 1885-6 had been 
visited by Loftus, and to bring its rich spoils into the 
Museum of the Louvre. The chief result was the Palace 


of Artaxerxes Mnemon. Here, in 387, the embassy 
of Antalcidas was received, and the " peace of the King " 
was ratified, which again delivered all of Asia Minor to 
the yoke of the Persians. The envoys saw on the walls 
of the throne-room the rows of lance-bearing " Im- 
mortals," the remains of which still excite our astonish- 
ment in the Louvre ; painted upon glazed tiles, in a 
sober and dignified colour scheme, they produce a 
singularly majestic effect. Similar friezes of animals 
are in even more subdued tones. Assyrian tradition 
is as evident in the technique and ornamentation as a 
national element in the life-size lance-bearers. A great 
capital in the form of a bull is very impressive. 
The knowledge of mural decoration gained by these 
excavations provides a most important addition to 
the picture of Persian architecture as presented at 

At Susa the excavations have been resumed since 1897 
under the direction of J. de Morgan. The most re- 
markable results are the numerous remains of old Baby- 
lonian art reliefs and terra-cottas. Of the foremost 
importance is a stele of Victory two metres high, of the 
old Babylonian ruler, Naram-Sin, of the beginning of 
the third millennium, which had once been taken as 
a trophy from Sippar to Susa ; its vigorous reliefs testify 
to a well-developed Babylonian art in early times. 
Abundant vases and vase-fragments have been found ; 
a peculiar impression is created on finding with these 
highly archaic pieces a number of sherds with Greek 
paintings of the fifth century, bearing witness to Greek 
commerce even in distant Persia. As France acquired 
in 1900 from the Shah of Persia the exclusive right to 
excavate in Susiana further results may be hoped for. 

Other excavations lead us to the shores of the Mediter- 


ranean, its islands and its environs. Tombs will mainly 
engross our attention. 

The island of Cyprus had been visited by L. Ross in 
1845 for the first time with archaeological aims ; his 
success, however, had been only meagre. Its first 
energetic investigator was General Luigi Palma di 
Cesnola, who lived at Larnaca as American Consul from 
1867 to 1876. He traversed the island in all directions, 
and in the course of his unwearied but somewhat ama- 
teurish efforts he opened many thousands of graves, 
which produced the important collection now brought 
together in the Metropolitan Museum of New York. 
Others followed him in the eighties, after England had 
taken possession of the island, Max Ohnefalsch-Richter, 
and in 1888 the British School in Athens. 

Old famous places along the south coast, as Kition, 
Amathus, Kurion, Paphos, Marion, and in the interior 
Golgoi and Idalion, have been ransacked, and a great 
number of statues, although of rather monotonous 
character, have been taken from the temples and tombs. 
These are productions of the time when Cyprus was the 
meeting-place of Egyptian and Babylonian-Assyrian 
influences, and the Phoenicians controlled commerce. 
Next comes Cyprian pottery with a peculiar decorative 
style. Later we trace the gradual preponderance of 
Greek influences and of the Greek element in this very 
mixed population. But rarely do any works equal 
other Greek creations, such as the Relief at Golgoi of 
Heracles and Geryon or the Sarcophagus of Amathus, 
with its chariot and frieze. They are chiefly more or 
less stiff statues showing a lifeless provincial art (at Golgoi 
alone Cesnola found 800 pieces). 

Newton correctly sought the explanation of this 
monotonous and dreary impoverishment of Greek art, 
and this obstinate attachment to archaic forms, in the 
sequestered position of the island, remote as it was from 


the great current of Hellenic life. This entirely agrees 
with the fact which, since Lang's discovery in 1870 of 
a bilingual inscription at Idalion, has been established 
by the simultaneous exertions of many scholars, that 
even in the fourth century the Cyprians did not use the 
Greek alphabet in writing Greek, but made use of an 
antiquated and imperfect syllable script. 

It was not a happy thought of Cesnola to lead a learned 
scholar astray by telling him of subterranean chambers 
in Kurion, in which the treasures were found, in the first 
the gold, in the second the silver, next the alabaster, 
bronze, etc. Or did the Cyprian treasures need some 
fantastic help, even of a poor joke, to excite our interest ? 

The results yielded in the narrow strip of coastline 
once inhabited by the Phoenicians were unexpectedly 
rich, although the monuments were seldom of the 
ancient Phoenician age. The journey undertaken by 
Ernest Renan in 1860, at the desire of Napoleon III, 
and a later journey by Charles Simon Clermont-Ganneau 
in 1 88 1, did little to enhance the poor reputation of the 
independent art of the Phoenicians. But the accidental 
discovery in 1887 at Sai'da (Sidon) of extensive princes' 
tombs caused great surprise. They were of several 
storeys, and contained many chambers, with a number 
of sarcophagi of Sidonian rulers of the fifth and fourth 
centuries. These afford new evidence of the slight 
ability of native Phoenician sculpture, as they were 
either imported from Asia Minor or Greece, or at least 
were the work of Greek artists. The marble sarcophagi 
permit an exact survey of the development of art during 
these centuries. The earliest ones are Greek copies of 
Egyptian coffins, adapting themselves to the human 
form, and delineating the face with severe lines ; next 
comes the " Sarcophagus of the Satrap," illustrating 
the life of a prince in the modified style of Periclean 
times; then the " Lycian Sarcophagus," executed in 


the well-known forms of the Lycian monuments, about 
the time of the Peloponnesian War, and undoubtedly 
made in Lycia. All these still belong to the fifth century. 

The influence of Praxitelean art is apparent in the 
" Sarcophagus of the Mourning Women," beautifully 
draped figures surrounding an Ionic tomb while lament- 
ing their master ; the Greek harem of Straton IV of Sidon 
(d. 361) occurs at once to the mind. Finally, the most 
admired of all, the superb " Alexander Sarcophagus," 
dates probably from the latter part of the fourth century. 
This, with its well-preserved colours, illustrates most 
perfectly the delicate harmony of painted sculpture. 
The reliefs, which are as well composed as executed, repre- 
sent the decisive battle of Issos (333), the lion hunt of 
a prince in Persian dress, and other scenes ; they all 
seem to point to Abdalonymos, a scion of an old Sidonian 
princely house, whom Alexander appointed King of 
Sidon after the battle. 

To see this sarcophagus, not only the archaeologist, 
but the lover of art, travels to Constantinople ; for all 
have been transferred thither. How times change ! 
Formerly the Moslem destroyed all works of art in the 
shape of the human form. Constantinople, under the 
Byzantine Emperors the home of art, became, after 
its devastation by the Franks in 1204, and its capture 
by the Turks in 1453, one of the poorest cities in works 
of art. Only since the middle of the last century has 
a small collection been formed in the ancient Church of 
Irene and its enclosed court, but the gradually increasing 
antiques were poorly housed beside the great collection 
of arms. 

It is entirely owing to the ability of Hamdy Bey, a 
Turk who had been trained in Paris, that the Tchinili- 
Kiosk of Serai (Porcelain Pavilion) and the Museum of 
Antiques adjoining it rank among the finest in Europe. 
He has won a place for art study in the Turkish curricu- 


PETRA 277 

lum ; he and his brother Halil Edhem Bey superintend 
all the antiquities in the Turkish Empire, and transport 
them to Constantinople, if they cannot be safely ex- 
hibited at the place where they are found. The new 
museum was founded in 1881. In the course of a few 
years its spacious apartments were filled with important 
antiques, until in 1887, by the acquisition of these 
Sidonian sarcophagi, which Hamdy Bey secured at 
once for Constantinople, it attained a brilliant position, 
shedding its rays upon the entire educated world. The 
great extent of the Turkish Empire, and our scanty 
knowledge of the artistic products of its remote provinces, 
lend a peculiar interest to the Museum of the Tchinili- 
Kiosk, even apart from its more splendid exhibits. 

After this digression, caused by Sidon, we will turn 
south, to the land of the Edomites, to the city of tombs, 
Petra. Many travellers had visited it since J. L. Burck- 
hardt, in 1812, for the first time saw and described 
the wonderful capital of Edom and the Nabataeans, 
with its narrow ravines and steep cliffs. In 1827 it was 
visited by Count Leon de Labor de ; in 1839 by David 
Roberts ; in 1864 by the Duke de Luynes, and in 1882 
by the photographer E. L. Wilson ; so that a view of 
the "treasure house" ("Chazne") had even appeared 
in popular books. 

But only since the long sojourn there of R. E. Briinnow 
and Alfred von Domaszewski in 1897-8 have we acquired 
a complete view of the locality and its remains. With 
the exception of the " Chazne," which is a temple of Isis 
of the second century, and not a tomb, and of the " Castle 
of Pharaoh," also a temple, interest is to-day centred 
in the tombs, where a distinct development of forms can 
be traced. We see the ancient Nabataean tomb in the 
form of a tapering tower, gradually transformed by the 
increasing admixture of Hellenistic elements ; or Hellen- 
istic tombs appear beside it, until finally under the 


Roman Empire, broad, showy, overloaded fagades of 
several storeys appear, the most ornate example of which 
we see in the Temple El Chazne. 

Another ostentatious tomb of peculiar character 
towers above the Euphrates, north of Samosata, upon 
the Nemrud-Dagh, about 7200 feet high. It was dis- 
covered by the engineer K. Sester, in 1881, and investi- 
gated by him and Otto Puchstein in the following year 
at the instance of the Berlin Academy. Two expeditions 
again examined it in 1883, in May under Hamdy Bey, 
and in June under Karl Humann and Otto Puchstein, 
again at the instance of the Berlin Academy. 

Upon this lofty eminence, visible at a great distance, 
King Antiochos I of Commagene built a splendid tomb 
in the middle of the first century B.C.; upon the 
summit of the mountain a huge tumulus had been 
erected, with great sacrificial terraces toward the east 
and west. 

Let us listen to Humann after he had reached the sum- 
mit : " The first impression was overpowering. As one 
mountain piled upon another appeared the tumulus upon 
the highest peak, rising forty metres above the terrace 
we had climbed. Seated upon raised rock seats are the 
colossal images of five divinities, only one of which 
remains in good condition. Involuntarily the eye seeks 
the distance. If, in a wild hurricane, when conflicting 
ocean surges have piled up huge waves to dizzy heights, 
and then tossed them hither and thither, the sea were 
suddenly turned into stone, it would, in a small way, 
give a picture of what was unfolded before our eyes for 
miles toward: the east, north, west, and south. The 
white crests of the waves are here the snowy ridges of the 
Taurus. There may be continuous valleys and ravines, 
but to us it appeared as a wild confused mass, and the 
eye could only rest here and there upon a mighty moun- 
tain peak. This sea of rocks descends toward the south, 


now and then you catch a gleam of the Euphrates, and 
the horizon beyond disappears in distant Mesopotamia.'* 

These five gods partly hybrid divinities, as the Zeus 
Ormuzd in the centre are gigantic figures, composed of 
huge blocks, and with eagles, lions, and great reliefs 
enclose in the rear the altar-court. Other reliefs with 
the ancestors of the King completed the enclosure, to 
the left Alexander the Great and Seleukos I, to the right 
Darius. The half-barbaric prince thus paraded his 
Macedonian-Syrian and Persian descent, the caricature 
of a Hellenistic King. There was some grandeur in the 
plan of the tomb, but its artistic execution was barbaric, 
without a trace of the Hellenic spirit remaining. Other 
large tombs, but not so elaborate as Nemrud-Dagh, 
are scattered over the entire country of Commagene ; 
these also were examined by Humann and Puchstein. 

The later royal tomb in Commagene recalls the ancient 
Lydian necropolis at Sardes. When the eye passes to 
the north, from the crumbling citadel-rock of King 
Croesus, it perceives beyond the river Hermos, and its 
fruitful but not extensively cultivated plain, a long, 
low elevation with a "thousand hills" (Bin-tepe), 
and beyond it the calm Lake Koloe. It is a touching 
picture to see how, at one time, the great city of the living 
had been separated from the city of the dead on the 
Acherusian Lake by the broad river. These thousand 
hills are tumuli of Lycian kings and nobles ; at the east 
end the mighty tumulus of King Alyattes, still seventy 
metres high, towers above all. How many secrets may 
be buried under these tumuli ! The excavations made 
in the Tomb of Alyattes in 1854 by the Prussian Consul, 
Spiegelthal, and in 1882 by the English Consul, George 
Dennis, in other tombs, proved, however, fruitless, as 
the tumuli had already been robbed. Perhaps less pre- 
tentious tombs might offer more. 

Similar tombs scattered over Lycia and Phrygia have 


frequently been examined. In 1900, the two brothers 
Gustav and Alfred Korte selected the necropolis of 
Gordion, the ancient capital of Phrygia, and the scene 
of Alexander the Great's most popular feat, and at the 
expense of F. A. Krupp excavated five of its tumuli. 
They had to leave untouched the greatest tumulus, 
perhaps the tomb of King Midas (c. 700). These tumuli 
cover, roughly speaking, about a century and a half 
(700-550), and afford some insight into the low state of 
civilization of this Phrygian peasant and shepherd nation, 
whose favourite victuals were beer and cheese, and whose 
only known art-industry was pottery. 

The most ancient finds can be traced far into the second 
millennium ; later, Cyprian influence is very evident, 
and about the sixth century Greek productions appear, 
not only of the neighbouring Ionian cities, but of those 
as distant even as Corinth and Athens. A great sur- 
prise was caused by the finding of an early Attic cup in 
one of those tombs, originating from the same factory 
as the famous Frangois Vase. Some red figured sherds 
permit us to trace the commerce with Attica to the end 
of the sixth century. Remains of the terra-cotta fagade 
have been found, which had covered the front of the 
modest temple in which Alexander the Great severed 
the knot. These are of twofold importance, supporting 
first A. Korte's assertion that similarly decorated rock 
fagades in Phrygia were sanctuaries and not tombs, 
and, secondly, proving Ramsay's view to be correct, 
which traced back this Geometric decoration to original 
terra-cotta facing. 

From the old tombs of Lycia and Phrygia let us return 
once more to Syria, during the last centuries of antiquity. 
While there remain few traces of Hellenistic times, and 
these, as at Antioch, are still awaiting a divining-rod to 


bring them forth to daylight, there remain many monu- 
ments of that age of prosperity which the Roman Empire, 
from the time of Trajan, had revived here, as well as in 
Asia Minor. A group of magnificent city ruins are situ- 
ated east of the Jordan, in the Hauran, and south of it. 
These had been visited by Guillaume Rey in 1857-8, by 
Ernest Renan in 1860, by Melchior de Vogue* in 1861-2, 
by the Duke de Luynes in 1864, and more recently by 
two American expeditions, the first directed by Howard 
Crosby Butler in 1899, the second by Butler and E. Litt- 
man in 1904. These late, bare, stone structures of the 
Hauran, built of great blocks, afford important evidence 
for the development of vaulted and arched buildings, 
and have become somewhat known through De Vogue. 
In the south of the Hauran, Howard Crosby Butler has 
also shown that Nabataean buildings existed. But the 
splendid remains of such flourishing cities as Bostra, 
Gerasa, Philadelphia, have not yet been satisfactorily 
examined ; for that purpose it will be necessary to ex- 
cavate. But it is high time ; for with the railway in 
the neighbourhood, and in view of the new Circassian 
settlers, who like to build, the value of the old ruins 
for building material is increasing, and the reports of the 
disappearance of old buildings are most alarming. 
Government protection, even when ordered, does not 
signify in such remote districts. Science should, there- 
fore, rescue all it can before it is too late. 

Other interesting details were found in the so-called 
Hill of Hyrkanos (Arak-el-Emir), examined by the second 
American expedition. It lies east of the Jordan, opposite 
to Jericho. Cyclopean walls surround a great enclosure ; 
the main building, probably a temple of the second 
century, shows a combination of Greek and Oriental 
style ; a huge frieze of lions is a conspicuous feature. 

Fate has been more favourable at Baalbec-Heliopolis 
than in the Hauran, although here also the railway, the 


friend of man, but the enemy of ancient structures, 
has approached to within a short distance. Its first 
discoverer, Richard Wood, had been followed toward 
the end of the eighteenth century by L. F. Cassas, and 
in 1827 by Leon de Laborde and others. But thorough 
investigations of the famous temple ruins were only 
undertaken at the expense of the German Emperor in 
1899-1904 by R. Koldewey, Otto Puchstein, and the 
architects B. Schulz and D. Krencker. The huge temple 
of the venerated Zeus of Heliopolis, the six standing 
columns of which to-day characterize Baalbec, has only 
now become known, especially as regards the artistic 
arrangement of its courts, and thereby established a 
resemblance to Herod's Temple of Jehovah at Jerusalem. 
The smaller temple throws light on the old Syrian ar- 
rangement of a raised choir with its crypt, which is of 
importance for the history of the building of Christian 
churches. The well-known round temple, with its 
strangely curved entablature, has, in consequence of 
the discovery of its podium with stairs, assumed a new 

Thus these investigations have accomplished all that 
could be expected without carrying on excavations. 
It is to be hoped that the sister city Palmyra in the desert 
will some day experience the same good fortune. In the 
North Syrian highland, east of Aleppo, the Americans 
discovered in 1904 numerous temples, partly remodelled 
into churches and private houses, which could be dated 

Baalbec, Palmyra, and the cities east of the Jordan 
form a connected group of structures, which are charac- 
terized by many peculiarities in their general plans and 
in their separate buildings, as well as by their profuse 
barock decoration. These Syrian towns, together with 
the cities of Asia Minor, testify to the great prosperity 
attained in the times of peace under the Roman emperors, 


which culminated in the second century, but continued 
well into the third. This is, however, not the only point 
of view from which this eastern group of buildings 
excites our interest. With them is connected the more 
important question of the relation of this art to that of 
Rome, the capital of the Empire. Did this art originate 
in Rome, as some believe, and is the Syrian style of 
architecture only a part of the imperial art, which is 
supposed to have permeated the entire extensive Roman 
Empire, radiating from its capital ? Or is it a view 
energetically represented by Josef Strzygowski the 
ancient artistic force of the Orient which is stirring here, 
and lends these structures their peculiar character and 
special significance ? The battle cry is, " The Orient or 
Rome ? " It would not be seemly for one at a distance, 
and who gains his knowledge only indirectly, to act here 
as a judge in a discussion which on both sides is repre- 
sented by able scholars, particularly as an opinion is 
rendered more difficult by the utter lack of remains of 
Syrian Hellenism, which forms the connecting link be- 
tween the old Oriental art and the later Syrian of Asia 

The question is undoubtedly one of the most far- 
reaching in the history of art ; its importance extends 
far beyond the domain of ancient art, and is of special 
significance for the history of Christian art, regarding 
which the answer to the question, " The Orient or Rome ? " 
will perhaps be, " The Orient and Rome." 

The old Roman provinces of Mauretania and Numidia, 
which extend along the south coast of the western 
Mediterranean, were opened to science much earlier 
than Syria. With the conquest of Algeria by the French 
in the thirties, one of the countries richest in ruins was 
gradually opened, which, like the Orient, had been in its 


prime in the second and third centuries. Only rarely 
had travellers, as Thomas Shaw, 1720-32, penetrated 
to these unsafe regions. The French Government now 
undertook extensive scientific investigations in this land, 
which it had acquired with such difficulty ; but excava- 
tions were rarely undertaken. Special recognition is 
due to those French officers who devoted themselves 
to recovering Roman antiquities, and in particular 
saved many inscriptions from utter destruction. For 
in so extensive a country, and one so thinly populated, 
over which Bedouins are constantly roving, not much 
could at first be done for the preservation of ruins and 
the security of what had been found ; and it frequently 
happened that small local museums lost after a few 
years the greater part of their possessions. It was 
only after order had been established in Algeria, and 
more especially after Tunis, the ancient province "Africa," 
had been acquired by the French, in 1881, that a re- 
organization of archaeological research became possible. 
This has been carried on in an exemplary manner by 
scientific men, as Rene Cagnat, Paul Gauckler, Stephen 
Gsell, and Pere Delattre, who have gained enduring 
renown. The excavations have been well planned, and 
the uncovering of Timgad (Thamugadi), the African 
Pompeii, with its long streets, its Forum, its Arch of 
Trajan, which towers above all ; or the uncovering of 
a Roman camp at Lambaesis, have amply rewarded the 
labour. What is not in good condition is restored or 
repaired. The abundance of Roman structures is most 
surprising. Temples have only rarely been found, but, 
on the other hand, amphitheatres, theatres, aqueducts, 
and nymphaea, baths, and tombs, are found in great 
number. The triumphal arches number seventy ; they 
may be said to be the more solid forerunners of the later 
eulogies addressed to the emperors. With the buildings, 
which are mostly in a somewhat plain and bald style, 


devoid of ornamentation, are combined numerous mo- 
saics, a decoration very popular in Roman times, but 
hardly found anywhere so frequently as in Africa. In 
a single villa near Uthina, not less than sixty-seven 
have appeared. Sculpture rarely rises above the average 
of Roman work. A welcome exception are the remains 
of a collection found in Cherchel (Cirta), which King 
Juba II had formed in his residence. He had been sent 
as a hostage to Rome, and while there became a dis- 
tinguished art lover, so that his collection contained ex- 
cellent copies of Greek masterpieces, surpassing the 
ordinary copies of the Roman workshops. 

The artistic character of the African provinces is, 
apart from many peculiarities, almost entirely Roman. 
Rarely do we get a glimpse of the older art of Punic 
Africa, and where it is the case, we distinctly see the 
influence of Greek art. It is so in the royal Numidian 
Tomb of Medracen, where the massive Doric half-columns 
suggest the older temples on the south coast of Sicily. 
Also in the coffin, found at Carthage in 1902, of a lady, 
whose portrait of the fourth century still retained when 
found its rich colouring, and exhibits the only slightly 
provincialized features of a delicate Greek archaistic art. 

Similar conditions seem to have prevailed in Punic 
Spain, as yet little investigated. Here also monuments 
of indigenous art are rare. The sculpture which has been 
discovered since 1830 near the Cerro de los Santos, near 
Montealegre, in the province of Albacete, and which, 
with many spurious pieces, was placed in the Madrid 
Museum in 1872, first showed the mixed character of 
native art, subject both to Phoenician and ancient Greek 
influences. But this combination of styles is seen more 
clearly and delicately in a charming woman's bust found 
at Elche (Ilici), near Alicante, in 1897, which, through 
the instrumentality of Pierre Paris, soon found its way 
to the Louvre, where it forms one of the treasures of a 


Spanish cabinet. Although surrounded by a barbarically 
elaborate head-dress, of which two huge wheels form the 
chief decoration, and loaded with artistic gold ornaments, 
the face has graceful features with something of the charm 
of the best Ionic-Attic maidens on the Athenian Acro- 

Asia Minor, Syria, and Northern Africa have led us to 
Roman provincial art, which we must still pursue along 
the northern boundaries of the empire. Germany and 
the countries of the Danube did not possess any note- 
worthy individual art, with the exception of that of 
Hallstatt, the Central European art, which seems to 
follow the direction of the Alps. Britain furnished the 
valuable tin, but offered even less in art than Germany. 
It was different in Gaul, where, beside the La T&ne art, 
the Phocaean city of Massalia (Marseilles), was a centre of 
Greek culture, which it retained even after its political 
importance had been overthrown by Caesar. The nu- 
merous ruins which are so salient a feature in Provence 
date only from post-Caesarian times. Some of the most 
noted, as the Julian Monument at St. Remy the sig- 
nificance of which for the history of art was first noted 
by H. Brunn in 1869 the Maison Carrie at Nimes, the 
Pont du Gard of Agrippa, the Triumphal Arch of Tiberius 
at Orange date from the early Empire. These traces of 
" Italy in France " had attracted attention long ago in 
the writings of Aubin Louis Millin, 1807, and of Count 
Alexander de Laborde, 1816-17, and in a series of special 
publications ; but a thorough investigation of the whole 
of ancient Provence is still wanting, which will satisfy 
the demands of to-day, and not only examine and record 
with scientific exactitude all the separate data, but will 
trace their general relations, above all the distinction 
between the purely Roman element and the after effects 


of the older Greek culture. Although the latter axe of 
the greatest importance to the history of the art of 
Provence, they have been too little investigated. Only 
when these have been thoroughly sifted can a recently 
raised question of Georg Loschcke's be definitely ans- 
wered, namely, whether along the old route of the amber 
trade from North Germany to Marseilles, a route, as it 
were, marked out by nature, there flowed a current of 
culture and art inspired by Greece, traces of which might 
be found, for instance, in the monument of the Secundini 
at Igel, and in the reliefs found at Neumagen, near Trier, 
in 1877-8. A column with reliefs, of which numerous 
fragments were found at Mainz in 1906, and carefully 
restored, dates from the time of Nero, and, to judge by 
the representation of divinities upon it, its origin must 
be referred to Massilia. So much is already evident, 
that the route indicated formed the highway of ancient 
art in Gaul, compared with which the other localities 
where ancient works of art have been found appear as 
isolated oases. 

France is covered by a network of antiquarian societies, 
which eagerly pursue local and provincial antiquities ; 
the most important is the Societe des antiquaires de France, 
established in 1804 in Paris. But while A. Bertrand and 
S. Reinach have established an admirable central museum 
of the antiquities of Gaul in the Museum at Saint-Ger- 
main, curiously enough France, where the centralizing 
tendency is so strong, still lacks a central authority by 
which these numerous local societies could be scientifically 
influenced, and although separated, could be directed in 
a common effort toward the same aim. Since France 
has established true universities, in place of the old 
faculties, and these are provided with chairs of Archae- 
ology, the necessary support for such organizations 
cannot be lacking. 

Britain was only slightly affected by Roman civiliza- 


tion. In addition to the northern protecting walls, 
accidental finds are occasionally made of baths, mosaics, 
etc., which, however, offer nothing peculiarly British.* 
Under these circumstances the archaeological or anti- 
quarian societies of the Island Kingdom do not need to 
exercise great activity in regard to Romano-British art. 

In Germany, as in France, great activity exists in 
numerous local societies. The Roman remains at and 
near Trier, in the Rhine Province, with their relics of 
imperial splendour, are the most distinguished. At 
Wiesbaden a Nassau society began its work in 1827. 
More important was the one founded in Bonn by 
L. Urlich in 1814, the " Verein von Alter turns freunden 
im Rheinlande" followed by other societies. For 
many years the Annual of the Bonn Society formed 
the central register, even for discoveries outside the 
Rhenish districts, until 1882, when Felix Hettner's 
" Westdeutsche Zeitschrift " appeared. Local provincial 
museums were established everywhere ; the one at Trier 
remains the most noted. These societies at times 
undertook excavations. Old Roman cities on the Moselle 
and Rhine were investigated ; Trier, Andernach, Bonn, 
Cologne, Neuss, etc. Villas were uncovered, the most 
noted at Nennig, near Luxemburg, and at Wasserbillig. 
But certain tasks still remain unfulfilled, as the exact 
delineation of the great funereal monument at Igel, the 
reliefs of which attracted Goethe's attention ; nor have 
the reliefs at Neumagen been adequately published ; 
for the " Giant columns " discovered in ancient Belgica 
a comprehensive publication is necessary, to answer cer- 
tain serious questions connected therewith. 

Here also the evil effects of the division of societies 
and their means are felt. An attempt at the centraliza- 
tion of finds has been made in the " Romano-Germanic " 
Museum at Mainz, established by Ludwig Lindenschmit 

* [British archaeologists will scarcely accept this opinion. TV.] 


in 1852, in which are collected all kinds of typical originals, 
copies, and reconstructions. But an advance viribus 
unitis upon a great scale was inaugurated at the sug- 
gestion of Theodor Mommsen in the work undertaken 
by the German Empire of examining the Germanic Limes 
or frontier defences known as the "Pfahlgraben " (pali- 
saded ditches). 

This great task has continued for more than ten years 
since 1892, from the Rhine to the Danube, and numerous 
scholars have taken part therein. After many fruitless 
efforts, the plans, which are not everywhere alike, have 
become finally clear, and the significance of the Limes 
has become apparent. Although this knowledge may 
be of importance in connection with the study of ancient 
fortifications and history, and the relation which existed 
between Rome and its Germanic neighbours, the under- 
taking is of comparatively small consequence to the 
archaeology of art, but resembles the instructive anti- 
quarian investigations at Alesia and Bibracte, instituted 
by Napoleon III, or the recent researches at Numantia, 
undertaken by A. Schulten, at the expense of the Prussian 
Government. It is therefore to be regretted from the 
antiquarian point of view, not to speak of the artistic, 
when an important monument like the Saalburg is, in 
consequence of restorations, withdrawn from scientific 
research. The minor finds, as pottery, are of archaeolo- 
gical interest ; their artistic development can be traced 
from Greek and Gaulish beginnings through the later 
times of the Republic, the time of Augustus, of the 
Flavian emperors, etc. They have been gathered from 
the Limes and other sites, chiefly in the Rhenish districts. 
An important department of Roman art-industry has 
thus been elucidated, and an important chronological 
standard acquired for excavations. This has been proved 
at Haltern, where the Westphalian Society of Antiquaries 
combined with the Archaeological Institute. At the 


point where the Lippe became navigable in ancient times, 
two days' journey from the Roman legionary camp of 
Castra Vetera (Xanten), the excavation of a small fort 
on the bank, a harbour and a great permanent camp, 
has proceeded since 1899 without a single stone having 
been found ; only by the varied nature of the soil is it 
possible to disentangle the complicated plan. But as 
all the objects, chiefly coins and pottery, date from 
Augustan times, and nothing has appeared of a later date, 
it can be definitely stated that this plan dated from the 
times of Augustus, and that the place must have been 
abandoned at that period. 

These circumstances, which are applicable to Aliso, men- 
tioned by Tacitus, support the supposition that this "castle 
on the Lippe," as Tacitus expresses himself, is Aliso. In the 
meantime a rival has appeared in the Roman castle found, 
in 1905, near Oberaden, a mile up the Lippe, where the 
neighbouring district Elsey has a name resembling Aliso. 
Is this Aliso ? and is the castle near Haltern the one to be 
designated as "the castle on the Lippe " ? Only more 
extensive excavations can solve these questions. 

While the investigations of the Limes demonstrated 
the advisability of a union of scattered forces, Loschcke 
and Conze were instrumental in forming, in 1901, a 
Romano-Germanic Archaeological Institute. Although 
individual societies did creditable work, they lacked 
association, and many acquired a narrow scientific 
horizon, a defect to which local societies are prone. 
The association of several neighbouring societies at 
Haltern formed an exception ; the societies of South- 
western Germany had united in 1899 for a similar object. 
A central organization has thus been established by the 
Empire, which gives advice, or, if necessary, personal or 
pecuniary assistance to all societies from the Dutch to 
the Austrian frontiers. Without affecting the inde- 
pendence of individual societies, a possibility of united 


action has been established. In scientific circles the 
Central Museum at Mainz, which has received assistance 
from the Government, would have been unanimously 
selected, in connection with which there would naturally 
have arisen a school for excavating, for the direction of 
museums and for scientific investigations. Unfortunately 
lack of foresight and other considerations have prevented 
this union, so that now the two cities of Mainz and Frank- 
furt share the task. 

In Austria, in spite of the great diversity of the con- 
stituent countries, there has always existed a greater 
concentration in archaeological studies. A modest place 
was acquired for them in 1853 by the central commission 
for the investigation and preservation of monuments. 
In 1876 A. Conze and O. Hirschfeld created in the Archae- 
ological-epigraphic Seminar of the University of Vienna 
a school which in its " Mitteilungen " became the organ 
of the scientific research of Roman antiquities in Austria. 
This work was completed in 1898 by the foundation of 
the Austrian Archaeological Institute, which, under Otto 
Benndorf's* able guidance, superintends journeys and 
excavations, as well as the study of the archaeological 
material. To mention only two examples of its archae- 
ological activity : since 1877 highly successful excava- 
tions have been carried on near Vienna to recover the 
ancient Roman stronghold Carnuntum ; besides which, 
for years the scattered remains have been collected of 
the numerous monuments in the colony of Aquileia, the 
most important mid-station of the commerce of Italy and 
the north-east. Museums are being formed everywhere, 
thus affording a view of the artistic character of single 
districts, and at the same time giving shelter to the 
objects exhumed. 

The scientific influence of Austria is felt beyond the 
borders of the empire, especially along the Danube. 
* [Benndorf died in 1907. TV.] 


The examination of the great monument of Adamklissi, 
in the Dobrudja, has been the result of such combined 
action. This had been observed by H. von Moltke in 
1837, and was excavated in 1882-90 at the expense of 
the Roumanian Government, under the guidance of 
G. Tocilesco, and published by Benndorf and G. Niemann. 
It is a round tower similar to the Tomb of Caecilia Metella. 
Near the top there was a frieze of metopes, above this a 
hexagonal plinth with a very damaged inscription of 
Trajan, dating from the year 109 ; above this a trophy ; 
thus was the monument constructed, about which a 
quarrel arose as bitter as any described in the Iliad. Its 
origin in the time of Trajan was the first thought, to 
which a theory was opposed which referred it back to the 
times of the beginning of the Empire, immediately after 
the battle of Actium ; an opinion was even expressed in 
favour of the age of Constantine. The question may be 
looked upon as decided in favour of the first assumption. 
Either was this the scene of the great defeat which the 
Dacians inflicted on the Romans in the reign of Domitian 
in 87, when about 4000 men fell, or Trajan may have 
gained a victory here in his first war. In either case, 
Trajan erected here, after the conquest of the Dacians in 
107, a great trophy to " Avenging Mars," which gave 
to the inhabitants of the neighbouring village the name 
" Traianenses Tropaeenses ." 

The possibility of such a discussion was caused chiefly 
by the barbaric style of the relief of the metopes. For 
they make it evident how great a difference existed be- 
tween the sculpture of the capital and that executed by 
unskilled hands in distant barbaric countries. But 
one need hardly go as far as the desolate Dobrudja to 
learn this; the Arch of Augustus, erected at Susa, on 
the Alpine route over the Mont Cenis, proves the same, 
and the relief of an altar found in Paris, of the time of 
the Emperor Tiberius, might almost be declared Roman- 


esque. Although in many places, as, for example, on 
the military frontier of the Rhine, a certain common 
Roman character exists, yet local differences cannot be 
denied. Many tasks are still awaiting archaeological 

What we have observed in regard to the historical 
monuments of the Empire in the capital of Rome holds 
good in a still higher degree in the art of the provinces, 
which until recently has been much neglected. And yet, 
in all districts where Romans were or Roman influence 
was felt, it makes a strong appeal ; for it must be looked 
upon as the preliminary condition of native art. The 
usually strong line of demarcation between Antiquity 
and the Middle Ages is not natural. As classical archae- 
ology has come into touch with prehistoric research, 
so now it must meet early Christian and medieval re- 
search, so that the great unbroken line of connection 
may become more apparent. Heralds are already calling 
to the new battle, and the new century can enter upon 
a wide and magnificent field of research. 


OUR journey is ended. We have followed the 
"Archaeology of the spade" during a century, 
making the circuit of the ancient world. Its influence 
on the science of archaeology has been touched upon at 
different points ; it still remains to answer more general 
questions. How have all these excavations and dis- 
coveries influenced, advanced, or transformed the archae- 
ology of classical art ? for only of this will we now speak. 
Two periods may be clearly distinguished. In the first 
decades it was almost exclusively a question of accidental 
discoveries, which taught us to recognize some of the 
corner-stones in the history of the art of the sixth and 
fifth centuries : Sicily, ^Egina, Athens, Bassae, Lycia, 
and painted vases. During the forties excavations were 
undertaken more systematically in Egypt and Assyria, 
at the same time extending our horizon beyond the clas- 
sical countries. Newton, in the fifties, was the first to 
pursue this more systematic method on Greek territory. 
He greatly widened the range of our knowledge, especially 
of the art of the fourth century ; here the Mausoleum 
takes a foremost place. During the sixties the under- 
takings were more rigidly organized, to which finally 
was added a more definite technique of excavation, a 
method which at the same time preserved and recon- 
structed. Greater problems were presented, attacked, 
and solved. Art was pursued both backward and for- 
ward, on the one hand by the rediscovery of Hellenism, 



which also threw new light upon the long-known Roman 
art ; on the other hand, by penetrating into Greek and 
pre-Greek antiquity, which led to inquiry into the 
general conditions of the early European expressions 
of art. 

We recognize the same two periods in the practice of 
archaeological science. Here we must distinguish be- 
tween the history and the elucidation of art. 

In the history of art, Winckelmann's authority re- 
mained uncon tested on into the twenties. Friedrich 
Thiersch and Alois Hirt tried to improve matters here 
and there, but not with much success. Goethe's friend, 
H. Meyer, still spoke of the Elgin Marbles, in 1817, as 
insignificant when compared with the " Phidian " co- 
lossus on the Monte Cavallo, and only accorded them 
some recognition in 1824, probably affected by the en- 
thusiasm of his great friend. It seemed difficult in 
those days to go to the very source ; people seemed 
content with the scanty literary evidence, with Roman 
copies, and the historical scheme which Winckelmann 
had based thereon. 

For the elucidation of art Visconti's pleasing and 
elegant, but rarely profound treatment, was universally 
followed. His methods ruled in science, and helped to 
form the taste of the general public for the antique. 
Zoega's thorough, but specifically northern method, 
found little support. Although Zoega was not disin- 
clined to mystical speculation in the history of religion, 
he maintained in archaeological questions an essentially 
sober and objective method of explanation, which could 
not find favour at a time when the cloudy mythological 
syncretism of Creuzer dominated the minds of the ro- 
mantically inclined. Gerhard also developed his ideas 
under the influence of Creuzer, and soon unfolded a 
system of mythological explanations of art which may 
have been convenient for classification, but can hardly 


be extolled on the ground of objectivity. Zoega's 
other pupil, Welcker, on the contrary, tried to bring 
plastic art into the closest relation with poetry. 

F. G. Welcker and K. O. Miiller were the two archae- 
ologists who, most evidently, as influential teachers 
and effective writers, experienced the stimulating effects 
of the new discoveries, and with this new material in- 
dicated new aims to archaeology. The pursuit of Greek 
art was for Miiller only a part of the study of Greek 
spiritual development, in the investigation of which he 
found his life-work. His " Handbuch der Archceologie" 
(1830), with a collection of plates, which had originated 
in the practical needs of teaching, adopted the new 
methods. He wrote at a time when a survey of the whole 
was not yet made impossible by abundant specialization, 
and with a light touch he knew how to select the most 
important out of the great mass of material. The book 
thus served several generations, although the chapters 
on the history of art are less well written than the rest, 
and those are naturally the most antiquated to-day. 
Welcker too lived in a Hellenic atmosphere ; religion, 
poetry, and art were for him indissolubly united, and 
he felt as a Hellene. He had not only looked through a 
window into one room of the great structure, but he was 
familiar with every corner, and to him each corner was 
only a part of the whole. Welcker possessed a more keen 
delight in art and poetry than Miiller, combined with a 
most delicate feeling for the individual. Individual 
poets and artists appeared as special figures in the great 
current of development, and in his poetic intuitive spirit 
he created forms, which, if they were not always quite 
like the originals, pulsated with the blood of Hellas. 
Thus, when he first saw the sculptures of the Parthenon, 
the Sophocles, or the Apoxyomenos, they appeared as 
living individuals whom he had long known from afar ; 
and the significance he attached to the contemplation of 


statues, besides their study, he manifested by the founda- 
tion of the first museum of casts, the model institution at 

The great discoveries of vases, in the twenties and 
thirties, were of great significance for archaeology. 
New treasuries of mythological scenes, far richer than 
could ever have been anticipated, appeared, and de- 
manded appreciation and explanation. Thus the subject- 
matter of the pictorial part of the vase came into the 
foreground, and for a time science was almost lost in 
exegesis. It is to the credit of Otto Jahn to have freed 
science from the arbitrariness of unmethodical guess- 
work and barren subtleties, to have finally placed it on 
a firm basis. He had started with philology, a pupil of 
Lachmann and Bockh, and had transferred his philo- 
logical methods to archaeological exegesis. Raoul-Roch- 
ette had preceded him in combining artistic and literary 
sources. A survey of the general development which 
Jahn, like Miiller and Welcker, kept constantly in view, 
promoted historical points of view, e.g. the recognition 
of the fact, until then overlooked, that the tribal differ- 
ences among the Greeks exerted a decisive influence on 
their plastic art, as well as on their poetry, philosophy, 
and architecture (1846). Or, again, the demonstration 
that genre had been familiar to late Greek art as well as to 
Hellenistic poetry, a verdict frequently questioned then 
(1848). To-day we can hardly understand that such 
things should ever have been misunderstood. 

This older mode of thought, which Jahn represented, 
still lacked one thing : the complete blending of the 
literary and these newly opened artistic sources ; they 
frequently ran side by side like two streams, and rarely 
united. Thus, for example, Johannes Overbeck, in his 
" Geschichte der Griechischen Plastik," maintained 
through four editions (1857-94) of this much-read book 
the separation of the two sources ; for instance, the 


appreciation of Phidias remains separated from an 
analysis of the sculptures of the Parthenon. Even 
Heinrich Brunn, in his " Geschichte der Griechischen 
Kunstler" (1853-9), which marks a great advance, 
limited himself almost entirely to the literary evidence, 
which he had critically sifted, and only referred to original 
works of art by known artists, as the Laocoon, the Bor- 
ghese Gladiator, or the Apotheosis of Homer. Brunn 
was quite right and justified in critically examining the 
traditional history of art, and he is not to blame that the 
numerous histories of Greek sculpture were slow to adopt 
the History of Art as their subject, in the place of the 
History of Artists. And yet the incessant discovery of 
nameless works, often far surpassing those which could 
be ascribed to known artists, imperatively called for such 
a change. 

The change in our views and methods which has 
since arisen is due in the first place to the great enter- 
prises which followed one another in rapid succession 
during the last third of the century. These enterprises, 
however, widened the scope of our vision both locally 
and temporally, and along with new knowledge have 
constantly presented new problems ; they have also 
enriched and reinforced, not only our methods of ex- 
cavating, but of understanding and applying results. 
But this does not explain everything ; other essential 
conditions must be considered. 

(i) The most obvious cause consists in the great 
facilities of travel offered by the railways and steam- 
ships. The ancient saying that a journey to Corinth is 
not for every one, has lost its literal significance. To- 
day it is possible for us to be, as Pliny says of the 
likenesses of famous men in Varro's book of portraits 
(imagines), " omnipresent as the gods." A stay of some 


length in the south is a matter of course, and com- 
paratively easily attainable for all archaeological 
students. But also when it is a question of collecting 
or comparing material for special work, or even for single 
questions, the visiting of museums, which are almost 
always generously opened to all investigators, is infinitely 
easier than it was fifty years ago. Thus we not only have 
much more material at our disposal, but we command 
greater facilities for its use. 

(2) Scientific education has also greatly altered. 
Fifty years ago by no means all the universities of Ger- 
many had chairs of Archaeology ; in Austria there was 
only one, in Vienna ; in France, in Paris ; and, to my 
knowledge, Italy and England had none. To-day hardly 
any European university is without such a chair, and its 
" laboratory " a museum of casts. Welcker, with the 
assistance of Baron von Stein, established in Bonn the 
first museum of the kind, which is systematically ar- 
ranged for study. Welcker wrote in 1827 : " Tnis 
foundation is so opportune that I am convinced the other 
universities will follow before long." The prediction 
has been fulfilled, at first in Germany, and gradually in 
other countries where archaeology is studied. Although 
the casts, at best, are only a makeshift, and the opaque 
plaster cannot convey an idea of the beauty of marble 
or bronze, yet, on the other hand, it has the advantage 
of not being limited, like a genuine museum of antiques, 
to a chance collection, but the entire sequence of ancient 
sculpture can here be exhibited in a systematic selection. 
Casts are also more useful for scientific work than originals, 
as certain important experiments can be made ; for 
example, false restorations can be removed and better 
restorations can be tried, also casts can be bronzed after 
the originals. 

There are still certain difficulties to be overcome, as it 
is not always possible to secure the most important and 


instructive casts. A great central establishment is 
wanted, furnished with ample means, which under 
scientific guidance would produce the most important 
casts according to a definite scheme. Or, if this were 
too great a task for a single institution, it would be 
possible to think of a union of several (as has recently 
been established for the great undertakings of the 
academies) ; thus, for example, factories for casts in 
Berlin, London, Paris, Rome, Athens, and Munich, could 
unite and share the task, of course under the control of a 
scientific committee. But these are dreams of the future. 
A collection of the most important examples can now be 
obtained, as may be seen apart from the Museums of 
Berlin or Dresden in the University Galleries of Bonn, 
Munich, Strasburg, Leipzig, Cambridge, Oxford, Lyons, 
and Rome. These collections render possible those 
exercises which Otto Jahn was the first to introduce into 
the academic curriculum. Here the student learns the 
difficult art of seeing, and is taught to apply the principles 
of criticism and interpretation. A student who has 
thus become thoroughly familiar with one museum is 
prepared to advance science when going out into the 
realm of originals, particularly if there is combined with 
the casts a collection of originals as at Bonn and Wiirz- 
burg. At Berlin and Munich large collections of originals 
are at the disposal of the student. 

To the universities at home must be added the 
Archaeological Institutes or Schools, the places of ob- 
servation and work in foreign countries. The Archae- 
ological Institute in Rome remained alone for nearly 
twenty years. The French School in Athens was added 
next, but did not take part in real archaeological work 
for some time. To-day, beside the French School in 
Athens, which has also extended hospitality to foreign 
scholars, there are actively engaged the German Institute, 
the American School, and the British School, to which 


recently an Austrian has been added. Similar con- 
ditions prevail in Rome, which, however, as Greece is of 
greater importance archaeologically, occupies a second 
place. Besides other work undertaken by these in- 
stitutions, they devote themselves to the training of 
students, who, after preliminary instruction, which is 
ever-increasing in efficiency, have been sent to them, 
or present themselves of their own accord. They are 
made familiar with ancient sites and works of art 
by lectures, demonstrations, and journeys, and are 
employed, with more or less independence, at the ex- 

A very different training from that of former times ! 

(3) Another help in the study of art which cannot be 
overrated has come with the development of photo- 
graphy. Fifty years ago almost the only photographs of 
antiques known were in Italy, and those chiefly in Rome. 
To-day there is hardly any large Museum which does not 
publish its own photographs, and it is generally not 
difficult to acquire photographs even of scattered an- 
tiques. To-day a camera is a necessity for every archae- 
ological traveller. Photographs play an important part 
in the teaching of archaeology. The collection, begun 
by Brunn-Bruckmann, and continued by Paul Arndt, 
of " Denkmdler griechischer und romischer Skulptur " 
is as indispensable for lectures as that published by Arndt 
and Amelung, " Photographische Einzelaufnahmen an- 
tiker Skulptur en" is for research work in antique sculp- 
ture. Processes of reproduction such as phototypes 
and autotypes, while not always artistically pleasing, 
render great variety and accuracy possible in the illus- 
tration of archaeological works both scientific and popu- 
lar. They can thus convey authentic knowledge of 
antique works to an extended circle, and place a living 
image before the beholder in the place of a lifeless or 
misinterpreted description. Even catalogues sometimes 


follow this method, since the collections in Berlin set 
the example in 1891. But it is not only the great facility 
of reproduction that we owe to photography, but the 
manner of representation is still more to be considered. 
Engravings of earlier times bore the impress of the period 
or the engraver, and this character increased with their 
elaboration. Rarely did they reproduce the style of 
the original so faithfully as the first volume of the " Speci- 
mens of Ancient Sculpture," the " Ancient Marbles of 
the British Museum," or the best plates in the " Musee 
des Antiques," by Bouillon. Accordingly many were 
limited to mere outlines which, when carefully executed, 
sufficed for second-rate works of art, chiefly interesting 
on account of their subject, such as those in Zoega's 
" Bassirilievi " ; but when applied to statues and busts of 
high artistic merit could only claim the value of aids to 
memory, as those in the Musee Napoleon by Piroli, or 
"Denkmaler der alien Kunst" by Miiller and Osterley. 
How very much the individuality of the draughtsman 
affected plates is clearly indicated in the elegant plates 
of the " Graber der Hellenen" by Stackelberg. Compared 
with these methods, photography, in spite of certain 
inherent defects of foreshortening, and in spite of its 
dependence on the often unfavourable lighting of the 
objects, shows an infinitely greater fidelity and pre- 
cision in the reproduction of all the nuances of style, 
technical peculiarities, and artistic effects of the original. 
Thus with the help of photography we have learnt to see 
anew, and it is greatly owing to its aid that modern 
archaeology has turned so decidedly to stylistic analysis 
and appreciation. Some, like Heinrich Brunn and Karl 
Friedrichs, had taken this course even without photo- 
graphy, but that it has become the great high road of 
archaeology is mainly due to our habit of viewing every- 
thing photographically, and to the possibility offered 
by photography of judging of the stylistic character of 


originals without seeing them, and of their relation to 
other known works. 

Photography has not only influenced archaeology, but 
the History of Medieval and Modern Art as well. This as 
a science is even more recent than archaeology, and, like 
Medieval and Modern History, learnt much from the 
elder science in its first stages of development, when 
modern and ancient art had not been so distinctly 
separated. But its special character was early dis- 
tinguishable. In Germany alone Rumohr's (1827-31) 
44 Italienische Forschungen" and Gaye's " Carteggio 
inedito di artisti " (1839-40), may be noted as the be- 
ginning of scientific method in the history of later art. 
In the former, stylistic considerations form the chief 
element in historical appreciation ; in the latter the 
archives have yielded their treasures in an admirable 
manner in the service of the history of art. The history 
of modern art has at its disposal in both respects in- 
finitely richer and more trustworthy material than 
archaeology. As works of art, paintings in particular 
are so scattered, it would have been difficult to ac- 
quire such skill in stylistic analysis without the help 
of photography. By such means the mountain has come 
to the prophet, where his road to the mountain was 
barred. The purely artistic point of view has from 
the beginning more strongly influenced the history of 
modern art, which has not passed through a philological 
stage. This circumstance has perhaps made its judg- 
ments more subjective, but has also called forth certain 
critical methods, which can best be designated by the 
name of Morelli. Archaeology has thus been influenced 
by the history of modern art in proportion as the former 
has endeavoured to keep questions of style and art in the 

Under these influences a revolution has taken place in 


archaeology in regard to scientific observation and treat- 

During the course of discovery new works or groups 
constantly appeared of which we had little or no literary 
or documentary evidence, and which could not be assigned 
a place in the scheme which has been constructed mainly 
from notices in Pliny or Pausanias. They demanded 
independent criticism and comparison with others 
already known and designated, so as to receive their 
proper place. At times the result was to disturb the 
traditional classification or to necessitate a new sub- 
division in it or an addition to it. Of such a nature was 
Brunn's theory of a special Northern Greek art. It had 
only slight support in the literary evidence that a certain 
Telephanes flourished in Thessaly about the time of the 
Persian wars ; but, on the other hand, it found support 
in the peculiar " pastoso " style of a number of reliefs 
from Northern Greece. The doubts which this theory 
encountered, especially when it was connected with the 
name of Paionios, as the alleged artist of the Eastern 
pediment group at Olympia, were silenced more and 
more, since Brunn himself connected these monuments 
with the Ionian art of Asia Minor. This assumption 
was not so much based upon literary evidence as upon 
stylistic and general historical considerations. 

Thus it has come about that with new finds not yet 
labelled, the old philological point of view has receded 
and the new stylistic analysis taken its place. The leader 
in this movement was Heinrich Brunn. As he was a 
most independent investigator and impressive teacher, 
his influence was very great. As in modern aesthetics, 
so here, everything depended on the recognition of the 
forms in art, and the history of art only pursued the 
development of the artistic form. This was the natural 
consequence of adopting stylistic analysis as the prevailing 
method of investigation. To-day no one questions any 


longer the general justification of the movement. It is 
a well-known fact that a new movement is most intolerant 
to the one just preceding it. Consequently the well- 
developed archaeology of style now depreciates the archae- 
ology of the philological period. Only works of art are 
of importance, all tradition is useless, in fact often cannot 
withstand the higher criticism. Those who speak thus 
do not realize that they are about to saw off the branch 
on which they are sitting. For how could we have 
built the history of art upon stylistic grounds, if we had 
not documentary evidence ? Let us only compare the 
assurance with which we recognize the Diskobolos of 
Myron, and use it as a criterion, on the strength of two 
clear literary evidences, with the great insecurity which 
exists as soon as we only have stylistic analysis as a 
guide. The criterion of style is naturally subjective, 
and varies according to the conceptions of the individual 
critic, at times even according to the time and conditions 
of his knowledge. One need only remember the numerous 
views expressed in regard to the pediment groups at 
Olympia (p. 129), or consider that no less an authority 
than Brunn assigned the Diomede in Munich, on stylistic 
grounds, to the fourth century, while Loschcke, Stud- 
niczka, and Furtwangler place it, no doubt correctly, 
in the fifth century. Kalkmann, a man with a most 
subtle appreciation of proportions, was capable of " de- 
monstrating " that the magnificent figure of a youth 
from Subiaco, now in the Museo delle Terme in Rome, 
a masterpiece of the liquid style of the time of Praxiteles, 
was an archaic figure, dating from about the time of the 
Persian wars ! In the discussion about the falsely so- 
called Apollo of the Omphalos, rival claims are advanced 
for Pythagoras of Rhegion (Waldstein), the supposed 
Boeotian Kalamis (Conze, Furtwangler, and others) 
and the Corinthian Kallimachos (Schreiber). Who does 
not recall how modern paintings are frequently christened 


over and over again by the virtuosi, and how here, in 
spite of a much more favourable condition of affairs, 
and with far more numerous works undoubtedly au- 
thenticated, it is still not always possible to obtain a 
unanimous opinion as to the true creator ? Each critic 
believes his opinion to be the only true one. 

Adolf Furtwangler has taken a method of his own to 
produce an agreement between literary tradition and the 
monuments which have come down to us. According 
to his statement, " in the Roman copies there has been 
preserved to us a certain selection made from the master- 
pieces of classical times, dictated by taste and knowledge 
at a time when the best culture prevailed. It was a 
choice of the best and most famous possessions of an- 
tiquity. Among these copies we must seek for the 
masterpieces mentioned by writers, those statues that 
were epoch-making, or indicated an entirely new direction 
in art." Starting with the hypothesis that the copies 
preserved can be divided among the artists mentioned by 
Pliny and Pausanias, he succeeds not only in allotting 
to great masters numerous works, but even shadowy and 
rarely mentioned artists, as Telephanes of Phocaea, and 
Praxias, the pupil of Kalamis, have important statues 
assigned to them, as the Ludovisi Hermes and the Albani 

We know of two statues of Myron with certainty, the 
Diskobolos and the Marsyas. Following Morelli's method 
of individual study, Furtwangler tries to acquire for him 
a series of others ; some, as the Perseus, show an entirely 
different style, and some an apparently more elaborate, 
but really more indistinct type, hardly to be reconciled 
with our earlier, definite starting-point. In Kalli- 
machos are united the most divergent traits, so as to 
form an incomprehensible personality. In the case of 
Euphranor it is difficult to gain any firm footing. But 
details are always open to discussion, although many of 


the artists' portraits created by Furtwangler have been 
accepted as the inalienable possession of the history of 
art. Yet his premise appears to me incorrect ; that the 
choice of antique statues which has come down to us 
should correspond with the history of art, which Pliny 
compiled out of second-hand authorities, or with the 
works mentioned by Pausanias in his guide-book of 
Greece. How do we know that the taste of the Romans 
at the end of the Republic or at the beginning of the Em- 
pire that is about the time from which most of our 
copies date was the same as that of the sources of these 
writers ? How much the taste of the moment or fashion 
may have played a part we can never know. The very 
foundations of Furtwangler's system of naming statues 
seem thus doubtful, and the uncertain element in his 
decisions seems greatly to outweigh the certain and the 
probable. Among his numerous ascriptions hardly one 
possesses so high a degree of certainty as the successful 
recognition of the Lemnian Athene of Phidias, of which 
we shall speak again. 

But when such objections as look upon all criticism of 
style as subjective are set aside, it cannot be denied that 
from this method the history of art has received a fresh 
impetus. Instead of depending upon a scaffolding 
supposed to be firm, because derived from literary 
tradition, but really flimsy and scanty, we now have a 
structure rich in form and colour, which may indeed in 
the course of time require addition or rebuilding and 
change in its decoration, but may, on the whole, be looked 
upon as firmly established. The forms of artists who 
formerly wandered about the Hades of literary tradition 
as pale ghosts, have had blood put into their veins by 
the digging and investigating archaeologists, and they 
speak to us in the language of living beings. We will try 
to demonstrate the progress made by a series of examples. 


Greek sculpture has acquired the most obvious gain. 
The eighteenth century knew but few works definitely 
assignable to known artists. Apart from the Laocoon, 
the Farnese Bull and similar works, Winckelmann recog- 
nized the Lizard Slayer of Praxiteles and Visconti the 
Cnidian Aphrodite by the same artist, the Ganymede of 
Leochares, the Praying Boy of Bcedas, and the Tyche of 
Eutychides ; and Carlo Fea recognized in 1783 the Disko- 
bolos of Myron. For a long time none were added to this 
number. An important discovery was made by Antonio 
Nibby in 1821, when in the Dying Gladiator (whom 
Byron's immortal verses celebrated as a Dacian fallen 
in the arena), he recognized, by his features, his hair, 
the collar about his neck, and his shield, one of the Gala- 
tians who, according to Pliny, had been erected at Per- 
gamon, to commemorate the victories of Attalos and 
Eumenes over their formidable neighbours. This at 
once gave the key to the group of Galatians in the Ludo- 
visi collection, of the same period and the same marble, 
now the pride of the Museo delle Terme. Pergamene art 
was thus placed beside the Rhodian, represented by the 
Laocoon and the Farnese Bull, and they formed together 
for a long time all that was known of " Hellenistic " 
art. This expression was, however, only coined in 1833 
by Johann Gustav Droysen. 

Only about the middle of the century were new dis- 
coveries made and works assigned to certain artists. 
It indicated the condition of our actual knowledge of the 
most important artists, that when in 1849 the Apoxy- 
omenos was found at Trastevere, doubts arose whether 
it was the Polykleitan or Lysippan. The truth soon 
prevailed, whether Emil Braun or another was the first 
to decide the question, and the Apoxyomenos has be- 
come the mainspring of our knowledge of the great 
reformer in art, Lysippos. Some years later, in 1853, 
Otto Jahn recognized a reminiscence of another work of 


Lysippos, the Kairos, in a supposed mosaic, which after- 
wards proved to be an early medieval relief. Jahn had 
distinguished as early as 1850 the three " Ephesian " 
types of the Amazon statues, among the great number 
existing. Attempts have since been often made to 
assign them to the great artists Polykleitos, Phidias, 
and Kresilas, although with varying results. In 1850 
the characteristics of these three artists were still too 
indefinite to attempt such a distinction with success. 

Such ascriptions as rested primarily upon stylistic 
observation began to be made in the fifties. Heinrich 
Brunn recognized in 1853 a bearded satyr, which had 
just then been placed in the Later an, as the Marsyas of 
Myron, expressing lively surprise at the flutes which 
Athene has thrown down, although the figure had been 
incorrectly restored as dancing with castanets. His 
statement was supported by a reference in Pliny, by an 
Athenian coin, and a lost Athenian relief. Five years 
later Brunn could definitely confirm the identification 
by a thorough stylistic analysis. Myron was thus, 
through his Diskobolos and Marsyas, the first artist 
with whose characteristics we became familiar. In 1859 
Karl Friedrichs followed with the brilliant discovery of 
the group of the Tyrannicides, two athletes in the Naples 
Museum, our first glimpse into archaic art. Here also 
a coin, and a relief, which had disappeared, supplied the 
authority, which was later confirmed by stylistic demon- 
stration. But as two groups of the Tyrannicides had 
existed, an earlier one by Antenor from the end of the 
sixth century, and a later one, made thirty years after 
by Kritios and Nesiotes, doubts arose to which of the 
two groups this copy of the athletes belonged. The 
group has now been assigned to the later original. 

An even greater sensation was caused by the finding in 
the same year, in 1859, m Athens, of an unfinished 
statuette, in which Charles Lenormant recognized a copy 


of the Athene Parthenos of Phidias. On the strength 
of many notices and supposed imitations, attempts had 
often been made to reconstruct this famous masterpiece, 
and, as it proved, with some success ; but we now recog- 
nized for the first time the severe architectural pose of the 
colossal figure, and the arrangement of its accessories in 
the authentic form, so that a definite basis had been ac- 
quired for further research. In 1865 Conze was able to 
confirm and supplement this discovery by a marble copy 
of the shield which Newton had recently found in Lord 
Strangford's cellar, and secured for the British Museum. 
In 1880 another large duplicate of the same figure was 
found in Athens. At St. Petersburg Gangolf Kieseritzky 
published, in 1883, golden copies in relief of the head, 
with its rich head-dress, which made it evident that a 
gem of Aspasios in Vienna, already well known, was the 
best copy of the head. While the Parthenos has thus 
become constantly clearer to us in all details, how sadly 
fragmentary is our knowledge of the Olympian Zeus ! 
We owe thanks to J. Overbeck for recognizing in 1865-6 
on some coins of the time of Hadrian the only monu- 
mental evidence we have ; otherwise we are almost 
entirely dependent on Pausanias' description. Nothing 
can demonstrate more clearly the progress we have made, 
through the discovery and identification of recovered 
copies, than a comparison of these two, the chief works 
of Phidias. 

In 1863 Friedrichs demonstrated convincingly that 
the Canon of Polykleitos, the Doryphoros, could be 
recognized in the statue of a youth in the Naples Museum 
and in other copies the same thought had occurred to 
Brunn about the same time. The sound, although 
somewhat monotonous manner of the Argive master 
was thus clearly defined, and Helbig had no difficulty in 
recognizing in 1871 in a similar composition at the British 
Museum, which Newton had acquired at Vaison (p. 102), 


the Diadumenos of the same artist. Brunn discovered 
in 1867 another corner-stone in the history of art, by 
recognizing in the " Leukothea " of Winckelmann one of 
the finest statues in the Munich Glyptothek, the goddess 
of Peace holding the little god of Wealth in her arm the 
Eirene and Plutos by the elder Kephisodotos, the father 
of Praxiteles. The idea was, so to speak, in the air, for 
Friedrichs had in 1859 recognized the " child-nursing " 
goddess as the essential part of the group, and Stephani, 
Stark, Urlichs, and Overbeck thought of the statue of 
Kephisodotos almost simultaneously ; but it was left 
for Brunn to confirm the supposition by the evidence of 
an Athenian coin in the Munich Cabinet of Coins, on 
which the group is reproduced, and the little Plutos can 
be recognized by his cornucopia. Further proof has 
since been provided by the discovery of replicas of the 
child. The group of Kephisodotos now formed a con- 
necting link between the tradition of the Phidian school 
and the works of Kephisodotos' great son Praxiteles. 

About the same time Brunn made an important con- 
tribution to our knowledge of archaic art by distinguishing 
through an exact analysis of the two pediment groups at 
^Egina two distinct periods of style, an older and more 
conservative one in the West pediment, and a later one 
in the East pediment, where new life has been infused into 
rigid forms. Finally Brunn closed this series of happy 
discoveries in 1870 by demonstrating that a number of 
half life-size statues, all belonging to a Roman find in 
1514, and scattered in different museums, were remains 
of the four groups dedicated by King Attalos upon the 
Athenian Acropolis. From the wars of the Giants and 
of the Amazons, from the Battle of Marathon and the 
victories won by Attalos over the Galatians, from each 
of these remains were found, corresponding in style to 
those known from Pergamon. This was so evident that 
some doubt which had arisen in consequence of a mis- 


interpretation of an expression by Pausanias was soon 

These were nearly all the artists whose names could be 
assigned to long-known works. But in the meantime the 
era of new discoveries had arrived. At the beginning of the 
excavations at Olympia (1875) the Nike of Paionios was 
found ; two years later the Hermes of Praxiteles. Both 
have been mentioned above (pages 128-131), and the 
questions regarding them which have since arisen. It may 
be worth mentioning that Emil Braun at one time 
thought of connecting the brother of the Hermes, the "An- 
tinous " of the Belvedere, with Polykleitos, he was so im- 
pressed with the heavy form of the upper part of the body. 

To continue with Praxiteles, Gustave Foug&res dis- 
covered in 1883 a "t Mantineia the base of a group by this 
artist. The reliefs of the Muses upon it threw new light 
upon the drapery motives of Praxiteles. Benndorf and 
Furtwangler recognized almost simultaneously in a beau- 
tiful youth's head, with waving locks, found at Eleusis, 
the Chthonic god Eubouleus, a work which Georg Kaibel, 
in consequence of an inscription, had just assigned to 
Praxiteles. And Furtwangler believed he had dis- 
covered another original work of this master, in 1893, 
in a head of Aphrodite, in the Pet worth collection. 

While the figure of Praxiteles, the artist, which even 
before was something more than a shadow, now emerged 
into ever-increasing light, fortune did not smile upon 
his elder colleague Scopas. Newton had discovered in 
1867 three connected slabs of the frieze, on the east side 
of the Mausoleum, the side assigned to Scopas, and had 
ascribed them to that sculptor, but without basing his 
opinion on any exact analysis. So when Brunn in 1882, 
after a careful study, considered himself justified on 
general grounds in depriving Scopas of these, many 
followed him. And yet in 1880 remains of pediment 
groups by Scopas had been found at Tegea, from which 


Kavvadias and Treu inferred the characteristics of 
Scopas ; and Treu rightly laid stress on their connection 
with the slabs of the Mausoleum. Upon this basis L. R. 
Farnell (1886) and Botho Graf (1889) succeeded in 
establishing the characteristics of Scopas, and tracing 
them in a number of other works, so that his style is 
now tolerably familiar to us. Recently Georg Treu 
(1902) has recovered another of his works, by recognizing 
a copy of his famous Frenzied Maenad. 

Three other artists had been engaged with Scopas on 
the decorations of the Mausoleum Leochares on the 
west side, Timotheos on the south, and Bryaxis on the 
north. Of these artists we had met Timotheos first, 
in the sculptures of the Temple of Asklepios at Epidauros. 
Paul Foucart in 1890 assigned these to Timotheos, on the 
strength of the literary notices. The delicacy of the 
drapery in these works induced Franz Winter, in 180.4, 
to assign to him a statue of Leda frequently copied. 
A statue of Artemis, which had been placed in the Temple 
of Augustus on the Palatine, was recognized in 1900 by 
Walther Amelung in a relief. The name of Bryaxis 
appeared in 1891 inscribed on a pedestal in Athens ; the 
great lack of inventiveness here seemed to explain why 
the most unfavourable side of the Mausoleum, the north, 
had been assigned to Bryaxis. However, the statue of 
a Persian rider found there is one of the finest of the 
sculptures of the Mausoleum, and would justify the place 
of honour accorded Bryaxis in ancient tradition. More 
doubtful is his claim to some reliefs of extraordinary 
beauty, of which the most important belong to the side 
of Scopas or to the Sarcophagus of the Mourning Women. 
Winter found a resemblance between the well-known 
Ganymede of Leochares and the Apollo Belvedere, 
and so in 1892 assigned the latter to this spirited artist, 
amid general approbation. Finally, in the statues of 
Mausolos and Artemisia and the Quadriga we now recog- 


nize the work of Pythios, the architect and fifth sculptor 
of the Mausoleum. 

Some other identifications which have followed recent 
excavations may be mentioned. The very archaic Nike 
leaping through the air, which Theophile Homolle found 
at Delos in 1879, does not belong to the base and inscrip- 
tion, found at the same time, of the early artist Archermos 
of Chios ; still it takes us back to the infancy of sculpture, 
when this artist first introduced flying and leaping 
figures into Greek art. Soon the air appeared to be 
filled with these flying and leaping figures. The best- 
preserved of the archaic standing female statues found 
on the Acropolis at Athens was discovered in 1886. 
It could be almost entirely reconstructed, and has with 
great probability been connected with an inscription 
giving the name of the artist Antenor. In this statue 
we become acquainted with the artist of the earlier 
group of the Tyrannicides (p. 309) in a work made in his 
youth, while still under the influence of the Ionian school, 
but already far surpassing his masters. An unimportant 
herm, which appeared in 1884 with the name Plato, gave 
Winter an opportunity to introduce the name of Silanion, 
an Attic realist. Some disappointment was caused by 
the excavations of Kavvadias at Lycosura in 1889. 
The Messenian artist Damophon had been supposed to 
be a contemporary of Scopas and Praxiteles, but, on his 
work being discovered here, he proved a technically 
skilful but otherwise not very brilliant artist of later 
times, of about the second century. While the Tiber 
was being dredged in 1891 numerous fragments were 
found, out of which an Apollo was reconstructed, now 
in the Museo delle Terme, a statue still faintly suggesting 
archaic art, but of such extraordinary charm that E. 
Petersen's identification of it as a work of the youthful 
Phidias has been widely accepted. The excavations at 
Ephesos have yielded, besides, a number of other statues, 


a beautiful bronze Apoxyomenos, which was at once 
assigned to the fourth century. Some time before the 
base of a statue had been found at Ephesos, with the 
name of the artist Daidalos, a grandson of Polykleitos. 
Pliny also mentions an Apoxyomenos by Daidalos. 
Upon this premise Friedrich Hauser decided in 1902 
that this must be the statue found. And this is in so far 
probable, as the statue appears to be an example of 
Peloponnesian sculpture under Attic influence, which 
would be the case with the later generations of the school 
of Polykleitos. The main statue, among those found at 
Antikythera, seems to indicate the same tendency. 
Finally the excavations at Pergamon yielded in 1903 a 
bearded herm, which was described in its inscription as 
a copy of the " Hermes before the gate " of Alkamenes, 
that is, the Hermes Propylaios of the Athenian Acropolis. 
The head, which had already been known from other 
copies, some of them better, shows archaic conventional 
forms, though some features show more vivacity. Will 
the latter suffice, although wanting in some of the better 
copies, to enable us to recognize therein the ablest pupil 
and successor of Phidias, whose known works appear far 
softer ? Or shall we look for an older Alkamenes, of 
whom there are only vague traditions, who may even 
reopen the question as to the artist of the West pediment 
at Olympia ? Another discovery which is not only a 
gain, but suggests a new problem. 

This duplication of Alkamenes was not by any means 
unique. For it was customary in Greek families for a 
grandson to take the name of his grandfather. That 
this would be the case with artists is very probable, 
for the same profession was frequently carried on in a 
family from generation to generation. Definite records 
tell us, for example, of two sculptors named Polykleitos, 
of two named Kephisodotos, and of two painters Aris- 
teides, in each case a grandfather and grandson. It may 


thus not be easy to assign traditional works to their 
rightful claimants. With Aristeides the question does 
not seem settled yet, whether the grandfather, as I firmly 
believe, or the grandson was the distinguished master, 
the famous " Aristeides of Thebes." The great name 
of Praxiteles has been involved in a similar discussion. 
We know from inscriptions that there were other minor 
artists of the same name in later times, but doubts were 
expressed when Otto Benndorf in 1871 placed beside 
the famous master of the time of Demosthenes an older 
Praxiteles of the fifth century, of the correctness of 
which theory I am convinced. Although some, being 
over-zealous, try to date him back to the time of Kimon, 
a calmer judgment would allow him to follow Phidias, 
about the time of the Peloponnesian war. This date 
would permit him to be the father of the elder Kephiso- 
dotos and the grandfather of his distinguished namesake. 
As frequently happens in tradition, the famous name has 
absorbed the less renowned. 

A supposed double Daidalos, a Sikyonian or a Bithy- 
nian, has disappeared since Theo. Reinach, in 1897, 
recovered the truly Bithynian name Doidalses. Equally 
surprising and convincing was the recent demonstration 
of Emil Reisch (1906), that the artist name of Kalamis, 
of whom we had experienced great difficulty in obtaining 
a clear picture, really combined two artists of very differ- 
ent date. The first of the name flourished in the time 
of Kimon, and still retains his place in the history of 
archaic art. The second was a far greater artist, the 
only one of the two known to Pliny, and until recently 
unknown, a contemporary of Scopas and Praxiteles. 
Here, as elsewhere, greater discernment has widened 
our horizon. We mentioned above (p. 151) how Praxias 
and Androsthenes were pupils of Kalamis one had 
felt inclined to attribute this to a misunderstanding 
of Pausanias but now they assume their traditional 

Photo, Gatbier 


To face page 317 


place as workers on the sculpture of the Temple at 

But to return to the recognition of important works 
and their artists. Further examples may be mentioned 
of long-known works, of which we continue to seek the 
creators. The Apollo Belvedere has been mentioned. 
I tried in 1903 to refer certain Pergamene statues to 
Epigonos, an artist whose significance has only been 
revealed by the excavations at Pergamon, and to recog- 
nize in the Dying Gaul, who, like another Roland, lies 
with his trumpet beside him, the " excellent " statue of 
a trumpeter by this master mentioned by Pliny. 

In the same year Furtwangler published his striking 
conclusions regarding the Lemnian Athene, mentioned 
above (p. 307). We know from ancient records that 
this Athene was of surpassing renown, that her helmet 
had been laid aside, and that the outline of her face, 
her soft cheeks and beautiful nose were admired. Several 
writers among them Puchstein had recognized the 
Phidian character of a statue, the two best copies of 
which are in the Museum in Dresden. Puchstein had 
even thought of the Lemnian without a helmet. Both 
copies have, as is frequently the case with large statues, 
heads specially worked and inserted. To the one, the 
head does not seem to belong ; in the other, the neck and 
face certainly belong to the original, while the back of 
the head and the helmet are modern restorations. Adam 
Flasch recognized that original parts of this head cor- 
respond with a superb head at Bologna. All united in 
admiring this head, but its interpretation varied greatly : 
was it youth, an Amazon, or an Athene ? When Furt- 
wangler removed the false head on the first statue in 
Dresden, and inserted a cast of the Bologna head, which 
had also been made to be inserted, the two fitted so 
perfectly that no doubt could exist as to their originally 
having belonged to each other. Every unprejudiced 


person had to acknowledge that an antique statue of 
Phidias had been recovered. The head without a helmet 
suggested the Lemnian, only the glance very strongly 
directed to the side required an explanation. Furt- 
wangler was able to find a solution even for this. He 
discovered on gems, upon which statues were frequently 
copied, the goddess gazing upon her helmet while holding 
it in her raised right hand. A most admirable work of 
Phidias, even if a little severe, dating from before the 
time of the Parthenon. At the same time it is the only 
head reproducing in a worthy manner this aspect of the 

Finally, Studniczka, in 1902, combined a curiously 
twisted torso of a " Diomede," in the Palace Valentinelli 
in Rome, with a head of Perseus, which Furtwangler, as, 
I think, incorrectly, tries to connect with the Perseus of 
Myron. But we also know that Pythagoras, the con- 
temporary of Myron, made a Perseus. It would be 
gratifying, if in this work we could obtain a more vivid 
idea of this distinguished master than we gain from gems 
or coins. Another step in this direction was taken by 
von Duhn, who in 1907, in the half-erased inscription of 
the charioteer, traced a connection with the Quadriga of 

These examples will suffice to show that during the 
last half-century stylistic analysis combined with new 
discoveries not necessarily taken fresh from the earth, 
but such as may be found daily in museums have 
brought a series of artists in living palpable form before 
our eyes. This is most keenly felt, in comparing im- 
portant masters, as, for example, Euphranor, who have 
not been so fortunate, and about whose names conse- 
quently many hypotheses twine. But, on the other 
hand, we have gone a step further in having learnt, by 
the aid of new discoveries, to distinguish in some artists 
and their works different stages of their development. 


The first step in this direction was taken on the Par- 
thenon. We know from ancient testimony that the 
chryselephantine statue of Phidias had been put in 
position in 438, when the building must have been 
practically finished. And as the reliefs on the metopes, 
from definite indications, were not executed after they 
had been put in their places, but before, they must have 
been finished about 440 ; they would thus belong to the 
earliest sculpture on the Parthenon, a conclusion which 
their style confirms. But we were still in the dark as 
to when the building had been started, and whether it 
was completed in all parts in 438, until U. Kohler (1879) 
and G. Loschcke (1881) recognized that the fragments 
of a building inscription, which extended over more 
than fourteen years, belonged to the Parthenon. Accord- 
ing to this, 447 was the date when the building was 
begun, and it continued for only nine years to the " Con- 
secration." But the inscription further testifies that 
work continued on the Parthenon until 432, almost to 
the beginning of the great war. The great pediments, 
which are also mentioned in the inscription, can almost 
with certainty be dated in these last five years ; perhaps 
also part or all of the famous frieze, which may very 
probably have been executed in position. Although 
the frieze shows the workmanship of different hands, 
it indicates throughout a level of style which far excels 
that of the best metopes. The groups of the pediments, 
on the other hand, vary from unmistakable severity to 
consummate perfection, from almost academic precision 
to an intense individuality and sense of life. Thus the 
metopes were executed in the forties, the frieze in the 
beginning of the thirties, while the pediment groups were 
presumably executed after the death of Phidias, or after 
he had left Athens, in 438, by his pupils. This may be 
looked upon as almost certain. But is it, therefore, 
permissible, as is generally done, to estimate and date all 


contemporary sculpture according to this canon ? It 
may be possible with all works made under the influence 
of Phidias or his immediate circle. But it would be 
ignoring all experience to try to force all the art of the 
time, even only Attic art, into this chronological strait- 
jacket. The meagre fragments of tradition at our dis- 
posal easily led us to form too narrow a conception of the 
abundance and variety of independent movements in an 
age so full of mental stimulus and stir. We are too fond 
of imposing rigid formulas, and mapping out a regular 
course of development for each department of activity, 
whereas a glance at reality ought to teach us how large 
is the irrational element in all evolution, and how often 
it is impossible to trace, even in the career of a single 
artist, a gradual and uniform progress from imperfection 
towards perfection. 

A few artists, I think, allow us to follow this develop- 
ment. We have mentioned Antenor (p. 314), who, 
although of Ionian training, came later under the in- 
fluence of Dorian art. Of Polykleitos, we first learnt to 
know the Doryphoros, which became for the ancients 
the canon of his style. A number of bases of statues have 
been discovered at Olympia with the name of Polykleitos ; 
these still showed traces of the attachment of bronze 
statues, which permitted us to ascertain the position 
of the feet. One of them, on which an inscription gave 
the name Kyniskos, showed traces of the feet of a boy 
winning a race ; this corresponded with a reference in 
Pausanias. Maxime Collignon, in 1892, surmised that 
this Kyniskos may be recognized in a boy's statue of 
Polykleitan character in the British Museum, and Eugen 
Petersen confirmed this, by comparing the position of 
the feet of the London statue (the left foot firmly placed, 
the right slightly drawn back and only resting on the 
ball of the foot), which he found corresponded exactly 
with the Olympian base. But the boy shows more 


animation and a less " square " form and movement, 
than the Doryphoros and his congeners, which is not 
only accounted for by his youth, but is inherent in the 
style as well. The Doryphoros might thus have sug- 
gested a less developed style. It was therefore extremely 
interesting that Carl Robert, in 1900, showed from a 
recently discovered papyrus from Egypt,* containing 
a list of victors, that the victory of Kyniskos had taken 
place in 460, which places the statue at the beginning 
of the career of Polykleitos. We therefore recognize 
in this statue the early youthful style of Polykleitos, 
from which he gradually advanced to the more sturdy 
normal proportions and soldierly bearing of the youths 
who exhibit his canon. Furtwangler had recognized 
in 1893 that to the Diadumenos otherwise representing 
the normal Polykleitan style belonged a head at Cassel, 
which, according to form, expression, and hair, had 
always been considered Attic. And, as Plato tells us that 
during the thirties the artist spent some time in Athens, 
we evidently have here a later period with Attic influences. 
To this later period undoubtedly belongs the Hera of the 
Argive Heraion (after 423), whose head, corresponding 
to the coins of Argos, after a long search, Charles Wald- 
stein appears to have (1901) happily rediscovered in a 
head at the British Museum. 

Scopas may be compared with Polykleitos. We only 
learnt to recognize him with certainty in 1880, from the 
remains of the pediment group of the Temple at Tegea. 
These, with the entire temple, date from his youth 
(after 395), and undoubtedly indicate Peloponnesian 
training. His father, Aristandros, although coming 
from Paros, had worked in Sparta. As soon as he had 
learnt to know his style, others of his works were recog- 
nized, as the Meleager, perhaps also the Lansdowne 

* Papyrus found by Grenfell and Hunt and published in Part II 
of the "Oxyrhynchua Papyri," No. 222. 1899. Tr. 


Herakles ; these, combined with trustworthy notices 
of Scopas' long activity in Attica, clearly demonstrate 
his Attic tendencies, although Polykleitan influences are 
still perceptible in his proportions. This Attic influence 
in Scopas is plainly evident in the touching " Grave 
relief from the Ilissos," and the superb female head found 
on the Acropolis. The Palatine Apollo from Rhamnus 
likewise shows the influence of Attica ; in 1900 W. Ame- 
lung recognized this also in a statue at Florence. We 
here learn how the artist treated drapery. Finally, 
we see Scopas harmonized and far excelling his co- 
workers in his reliefs on the Mausoleum, which are 
characterized by wealth and daring in the motives, 
as well as by delicacy of execution. To these works of 
Scopas must be added the recently found Frenzied Maenad, 
which the ancients looked upon as a striking example of 
his passionate manner. 

Only lately have we learnt to recognize a development in 
the style of Lysippos. The Apoxyomenos has, since its 
discovery in 1849, been regarded as the normal example 
of his style, which is well marked in all its aspects. The 
seated Ares of the Ludovisi collection represents es- 
sentially the same stylistic characteristics, and was 
therefore assigned in 1853 by Welcker to the circle of 
Lysippos. This generally accepted theory, however, 
was considerably shaken when Adam Flasch, in 1892, 
recognized in a better-preserved copy of the head in 
Munich distinct traces of the style of Scopas which had 
now become known, although opinion inclined rather to 
see in it an Ares of Scopas, recorded as having existed 
at Halicarnassos, in spite of its decided Lysippan traits. 
However, a solution was found in consequence of a happy 
and sagacious discovery of Erich Preuner in 1899. In 
the excavations at Delphi there was discovered in 1897 
a group of marble statues of the family of a Thessalian 
prince, among them the statue of Agias with a poetical 


inscription, recording his victory in the games. Preuner 
was able to prove, from papers of Stackelberg, that the 
same epigram had been on a pedestal at Pharsalos, 
the home of Agias, but with the addition that the statue 
was the work of Lysippos. Thus the well-preserved 
statue at Delphi was a copy of one by Lysippos, and, as 
could be proved, of his early period (about 340). The 
future Lysippos is indicated in the position and carriage 
of the body, but while the upper part is still heavy, 
perhaps recalling Polykleitan traditions, the face clearly 
shows traces of the style of Scopas. Shall we therefore, 
with Percy Gardner, renounce our entire former con- 
ception of Lysippos, and dethrone the Apoxyomenos ? 
Or is it more likely that Lysippos, who is said to have 
acknowledged Polykleitos and Nature as his masters, 
should also in his youth have followed Scopas, the fore- 
most artist of the preceding generation ? It is true, he 
later abandoned all these influences in favour of his new 
attitude towards Nature. These considerations may 
also throw light on other works, as the Herakles of the 
Lansdowne collection. It is impossible to suppose an 
artist to whom 1500 statues are ascribed to have remained 
on the same level, especially so great a master as Lysippos. 
These examples of our progress in recognition all 
from the later decades encourage us to hope that with 
continued discoveries and observations new life will 
constantly be infused into the history of the develop- 
ment of individual artists a promising outlook for the 
new century ! 

Naturally similar efforts have been attempted in 
painting. Attic vase painting formed the starting-point, 
as only here existed a consecutive series of Greek paint- 
ings. The chronological sequence had in general been 
established of black-figured and red-figured. Although 
some single fragments found on the Acropolis demonstrate 


that vases had been painted with red figures before the 
Persian wars (480), the class, as a whole, was dated from 
the time of Kimon, and through the entire fourth century. 
We had learnt from Winckelmann to distinguish therein 
a " severe " and a " beautiful " style, and to separate 
them chronologically. Not much attention had been 
given to the names of the makers of vases (eTrolija-ev) 
and the painters of vases (lypcn/rev). I remember 
causing a shaking of heads among my colleagues during 
the sixties when in my lectures on the history of art I 
conceded a place to the most important or characteristic 
vase painters in the development of art. 

In 1879 appeared Klein's " Euphronios." By a search- 
ing examination of the style and subject-matter of the 
work of a number of vase painters, their artistic indi- 
viduality appeared, their personality was brought into 
relation with their work, and an individual development 
in this branch of art was shown. It was our first clear 
picture of the Athenian Kerameikos, with its great 
potters' workshops, with its cult of handsome boys and 
youths ; at times exhibiting a gay life, where wine, 
woman, and song reigned, and the professional envy of 
the potter, of which even Hesiod had sung. Euthymides, 
a rather backward painter, although with aspirations, 
boasts on a vase that this time he has painted better 
than Euphronios has ever done ; upon another he 
applauds himself with " Bravo " ; upon a third a hetaira 
drinks his health. That advertising was known is very 
evident. Klein distinguished two periods, the older 
" circle of Epiktetos," which made the transition from 
the black-figured to the red, and the younger circle, 
which, in contrast to the old-fashioned masters like 
Euthymides, chiefly gathered about Euphronios. Eight 
of his works have come down to us, and permit us to 
follow his development. Among his pupils and followers 
the most distinguished are Brygos, Hieron, and Douris. 


This emancipation of Athenian vase painting Klein dated, 
according to the usual view, in the time of Kimon. 

Then, when the Athenian citadel was being cleared, 
during the eighties, of the " Perserschutt," that is, of the 
debris, which dated before the destruction by the Persians 
in 480, sherds appeared of vases by Euphronios, Hieron, 
and others. A marble base even mentioned the " potter 
Euphronios " as the dedicator of a votive offering which 
he had given as his tithe. It became evident that Eu- 
phronios, as well as the younger Hieron, had to be pushed 
back beyond the time of the Persians ; and if an intro- 
ductory period were allowed for the beginning of the 
movement, it would have to be placed in the time of 
the tyrant Hippias, before 510. This explained the fact 
that the names of the youths frequently mentioned by 
painters on account of their beauty agreed in so many 
instances with those of persons in the circle of the tyrants. 
The chronology of vases had thus to be pushed back con- 
siderably, about half a century. 

This was not merely one of those numerous discoveries 
which lead to the changing of a single date. On the 
contrary, the first decades of the red-figured painting 
mean nothing less than a complete emancipation of the 
Attic spirit of art, its liberation from the bonds of archaic 
art in drawing objects, and composition. As by this 
same excavation on the Acropolis the Attic sculpture of 
this age was likewise revealed to us, a comparison showed 
that some of this same spirit is perceptible in sculpture, 
but the new tendency is much freer and stronger in 
vase painting. The painting of vases means the handi- 
craft of painting ; how much greater then must this 
emancipation have been during this transition period 
in the great art of painting, totally lost to us ! 

It is obvious that Greek painting developed earlier 
than Greek sculpture, a truth I proclaimed in 1884 before 
the clearing of the Acropolis, but to ears that would not 


hear. Or can this have been an isolated or accidental 
phenomenon ? Since Welcker's time, in 1838, the general 
impression has prevailed, that Phidias had been greatly 
influenced by the somewhat older painter Polygnotos. 
Greek painting further experienced about the time of the 
Peloponnesian war a revolution through the transition 
from the technique of fresco and the historical compo- 
sitions of wall paintings to tempera painting with light 
and shade and the easel picture detached from archi- 
tecture so thorough a transformation that sculpture 
could only follow slowly. It has never been doubted, 
since Hellenistic art has been an object of study at all, 
that during that period everything was dominated by 
pictorial considerations, and that even sculpture at- 
tempted illusion. Finally, it can be proved that even 
in the earliest times painting developed more rapidly 
than sculpture, which is hampered by its material and 
a more troublesome technique. It is thus obvious that 
through the whole history of Greek art, painting was the 
directing art and not sculpture, although this has always 
been more familiar to us. How we distort the picture 
of Greek art by not only separating sculpture from 
architecture, but also from painting, which always leads 
the way ! 

The dating back of the older " severe " style of painting 
to the time before the Persian wars necessarily affected 
all the other classes. All the others had to follow. Carl 
Robert distinguished in 1882 a special class consisting 
chiefly of larger compositions with numerous figures ex- 
tending over undulating landscapes, the movements as 
well as the features of the separate figures aiming at 
distinct characterization. And this is clearly the case 
in what we are told of the paintings of Polygnotos. 
Robert's conjecture, that these vases could be traced to 
Polygnotan influence met with almost universal ap- 
proval. They also became helpful to Robert while 


reconstructing the compositions of Polygnotos of which 
we possess more or less detailed descriptions and he 
thus, as it were, put his theory to the test of experiment. 

Polygnotos worked in Athens during the time of Kimon 
and the first years of Pericles ; thus the date given for 
the handicraft influenced by his paintings would be 
about the middle of the fifth century. If the next de- 
velopment in the painting of vases bears unmistakably 
the stamp of the serene and dignified manner of Phidias, 
this may be less owing to the immediate influence of 
Phidias, as Franz Winter assumed in 1885, but rather to 
some influence, no longer traceable, in the great art of 
painting, which affected sculpture as well as vase painting. 
This would most clearly explain, for example, why the 
same composition is rendered on two metopes of the 
Parthenon, and upon an elegant vase of the same period 
Helen seeking protection, assisted by Aphrodite and 
Eros, near the image of Athene, from the persecution 
of Menelaos. The vase, however, retains Peitho the 
companion of Aphrodite, while in her place, on the metope 
appears a commonplace companion of Menelaos. 

The new painting on clay tablets which began in 
Periclean times, inspired vase painters to paint on a 
white background in delicate colours or to enrich the 
composition by a greater variety of colours. This 
attempt was doomed to failure, through the natural 
limitations of painting on clay. It has, however, be- 
come increasingly clear, that the defeat of the army at 
Syracuse in 413 destroyed the prosperous trade of ex- 
porting Attic pottery to Italy, and thus deprived the 
Athenian potters of their best market. Furtwangler 
surmises that this trade was carried on by Thurioi, a 
colony of Pericles. Tarentum assumed the position of 
Athens, and continued the Attic tendency to paint in 
polychrome, as we see in the beautiful vase in the British 
Museum representing Peleus and Thetis. The Tarentine 


compositions were, however, somewhat stiff and gaudy, 
as if to show, in the language of Horace, the difference 
between Attic coin and Apulo-Lucanian counters. 

Thus new discoveries and more exact methods have 
led to a marked displacement in the history of painting. 

In architecture it is not so much a question of stylistic 
analysis as of a close observation and a thorough know- 
ledge of ancient architecture, even in its technical aspects. 
Thus by close observation it has been possible to date 
the buildings in Athens chronologically according to the 
stone used, beginning with the limestone of the Acropolis, 
then the limestone from the Piraeus, next a conglomerate 
from the neighbourhood of Athens ; as in sculpture, 
where the limestone was followed in succession by the 
marbles of Hymettos, Paros, and Pentelikos. Even 
such apparently insignificant objects as clamps are 
subject to changes of form, and help in dating structures. 
It has been demonstrated with the help of clamps that 
a structure on Corfu (Kardaki, Cardacchio), which Semper 
and others considered very ancient, in reality only be- 
longs to Hellenistic times. But these are simply guides 
in our studies. It will be well to show by a few examples 
that in important questions also new discoveries have 
led in entirely new directions. 

Dorpfeld had discovered in the ruins of Troy and Tiryns 
that the walls of the houses had consisted of stone only 
immediately above the ground, and the wall above this 
course had been made of sun-dried bricks, to which, as 
is still the case in Greece, wooden beams were added, 
inserted both longitudinally and transversely to give 
increased solidity. This mode of construction had to 
be also assumed for the ancient Temple of Hera at 
Olympia. Here, above the foundation, only the course 
of freestones (orthostates) had been preserved, while the 


remainder of the walls, softened by the rain, had turned 
into mud and covered all. Obviously the orthostates 
were intended to preserve the sun-dried bricks from the 
damp, and a plaster covering and a projection of the roof 
afforded some further protection. Traces have been dis- 
covered of the projecting ends of the walls or antae, of 
upright wooden beams, which served as supports for the 
sun-dried walls. Pausanias tells us that in the second 
century A.D. one of the columns in the Opisthodomos 
of the Heraion was of wood ; the conclusion was evident 
that at one time all the columns of the temple must have 
been of wood, like the columns described in Homer and 
Mycenaean columns. This was confirmed by the ob- 
servation that the existing stone columns of the temple 
present great differences in their proportions and capitals, 
varying from the heavy and compact form of the sixth 
to the slender conventional forms of the fourth and third 
centuries. Apparently they had gradually replaced the 
older wooden columns, beginning on the weather side. 
There is, however, great confusion, so that frequently 
an early column is found immediately beside a late one, 
a conclusive proof that they were not substituted in 
number, but singly, according to the need of the moment. 
No trace has been found of the entablature, which con- 
clusively proves that it must have been of wood to the 
last, and thus perished. Only roof tiles and a huge 
acroterion of painted terra-cotta have been found. 
Whether these date from the original building or from 
a reconstruction, when the sloping tile roof replaced a 
horizontal roof of beams covered with clay, depends on 
the date of the temple, a question which would here lead 
us too far. 

This exposition of Dorpfeld's (1884) threw considerable 
light on the connection between the early Doric temples 
and the structures of gean times. Peculiarities of 
stone construction, such as the meaningless double height 


of the lowest course of stones compared with the upper 
courses, or the slightly projecting columnar form of the 
anta, proved to be remains of the old construction of 
wood and clay. The column, it is true, had to be com- 
pletely altered in the transition from wood to stone 
construction ; the narrowing of the wooden column 
towards the base (as in a modern chair or table) gave 
place in the stone column to a narrowing towards the 
top. A connection could, however, still be traced in 
the capital ; the occasionally decorated torus of the 
^Egean capital developed into the curved echinus of 
the Doric, below which, in the two older temples at 
Paestum, there was still preserved a trochilus with leaf 
decoration. The connection between the two forms was 
made clear when Puchstein pointed out in 1899 that 
Poseidonia-Paestum had been founded by Achaeans, 
and the only capital of this form found in Greece is in 
the Achaean citadel of Tiryns. We are obviously dealing 
with an Achaean tradition derived from the heroic age. 

Although Dorpfeld's theory in regard to the Heraion 
has not yet been generally accepted, it appears to me 
to be correct and well maintained in face of opposition. 
Dorpfeld's investigations in regard to the original plan of 
the Propylaea have received a consensus of approval. 
After the medieval tower had been removed from the 
Acropolis in 1876, and important results attained in 
regard to the south wing of the Propylaea, Richard Bohn 
published in 1879-80 the plan anew without, however, 
gaining certainty on all points. The plan of the south 
wing with a pillar projecting westwards from the align- 
ment and the formation of the roof of both wings re- 
mained obscure ; besides which, on the inner side of 
the Propylaea the outer walls of the middle structure pre- 
served a number of bosses on the marble, indicating that 
they had been left unfinished, while certain holes and 
projecting blocks could not be explained by the existing 


building. By close scrutiny and by availing himself of 
the hints furnished by the building as only a trained 
architect could, Dorpfeld succeeded in reconstructing 
the plan of Mnesikles. He proved that the plan had 
been far more extensive, but, in consequence of interrup- 
tions, had to be curtailed. As originally planned, the 
great gateway would have occupied the entire west side 
of the Acropolis, to the edge of the steep rocks on either 
side. The middle structure on the inside was to have 
been flanked by halls with columns. The hall to the 
north was partially carried out, while toward the south 
it had not been possible, owing to the sanctuary of Artemis 
Brauronia. This wing had to be greatly reduced. The 
case was the same with the exterior. While to the north 
the wing was built according to the plan, and still proudly 
towers above its lofty base, to the south upon the pro- 
jecting bastion was the sanctuary of Athene Nike, who 
had a marble altar here, and to whom it had been de- 
cided, twenty years earlier, to erect a temple. If the 
plan of Mnesikles had been carried out, the already 
limited space for the temple of the city deity, the Giver 
of Victory, would have been so much cut down as to 
render its erection almost impossible. Mnesikles had, 
therefore, to restrict his great plan. Instead of a broad 
hall occupying the entire width of the bastion, and cor- 
responding in length to the northern wing, with a row of 
columns opening on to the Temple of Nike, he had to 
content himself with a compromise. The part facing 
north, towards the approach, is of the same length as the 
fagade of the north wing opposite, but towards the west, 
where the altar stood, it was 'reduced so that the building 
was greatly mutilated. This was no solution, but evi- 
dently a makeshift, which also necessitated an awkward 
arrangement of the hip-roof, the traces of which Dorpfeld 
discovered. The architect evidently hoped for better 
times to complete his original plans, and he carried out 


at least their foundations. However, the Peloponnesian 
war began, and the building remained unfinished, so 
that not even the marble bosses were removed nor the 
walls or floors finished. And Athens had other cares 
after the war. To the south of the stunted marble 
structure of Mnesikles the remains of an ancient Pelasgian 
wall formed the boundary between the sanctuaries of 
Artemis Brauronia and Athene Nike, and closed in the 
citadel. In the Middle Ages the gap served to provide 
a way by which the Prankish masters of Athens and their 
successors, the Turks, ascended the citadel. The north 
hall, in the inside, as far as it may have been finished, 
was pulled down, to make room for the office buildings 
of the Frankish Dukes, who used the Propylaea as their 

Dorpfeld's successful inquiry thus takes us immediately 
back to the history of Athens, and brings vividly before 
us events we otherwise only know in broad outlines from 
the records of historians. We owe to Dorpfeld the 
results of similar inquiries in regard to the Parthenon 
and to the different stages in the history of the temple 
which preceded it. Recently he has tried to reconstruct 
the Erechtheion, the great structural peculiarities of 
which have been a puzzle to many. Here again in his 
opinion the building had to be reduced almost to half 
its original plan. It would be premature to express any 
doubts before we have a complete statement of the argu- 

To the two Greek examples two Roman ones may be 
added. Until recently the Pantheon in Rome had been 
looked upon as the classical example of Roman archi- 
tecture in the Augustan age. In the inscription above 
the portico we still read the name of the erector, Marcus 
Agrippa. But certain doubts existed. In the Pantheon 
of Agrippa the capitals of the interior columns had been 
of bronze from Syracuse, and had supported marble 


caryatids by the Athenian sculptor Diogenes. There 
is no trace of either, and the attempt to account for this 
by assuming a partial rebuilding has been refuted by 
technical investigations. We know also from records 
that the structure of Agrippa was twice destroyed by fire, 
the first time during a great conflagration under Titus, 
in 80, and again when the building was struck by light- 
ning in no under Trajan. But how could a building 
burn which consisted only of bricks, marble, and metal ? 
Or how, even supposing we interpret the words " burnt " 
or " destroyed " not quite literally, could it be seriously 
damaged by fire ? This was, however, not considered, 
but the statement, also on record, was simply accepted, 
that the Pantheon had been restored by Domitian, and 
later by Hadrian. All damages were thus made good, 
or if anything still remained to be done, there were the 
restorations also recorded, under Antoninus Pius and 
Septimius Severus. All doubts had thus been overcome, 
and the existing Rotunda remained as before, a building 
of the times of Augustus. 

But in 1885 H. Dressel observed bricks stamped, ac- 
cording to Roman usage, in different parts of the round 
structure and the portico, dating from the times of 
Trajan and Hadrian, all before 126. (Brick stamps, it 
should be explained, are dated or have some chrono- 
logical mark.) This same observation had already been 
made in the eighteenth century. Dressel came to the 
conclusion that the Rotunda had been strengthened or 
refaced in the time of Hadrian, not a very acceptable 
theory, in view of the inner construction of the wall, 
which is found in other parts, nor did it explain the 
stamped bricks in the portico. Exact technical in- 
vestigations, carried on almost simultaneously by two 
architects, the Austrian, Joseph Dell, in 1890, and the 
Frenchman, Louis Chedanne, in 1891-2, demonstrated 
two facts : in the first place that the entire structure, the 


walls and the dome, is of one date, exhibiting a skilfully 
planned scheme in the pillars, plinths, and discharging 
arches, and, secondly, that the tiles of Hadrian are to 
be found in the entire building. No doubt could any 
longer exist of the origin of the present Pantheon in the 
time of Hadrian a fact of extreme importance for the 
history of Roman architecture. The age of Hadrian 
gained in splendour what that of Augustus lost ; the 
history of vaulted domes had to be newly investigated. 
Agrippa's inscription on the portico corresponded to 
the custom of Hadrian to retain the name of the original 
builder on restored buildings, and to leave to him all the 
honour. To judge from the character of the inscription, 
Hadrian must have used the original one ; which is some 
help in indicating the form of the Pantheon of Agrippa. 
The front must have been in a straight line. How was it 
in other respects ? Had it the usual oblong form of a 
temple ? Or was it a round building like that of Ha- 
drian, without a vaulted dome, but with a wooden and 
therefore inflammable roof ? The investigations of 
Chedanne and of an Italian commission under L. Bel- 
trami in 1892-3 did not come to any definite conclusions, 
but it is probable that the Pantheon of Agrippa had been 
of a round form. 

If the age of Augustus has had to renounce the Pan- 
theon, it has, on the other hand, gained the Ara Pacis. 
The evidence is very slight that has come down to us 
of this altar of the Augustan goddess of peace. In litera- 
ture we do not find it mentioned. Augustus, however, 
in the inscription which records his administration (p. 105) 
tells us that the senate in the year 13 B.C. decided to 
erect this altar, and to institute an annual sacrifice in 
gratitude for his return after a long absence. Other in- 
scriptions record that the altar was founded on 4 July, 
in the year 13, and consecrated 30 January, in the year 
9. When Friedrich von Duhn in 1879 tried to bring the 


scattered reliefs together, he assumed a monument of 
extraordinary size, and a great part of the sculpture he 
thought lost. Fifteen years later Eugen Petersen ex- 
amined the architectural remains, which until then had 
not been noticed, and while deliberating with the archi- 
tect, Victor Rauscher, came to the conclusion that the 
monument must have been of much smaller proportions. 
According to this theory the altar had been surrounded 
by a marble wall about six metres high ; the length and 
breadth of this enclosure amounted to 10*16 metres. 
The decoration on the inner side of the walls consisted 
mainly of delicately worked festoons, while the walls 
of the exterior were covered below with an equally 
beautiful design of creeping plants, and above this with 
a frieze i metre high. On this, from a symbolical 
centre at the back, the imperial family and the senate 
walk in solemn procession towards the entrance, to 
witness at the altar the sacrifice to the goddess of peace. 
As Petersen restored the whole in 1902, it was a monu- 
ment worthy to form the new central point of the history 
of Augustan art. 

The fragments, which had come to light partly in the 
cinque-cento, partly in 1859, were all from one site ; they 
had been taken from the earth under the Palazzo Fiano 
on the Corso. The remains of this proud monument 
which, on the occasion of the Historical Congress in 
Rome, in 1903, was restored in a cast by A. Pasqui, 
seemed of sufficient importance to warrant a continua- 
tion of the excavations. During the winter 1903-4 the 
Italian Government undertook it under the directions of 
Pasqui and Petersen. It was necessary to dig six metres 
below the present street level, and under the foundation 
walls of surrounding buildings, to search in underground 
water for the remains of the altar enclosure. But they 
were finally found, and the length of the side walls 
corresponded to a centimetre with Petersen's measure- 


ments. The entrance side was, however, 1*20 metre 
wider, but only because the door was so much wider, to 
afford a convenient opening for the procession and sacri- 
ficial animals. These were extraordinary proportions, 
which could no more have been foreseen than the fact 
that an opening in the rear corresponded with the front 
entrance. Thus, although certain details in Petersen's 
plan had to be modified, on the whole the reconstruction 
of the monument was a brilliant demonstration of the 
accuracy which can be attained by methodical and pene- 
trating criticism. The result proved a new and valuable 
addition to the history of art. 

The examples quoted will have afforded the reader 
some insight into the scientific work of Archaeology. 
As science has influenced excavations by new points of 
view and methods, these again have greatly influenced 
science and revolutionized her aims. Not this alone, 
we have seen how other factors have contributed their 
influence. Although philology has taken a second place, 
it does not cease to be helpful to archaeology, and epi- 
graphy above all. What should we know of the Ara 
Pacis without inscriptions ? Nothing. These remains 
would fill us with perplexity. Or, again, is Bcethos, the 
creator of the " Boy and the Goose," a native of Karche- 
don (Carthage), as the manuscripts of Pausanias declare, 
and is the name, as Schubert surmised, merely a Greek 
rendering of a Punic Ezra or Bonith ? or was he born at 
Kalchedon (Chalkedon), as Otfried Muller conjectured ? 
Archaeologists and philologists would be discussing this 
still, if an inscription found in Rhodes had not decided 
in favour of Muller, and given, at the same time, the date 
of the artist as in Hellenistic times, at the beginning of 
the second century. What embittered discussions have 
taken place since Winckelmann and Lessing respecting 


the date of the group of the Laocoon, what floods of ink 
have been poured forth upon the critical passage in Pliny ! 
At first the date wavered from the third century B.C. 
to the first A.D. Then again the group was supposed 
to be later than the giant altar from Pergamon (about 
180), while some adhered to the third century. Then 
upon the evidence of inscriptions the date was fixed at 
c. 100 B.C.; later, according to Rhodian inscriptions, 
the middle of the century was fixed on. Since then this 
date has been confirmed by inscriptions, which can be 
definitely dated, so that the supposed climax of Hellenistic 
sculpture must be placed at the very end of Hellenic 
art. A sundial found in Tenos in 1905 bears an inscrip- 
tion stating that the donor, Andronikos of Kyrrhos, 
whom we know as the founder of the Tower of the Winds 
in Athens, was a native of the city of Kyrrhos in Mace- 
donia, and not a Syrian, as we had until then believed. 

And not only inscriptions on stone, which stand midway 
between literary and monumental evidence, but the 
science of " Papyrology " recently recognized as a 
separate branch of philology, which draws its treasures 
continually forth from the dry sands of Egypt, renders 
valuable services to the history of art. How long had 
the date of Polykleitos wavered, until a list of victors on 
a papyrus found at Oxyrhynchus, assigned him his place 
definitely near Phidias (p. 321). 

The more the study of style becomes dominated, as 
we have already marked, by the subjective factor, so 
much the more wholesome and indispensable to archaeology 
will prove the checks and aids which it receives from 
sciences like philology and epigraphy which follow rigid 
methods. It is not long since the modern change of 
attitude towards all questions also affected archaeology, 
and ancient statues changed their makers as quickly as 
the paintings in our galleries as many opinions as 
heads. It was a necessary stage of development in 


the emancipation of stylistic analysis. Gradually more 
repose has come. In the place of a continuous striving 
for something new, a more thoughtful deliberation has 
asserted itself, and many an " obsolete " conception or 
attribution has again come to light like a diver from a 
whirlpool, while numerous ephemeral creations have 
vanished in the darkness below. Only such a foundation 
is perfectly firm, as has been based on incontestable 
documentary evidence. 

The mass of newly-acquired works of art has also had 
some less desirable results. It has become impossible for 
an individual student to follow all discoveries or finds in 
detail. As in other fields of knowledge or research, a 
division of labour has taken place in archaeology. One 
man may confine himself to architecture, or even only 
a part of it ; another will concern himself with sculpture 
only ; while another will limit himself to red-figured 
vases. A fourth thinks he can afford to ignore Hellenistic 
or Roman art. It has certainly become necessary to 
specialize, so as to study thoroughly the constantly 
accumulating mass of new monuments and questions ; 
and nothing is less edifying than the habit of dabbling 
in special problems without sound knowledge. But 
the individual worker must always remain conscious 
that his province is only a small section of a vast whole. 
Even the popular Histories of Sculpture are far from 
being Histories of Art. Useful, nay indispensable, as 
specialists are, none of them should forget Schiller's 
words : " Ever strive towards the Whole, and if thou 
canst not become a Whole, attach thyself as a ministering 
member to a Whole." 

No one to-day could undertake, with impunity, such 
a task as Karl Otfried Miiller undertook in his " Hand- 
buch der Archaeologie " in 1830 : vestigia tenent ! The 
co-operation of many investigators would be required, 
but, at the same time, it would be needful for all to 


keep the common aim in view, so that no series 
of disconnected chapters should arise, but that one 
spirit should animate the whole and strive towards the 

Another point must be considered. While in former 
times archaeology devoted too much time to the ex- 
planation of works of art, the discovery of so many 
monuments of importance for the history of art has led 
to an equally exclusive emphasis of the historical aspect. 
This is to run to the opposite extreme. Philology has 
learnt more and more clearly to see that one of the first 
essentials is the comprehension of the texts, such as is 
effected by the art of exegesis or hermeneutics, and that 
the history of literature can only be safely based upon 
such a foundation. It is just the same in archaeology. 
We need not necessarily return to the old philological 
mode of explanation, testing the picture by the standard 
of the written word. The work of art has a language of 
its own, which it is our task to understand and to ex- 
plain. There is not only a written but a pictorial tra- 
dition, which follows its own laws. But it does not 
appear right to me though these may be unwelcome 
reflections to appreciate in a work of art only the form, 
in a picture the colour, and to declare the content more 
or less indifferent. Least of all can this be the case in 
ancient art. The painter Nikias observed that the 
subject formed a part of painting. Ancient art knows as 
little as ancient life of an absolute mastery of form. 
The Athenians only considered the person perfect who 
combined beauty with an inner efficiency. And ancient 
art is not different. It may be conceded that Lysippos 
said the last word in perfecting Greek art ; yet Phidias 
ranks above him, as his content is richer and higher, and 
his form equals his content. The form is only the robe, 
which the content creates for itself. Content and form 
are inseparable and one. It is only their relation to one 


another which determines the value of a work of art, and 
is the true object of research. 

May the young archaeologists of the new century, 
for whom the old century has acquired so rich a heritage, 
not pass unheeded these warnings of a veteran. Our 
science, I am convinced, will reward them ! 


1790. " Antiquities of Athens," Vol. II, 1787. 

1792. Massi, Indicazione Antiq. del Museo Pio Clementino. 

1797. Treaty of Tolentino : Roman antiques delivered to 


1798-1801. Bonaparte's Expedition to Egypt. 
1799. Pompeii : excavations by Championnet. 
1800-3. Athens : Elgin works there. 
iSoi. London receives spoils from Egypt. 

1801. Opening of the Muse Napoleon. 

1801-2. Clarke, Dodwell, Gell, and Leake in Greece. 

1802. Wilkins in Athens (Entasis). 

1804. Paris : Societe" des Antiquaires de France. 

1804. Millin travels in Southern France. 

1805. London acquires the Townley collection. 
1805-6. Dodwell, Gell, and Leake again in Greece. 
1807. Gell, " Ithaca." 

1807. Wilkins, " Antiquities of Magna Graecia." 
1807. Pompeii : Arditi's plan for excavations. 
1808-15. Pompeii : excavations under Queen Caroline. 
1810. Gell, " Argolis." 

1810. Brondsted, Cockerell, Foster, Haller, Koes, Linkh, 

Stackelberg at Athens ; Cockerell examines the 
entasis of columns. 

1811. Byron, " Curse of Minerva." 

1811. jEgina : Pediment groups of the temple. 

1812. Bassae : the frieze. 

1812. Burckhardt discovers Petra. 
1812. Cockerell in Sicily. 

1812. The Crown Prince Ludwig of Bavaria acquires the 
^Eginetan sculptures for Munich. 


1812-13. Gell, Gandy, and Bedford in Attica. 

1814. London acquires the frieze from Bassae. 

1815. Visconti, " Memoires sur des ouvrages de sculpture du 


1816. The British Museum acquires the Elgin Marbles. 
1816. " Antiquities of Athens," Vol. IV. 

1816. The antiques of the Musee Napoleon are returned. 
1816. Stackelberg in Rome. 
1816-17. Laborde, " Monuments de la France." 
1817-20. Ker Porter in W. Asia. 

1818. Quatremere, " Lettres a M. Canova." 

1819. Dodwell, " Class, and topogr. tour through Greece." 

1820. Aphrodite of Melos. 

1821. Nibby recognizes the groups of Galatians from Perga- 

1821-2. The Athenian Acropolis bombarded by Voutier. 

1822. Gerhard in Rome. 

1822-3. Harris and Angell at Selinus. 

1823. Panofka in Rome; Society of the Roman Hyper- 

1823-4. Hittorff in Sicily. 

1824. Gerhard in Etruria. 

1826. The Athenian Acropolis bombarded by Reshid Pasha. 

1827. Corneto : wall paintings. 

1827. Laborde in Syria and Arabia Petraea. 

1828. Luynes at Metapontum. 
1828-9. Vulci : discovery of vases. 

1828-30. Egypt : Italian expedition under the direction of 
Rosellini and Champollion. 

1829. Rome : " Institute di corrispondenza archeologica." 

1829. Olympia : French excavations at the Temple of Zeus. 

1830. The conquest of Algeria begun. 

1830. Berthouville near Bernay : the silver find. 
1830. The Crimea : Dulrux opens the Kul Oba, near Kertch. 
1830. Opening of the Museum in Berlin and the Glyptothek 
in Munich. 

1830. " Antiquities of Athens," supplement. 
1830-2. Semper in Italy. 

1831. Pompeii : mosaic, Alexander the Great. 


1831. Gerhard, " Rapporto volcente." 

1832. Thomsen distinguishes the Stone Age, Bronze Age, 

and Iron Age. 

1833-6. Athens : clearing of the citadel by Ross. 
1833-7. Texier travels in Asia Minor. 

1834. Dodwell, " Views of Cyclopian Remains." 
1834-42. Serradifalco, " Archita della Sicilia." 

1835. Athens : reconstruction of the Temple of Nike Apteros. 

1835. 1837, l8 43- Ross in Thera. 

1836. Cerveteri : the Regulini-Galassi tomb. 

1837. Rawlinson deciphers the inscription of Behistun. 
1837. Athens : Pennethorne discovers the horizontal curves 

on the Parthenon. 
1837. Athens : Archaeological Society. 

1837. Kramer on " The Origin and Style of Greek Painted 


1838. Fellows travels in Asia Minor. 

1839. Discovery of the Sophocles statue. 
1839-40 Fellows travels again in Lycia. 
184.0. K. O. Miiller at Delphi, dies at Athens. 
1840-1. Coste and Flandin travel in Persia. 
1841. Society of Art-lovers in the Rhine countries. 

1841. Schonborn discovers the Heroon of Giolbashi. 

1842. Luni : Pediment groups of terra-cotta. 

1842. London acquires the Nereid Monument from Xanthos. 
1843-4. Lycia : Fellows undertakes another expedition. 
1843-4. Ross in Rhodes ; inscriptions of artists. 
1843-4. Lebas travels in Greece and Asia Minor. 
1843-5. Egypt : Lepsius directs the Prussian expedition. 
1843-6. Khorsabad excavated by Botta. 

1844. Chiusi : The Frai^ois Vase. 

1845. Ross in Cyprus. 

1845. Falkener at Ephesos. 
1845-7. Layard excavates Nimrud. 
1845-7. Paccard at Athens. 

1846. Halicarnassos : reliefs sent to London. 
1846. The " Apollo " of Tenea discovered. 
1846. First find at Hallstatt. 

1846. Boucher de Perthes begins a prehistoric publication. 


1846. Athens : Ecole Franaise. 

1846-7. Penrose at Athens. 

1848. Rome : paintings of the Odyssey in the Via Graziosa. 

1848. Dennis, " Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria.' 

1849. Rome : the Apoxyomenos of Lysippos. 

1849. Rome : discovery of the Catacomb of Calixtus by De 


1849-51. Excavations at Kuyunjik by Layard and Rassam. 
1849-52. Loftus in Babylonia. 
1850-80. Mariette in Egypt. 

1851. Penrose, " An Investigation of the Principles of 

Athenian Architecture/* 

1851-4. Oppert, Fresnel, and F. Thomas in Babylonia. 
1851-5. Memphis : Mariette discovers the Serapeum. 

1852. The Heraion near Argos examined. 

1852. Beginning of the excavations in Southern Russia. 
1852-3. Athens : Beule uncovers the approach to the 

1852-9. Newton in the Levant. 

1853. Spratt discovers the Smintheion. 
1853. Villanova : necropolis. 

1853. First discoveries in caves in Southern France. 
I 853- The Marsyas of Myron recognized by Brunn. 

1853. The Kairos of Lysippos recognized by Jahn. 
Vienna : Commission appointed for investigating and 

preserving architectural monuments. 
. Loftus and Taylor travel in Babylonia. 
1853-9. Brunn, " Geschichte der griechischen Kiinstler." 

1854. First discovery of pile-dwellings in Switzerland. 
1854. Sardes : Spiegelthal examines the Tomb of Alyattes. 
1854. Jahn, " Einleitung zum Ketalog der Miinchner 

Vasensammlung.' ' 

1855-60. Pompeii : the Stabian Thermae. 
1856-7. Conze visits the islands of the Thracian Sea and 


1857. Vulci : Grotta Francois. 

1857. Halicarnassos : Newton uncovers the Mausoleum. 
1857-8. Cnidos and Branchidai : Newton. 
1857-8. Rey travels in the Hauran. 


1858. Athens : Odeion of Herodes Atticus. 

1858. Lauersfort : phalerae. 

1859. Oppert investigates Babylon. 
1859. Eleusinian Relief discovered. 

1859. Lenormant discovers statuette of Athene. 

1859. London acquires vases from Kameiros (Salzmann). 
1859-62. Athens : the Stoa of Attalos. 

1860. Renan travels in Phoenicia. 
1860. Cyrene : Smith and Porcher. 

1860. Boucher de Perthes, " De I'homme Ant&liluvien." 
1860-75. Pompeii : Fiorelli directs the excavations. 

1861. Galatia and Bithynia : Perrot and Guillaumc. 

1861. Macedonia : Heuzey and Daumet. 
1861-2. Delphi : Foucart and Wescher. 
1861-2. De Vogue* travels in the Hauran. 
1861-9. Rome : excavations on the Palatine. 

1862. Athens : Botticher (Acropolis), Curtius (Pnyx), and 

Strack (theatre). 
1862. Teos : Pullan discovers slabs of the frieze of the 

Temple of Dionysos. 
1862. Samos : Humann investigates the Heraion. 

1862. Alesia : Napoleon III has excavations carried on. 
1862-3. Nikopol : discoveries of tombs. 

1863. Rome : Augustus from Prima Porta. 
1863. Samothrace : Nike (Champoiseau). 

1863. Friedrichs recognizes the Doryphoros of Polykleitos. 

1863. Kirchhoff, " Studien zur Geschichte des griechischen 

Alphabets " (Chalcidian vases). 

1864. Luynes travels in Syria, 
1864. Thasos: Miller. 

1864. Brunn works on the Julian Monument at St. Remy. 

1864. First discoveries at La Tne. 

1865. Cerveteri : archaic class of vases. 
1865. Marzabotto : necropolis. 

1865. Rome : the temple on the Capitoline. 

1865. Alexandria : the sanctuary of Arsinoe. 

1866. Smintheion and Temple of Athene at Priene : Pullan. 
1866-9. Humann in Asia Minor. 

1867. Brunn recognizes the Eirene of Kephisodotos. 


1867-9. Cyprus : Cesnola. 

1868. Schliemann visits the Homeric sites. 

1868. Hildesheim : discovery of the silver treasure. 

1869. Schone, " Pompeianarum quaestionum specimen." 

1869. Rome : House of Livia. 

1869-74. Ephesos : Wood discovers the Artemision. 

1870. Athens : the Street of Tombs at the Dipylon. 

1870. Brunn recognizes the statues from the votive offering 
of Attalos. 

1870. Conze, " Zur Geschichte der Anfange griechischen 

Kunst " (Geometric style). 
1870-4. Tanagra : the discovery of terra-cottas. 

1871. Athens : the vases of the Dipylon. 
1871. Bologna : the necropolis at the Certosa. 
1871. Troy : Schliemann. 

1871. Curtius, Adler, Stark, and Hirschfeld in Asia Minor. 
1871. The Archaeological Institute becomes a Prussian 
Government institution. 

1871. Helbig recognizes the Diadumenos of Polykleitos. 

1872. Rome : the reliefs of the tribune in the Forum. 

1872. Michaelis, " Der Parthenon." 

1872-3. Rayet and A. Thomas in the valley of the Maeander 
(Miletos, Magnesia, Priene). 

1873. Samothrace : Austrian excavations. 
1873. Delos : LebSgue investigates the Grotto. 

1873. Mau distinguishes the periods of Pompeian wall 


1873. Helbig, " Untersuchungen iiber die campanische 
Wandmalerei " (Hellenism). 

1873. Fiorelli, " Relazione degli scavi di Pompei." 

1874. Mycenae : Schliemann. 

1874. Teos : Hirschfeld investigates the ruins. 

1874. The German Archaeological Institute becomes an 

imperial institution. 
1874-8. Stolze in Persia. 
1875-80. Olympia : German excavations. 

1875. Olympia : the Nike of Paionios. 
1875. Samothrace : Austrian excavations. 
1875-6. Dodona : Monteyko and Karapanos. 


1875-6. Rome : Temple of the Capitoline Jupiter. 

1876. Athens : Asklepieion : tower removed from south 

wing of Propylaea. 
1876. Homolle investigates Delos. 

1876. La TSne : beginning of excavations. 
1877-94. Delos : French excavations. 
1877-81. Telloh : de Sarzec's excavations. 

1877. Olympia : the Hermes of Praxiteles. 
1877. Spata : " Mycenaean " finds. 

1877. Nissen, " Pompejanische Studien." 
1877-1907. Carnuntum : excavations. 

1878. Troy : Schliemann a second time. 
1878. Knossos : Kalokairinos' excavations. 
1878. Andreas at Persepolis. 

1878. Rome : house in the Farnesina. 
1878-86. Pergamon : Prussian excavations. 

1879. Samos : Girard investigates the Heraion. 
1879. Delos : flying Nike (Achermos ?). 

1879. London : Society for the Promotion of Hellenic 

1879. Klein, " Euphronios." 

1879-81. Duhn collects remains of the Augustan Ara Pacis. 

1880. Flinders Petrie begins to work in Egypt. 
1880. Delphi : Haussoullier. 

1880. Orchomenos : Schliemann. 

1880. Menidi : vaulted tomb. 

1880. Tegea : remains of pediment groups by Scopas. 

1880. F. Lenormant in Southern Italy. 
1880-2. Myrina : French excavations. 

1881. Maspero begins to work in Egypt. 
1881. Clermont-Ganneau travels in Phoenicia. 

1881. Dorpfeld, Borrmann, and others study coloured 

architectural terra-cottas. 
1881. Tunis under a French protectorate. 

1881. Constantinople : Museum in the Tchinili-Kiosk. 
1881-3. Assos : American excavations. 

1881, 1884, 1886, 1888. Ramsay travels in Lycia and Phrygia. 
1881-1903. Hieron of Epidauros : Greek excavations. 

1882. Caria and Lycia : Austrian excavations (Giolbashi). 


1882. Sardes : Dennis opens a tumulus. 

1882. Clazomenai : first painted terra-cotta sarcophagi 


1882. Samos : conduits of Eupalinos. 
1882. Wilson visits Petra. 
1882. Alatri : Bassel examines conduits. 
1882. Robert distinguishes a class of vases as of Polygnotan 

1882. Athens : " American School of Classical Studies." 

1882. London : " Egypt Exploration Fund." 
1882-90. Eleusis : Greek excavations. 
1882-90. Adamklissi : Rumanian excavations. 
1882-1903. Perrot and Chipiez, " Histoire de 1'art antique." 

1883. Nemrud Dagh : Humann and Puchstein. 

1883. Milchhofer, " Anfange der griechischen Kunst (Crete). 

1884. Crete : the grotto of Zeus on Mt. Ida, Italian excava- 


1884. Tiryns : Schliemann. 

1884. Athens : Stamatakes begins excavations on the 

1884. Elateia : French excavations. 

1884. Rome : bronze statue of a pugilist. 

1884. Wright, " Empire of the Hittites." 

1884. Dorpfeld elucidates the most ancient Greek archi- 

1884-6. Naukratis : British excavations. 

1884, 1886, 1887. Oropos, Amphiaraeion, Greek excavations. 

1885. Susa : Dieulafoy and his wife, Jane. 

1885. Pamphylia, Pisidia : Lanckoronski, Niemann, and 

1885. Athens : British School. 

1885. Dorpfeld on the Propylaea. 

1885-6. Koldewey travels in Lesbos (Messa). 
1885-6. Ptoion : French excavations. 
1885-91. Athens : Kavvadias directs excavations on the 

1886. Athens : statue of a woman by Antenor. 
1886. Aigai : German excavations. 

1886, 1889, 1895. Athens : Dionysic Theatre, Dorpfeld. 


1887. Sidon : tombs of princes, Alexander sarcophagus. 

1887. Hierapolis : Humann, Cichorius, and others. 

1887. Tell-el-Amarna : archives on clay tablets. 

1887. Fayum : the first paintings on mummies. 

1887. Delphi : Pomtow. 

1887. Eleusis : Eubouleus. 

1887. Rome : Ludovisi marble throne. 

1887. Falerii : Italian excavations of a temple. 
1887-8. Athens : the Stoa of Eumenes. 

1887-8. Mantineia : French excavations, Praxitelean reliefs. 
1887-8. Sanctuary of the Kabeiri, near Thebes, German 

1888. Daphnai in Egypt : British excavations, coloured 


1888. Senjirli : first German excavations. 
1888. Vaphio, near Sparta : Greek excavations, Mycenaean 

gold cups found. 

1888. Schreiber, reliefs of fountains at Vienna (Hellenistic). 
1888-9. Tegea : French investigations. 

1888-99. Marzabotto : Italian excavations, plan of city. 
1888-1900. Babylonia (Nippur) : American excavations. 

1889. Illahun : British excavations. 
1889. Neandreia : Koldewey. 

1889. Locroi : Italian excavations (Ionian temple). 

1889. Alatri : Italian excavations (temple). 
1889-90. Sikyon : American excavations (theatre). 
1889-90. Lycosura : Greek excavations, Damophon. 

1890. Tell-el-Hesy : Flinders Petrie's excavations. 
1890. Troy : Schliemann works there a third time. 

1890. Magnesia : Hiller von Gartringen, theatre. 
1890-1. Senjirli : further German excavations. 
1890-1. Megalopolis : British excavations. 
1890-3. Rome : investigations on the Pantheon. 

1891. Delphi : agreement with France. 

1891. Rome : statue of Apollo found in the Tiber. 

1891. Dorpf eld's investigations in regard to the Hypaethral 

1891-3. Magnesia : excavations of the Berlin Museum. 

1892. Collignon recognizes the Kyniskos of Polykleitos. 


1892-5. Heraion, near Argos : American excavations. 
1892-4. Sicily and Lower Italy : Koldewey and Puchstein 

investigate temple ruins. 
1892-7. Athens : German excavations on the Pnyx (Ennea- 


1892-1903. Investigations of the Germanic Limes. 
1893. Furtwangler, " Meisterwerke der griechischen Plastik." 

1893. Furtwangler recognizes the Lemnian Athene of 


1893-4. Troy: Dorpfeld. 
1893-1901. Delphi : French excavations. 

1894. Senjirli : German excavations. 

1894. Samos : Bohlau investigates the necropolis. 
1894. Rome : Petersen reconstructs the Ara Pacis. 

1894. Reichel, " Die homerischen Waffen." 
1894-5. A. Korte travels in Phrygia. 
1894-5. Pompeii : House of the Vettii. 
1894-5. Boscoreale : villa rustica. 

1895. Tell-el-Amarna : British excavations (Amenhotep IV). 
1894-6. Deir-el-Bahari : Temple of Hatshepsut. 

1895. Borchardt begins work in Egypt. 

1895. Boscoreale : the silver treasure. 

1895. Rome : Column of Marcus Aurelius photographed. 

1895. Hartel and Wickhoff, " Die Wiener Genesis." 
1895-6. Didymaion : French excavations. 
1895-9. Priene : excavations of the Berlin Museum. 

1896. Conca : French and Italian excavations. 

1896-7. Athens : the grotto of Pan, north-west corner of 

the Acropolis. 

1896-1901. Thera : Killer von Gartringen. 
1896-1907. Ephesos : Austrian excavations. 

1897. Nagada : tomb of Menes. 

1897. Kom-el-Achmar : discovery of statues. 
1897. Susa : French excavations. 

1897. Elche, near Alicante : female head discovered. 
1897-8. Briinnow and von Domaszewski travel in Arabia. 
1897-9. Thermos : Greek excavations. 

1898. Vienna : Austrian Archaeological Institute. 
1898. Berlin : Deutsche Orient Gesellschaft. 


1898-9. Alexandria : German excavations. 
1899. Megara : German excavations, fountain. 
1899. Howard Crosby Butler travels in Syria. 

1899. Preuner recognizes the Agias of Lysippos. 
1899-1901. AbuGurab: sanctuary of Ra, German excavations. 
1899-1904. Baalbec : German investigations. 
1899-1907. Babylon : excavations by the " Deutsche Orient 


1899-1907. Miletos : excavations by the Berlin Museum. 
1899-1907. Haltern : excavation of a fort (Aliso ?). 

1900. Gordion : A. and G. Korte. 

1900. Alexandria : tomb at Kom-esh-Shukafa. 

1900. Antikythera : recovery of bronze statues from the sea. 
1900-1. Alexandria : German excavations. 

1900-8. Knossos : Arthur Evans. 

1900-8. Pergamon : new German excavations. 

1901- Waldstein recognizes the Hera of Polykleitos. 

1901. ^Egina : Bavarian excavations of the Temple. 
1901. Romano-Germanic Commission of the Archaeological 


1901. Strzygowski, " Rome oder Orient ? " 

1902. Samos : Greek excavations at the Heraion. 
1902. Delos : the French resume their excavations. 
1902. Treu recognizes the Maenad of Scopas. 

1902. Petersen, Ara Pacis Augustae. 

1902-4. Kos : German excavations of Asklepieion. 
1902-4. Abusir : Borchardt investigates pyramids. 
1902-4. Tell-Taannek : Austrian excavations. 
1902-4. Lindos : Danish excavations on the citadel. 
1902-4. Argos : Dutch excavations. 
1902-5. Geser : British excavations. 

1903. Pergamon : Herm found of the Hermes by Alkamenes. 
1903. Dellbruck, " Drei Tempel am Forum Holitorium." 
1003. Strzygowski, " Kleimasien ein Neuland der Kunst- 


1903-4. Rome : excavations to recover the Ara Pacis. 
1903-5. Megiddo : German excavations. 
1903-7. Assur : excavations by the Deutsche Orient 



1904. Karnak : ancient statues found. 

1904. Howard Crosby Butler and E. Littmann in Syria. 

1904. Deir-el-Bahari : Temple of the Dead of Mentuhotep. 

1905. Oberaden : Roman fort (Aliso ?). 

1906. Abyssinia : German expeditions. 

1907. Jericho : Austrian excavation. 
1904-8. Leukas-Ithaca : Dorpfeld's excavation. 

1908. A. Evans excavating at Knossos. 

1908. German School excavating at Pergamon. 

1908. French School excavating at Delos. 

1908. British School excavating at Sparta. 

1908. American School excavating at Corinth. 

1908. American School excavating at Moklos in Crete. 

1908. Austrian^School excavating at Ephesos. 


Abdalonymos, 276 

Abu Gurab, 262 

Abu Habba, 267 

Abu Roash, 262 

Abu Simbel, 86, 87 

Abusir, 262 

Abydos, 259, 263 

Abyssinia, 266 

Achaeans, 224, 227, 232, 330 

Achaean capital, 249 

Adalia, 194 

Adamklissi, 292 

Adler, F., 126, 134, 166 

jEgae, 176 

jEgean culture, 232 

jEgina, n, 33, 34 ff., 143, 311 

./Egisthus relief, 250 

Age, Stone, 209, 211 

Age, Bronze, 209, 212 

Age, Iron, 209, 213 

Agias, 153, 323 

Agrippa, M., 332 

Aix-la-Chapelle, 23 

Aizani, 93 

Akenaten. v. Amenhotep IV 

Aksum, 266 

Alatri, 251 

Alba Fucens, 251 

Albani collection, 8, 22, 25 

Aldobrandini collection, 6 

Aldobrandini Nuptials, 9 

Alesia, 213, 289 

Alexander mosaic, 68, 113, 163 

Alexander sarcophagus, 276 

Alexandria, 199, 265 

Alexandropol, 108 

Alexandros of Antioch, 50 

Algeria, 284 

Alinda, 172 

Aliso, 290 

Alkamenes, 38, 128 f., 174, 315 f. 

Alyattes, tomb of, 279 

Amathus, 274 

Amazons, statues of, 309 

Amber, high-road for, 287 

Amelineau, E., 263 

Amelung, W., 77, 130, 301, 313, 


Amenhotep IV, 87, 225, 226 
American School of Archaeology, 


Amphiaraeion, 136, 157 
Amyklai, 69 

Analysis of style, 305 ff., 338 
Andernach, 288 
Andrae, 268, 269 
Andreas, F. C., 272 
Andronikos of Kyrrhos, 337 
Androsthenes, 151, 316 
Angell, S., 46 
Ancyra, 92, 105 
Antenor, 243, 309, 314, 320 
Antikythera, 246, 315 
" Antinous," Vatican, 132, 312 
Antioch, 203, 280 
Antiochos I of Commagene, 278 
Apaturios, 165 
Aphaia, 144 
Aphrodite, Cnidos, 308 

Medici, 23 

Melos, 49 ff., 114, 181 

Petworth, 312 
Aphrodite, birth of, 254 
Apollo, 146 

Belvedere, 5, 8, 113 

Omphalos, 305 

Ptoion, 146 

Rhamnus, 322 

Tenea, 53 

Museo delle Tenne, 314 
Apoxyomenos, 71, 113, 296, 308, 

Ephesos, 315 
Aquaiusha, 227 




Aquileia, 291 
Ara Pacis. v. Rome 
Arak-el-Emir, 281 
Archaeological Institute, German, 
in Rome, 62 ff., 77 ft., 80, 115, 
126, 174, 248, 290, 300 
Archermos, 314 
Ardaillon, E., 124 
Arditi, M., 19 
Ares, Ludovisi, 322 

Head, Munich, 322 
Arezzo, Chimaera, 250 
Argos, 245 

Ariadne, Belvedere, 5 
Aristandros, 321 
Aristeides, 316 
Arkesilas, vase of, 235 
Arndt, P., 79, 301 
Arne, 223 
Arsinoe, 118, 265 
Artaxerxes II, 273 
Artemis Palatine, 313 

Versailles, 21 
Artemision. v. Ephesos 

Magnesia, 180 

Artists of same name, 3 1 5 f . 
Arundel, Lord, 10, 31 
Asarhaddon, 270 
Asia Minor, n, 89 f., 93 f., 100, 

166, 235, 277 
Aspasios gem, 310 
Aspendos, 194, 204 
Assos, 92, 113, 177, 202 
Assur, 269 

Assurnasirpal, 90, 269 
Assyria, 88 ff., 270 
Athens, 10, 205, 239 ff. 
'"Acropolis, 29, 33 ff., 52 ff. 

Erechtheion, 30, 53, 332 

jHekatompedon, 241 

^Temple of Nike, 30, 53 ff., 331 

'Parthenon, 29, 33, 52, 54, 239, 

319, 332 
Pelasgikon, 240 
iPropylaea, 53, 240, 330 
Asklepieion, 135, 157 
*Stoa of Attalos, 238 
Theatre of Dionysos, no, 141, 


Dipylon, 205, 207 
Enneakrounos, 244 
Stoa of Eumenes, 238 
Pan's Cave, 244 
Pnyx, 100 
Theseion, 30 
Tower of the winds, 337 


American School, 142, 245, 300 
Archaeological Society, Greek, 

53, 134 ff., 188 
Austrian School, 301 
British School, 104, 245, 274, 

French School, 54, 115, 121 ff., 

146 ff., 178, 246, 300 
German Archaeological Insti- 
tute, 122, 125 ff., 135 f., 174, 
Athene, Albani, 306 

Lemnian, 307, 3171!. 
Athene Nike, 53, 331 

Parthenos, 310 

Athene, Temple of, Priene, 183 
Atreus, tomb of, 32, 221 
Attalos, votive offerings, 311 
Augustus Bevilacqua, 23 

Prima porta, no 
Aurignac, grotto of, 211 
Austria, 291 f. 

Baalbec, 10, 282 

Babylon, 268 

Babylonia, 267 

Bacon, F. H., 177 

Balestra, 28 

Baltazzi, A., 178 

Barberini collection, 6 

Barthelemy, J. J., 14 

Basilica, 199, 203 

Bassae, 33, 35 f., 41, 57 

Beaufort, F., 93 

Bedford, F., 33, 186 

Bedri Bey, 267 

Behistun, 272 

Bekker, I., 27 

Beltrami, L., 334 

Belvedere, 6 

Benedict XIV, 7 

Benghazi, 102 

Beni Hassan, 86 

Benndorf, O., 77, 118, 138, 188 ff., 
196, 291, 292, 312, 316 

Berard, V., 246 

Museum, 23, 167, 170, 180, 258, 

262, 270, 300 
Egyptian Museum, 88 
German Orient Society, 262, 

Orient Committee, 270 

Berthouville, 258 



Bertrand, A., 287 
Beule, E., 54 
Biban-el-muluk, 263 
Bibracte, 289 
Biliotti, 102 
Birs-Nimrud, 268 
Bissing, W. von, 262 
Blacas collection, 102 
Blinkenberg, C., 200 
Blondel, 239 
Blouet, A., 52, 125 
Bockh, A., 27, 198 
Boedas, 308 
Boeotian vases, 237 
Bcethos, 200, 336 
Boghas-k6i, 93, 105 
Bohlau, J., 236 
Bohn, R., 126, 171, 172, 330 
Boissonade, J. F., 27 
Bologna, 213, 317 
Bonn, 288 

Museum, 297, 300 
Society, 288 
Borchardt, L., 262, 263 
Borghese collection, 6, 23 
Borghesi, Count B., 79 
Borrmann, R., 47, 134 
Boscoreale, 256 
Bosio, A., 80 
Bostra, 281 
Botta, P. E., 89 
Botti, G., 265 
Botticher, A., 126 
Botticher, E., 229 
Botticher, K., no, 112 
Boucher de Perthes, J., 210 
Braschi collection, 22 
Braun, E., 77, 308, 312 
Breccia, E., 265 
Brest, 49 
Britain, 287 
British Museum, 17, 26, 38, 42 f., 

56, 90, 95, 99, 101 f., 104, 310, 


Brizio, E., 160 
Bronstedt, P. O., 33, 49, 57 
Brunn, H., 75, 77, 78, 115, 129, 

144, 167, 229, 256, 286, 298, 

301, 302 f., 309, 311, 312 
Brunnow, R. E., 277 
Brussels collection, 76 
Bryaxis, 100, 313 
Brygos, 324 

Building materials, 328 
Building periods, Pompeii, 161 f. 
Bulak, 260 

Bunsen, C. J., 57, 62, 85, 86 
Burckhardt, J. L., 277 
Burgon, T., 206 
Burnouf, E., 115 
Bursian, K., 142 
Busiris vase, 234 
Butler, Howard Crosby, 281 
Byron, Lord, 33, 41, 308 

Caeretan vases, 70 f., 234 

Cagnat, R., 284 

Cairo, 260 

Calah (Kalach), 90 

Calderini, G., 255 

Callistus (Calixtus), 81 

Calvert, F., 216 

Cambridge, museum of casts, 300 

Camillus, 4 

Campana, G. P., 72 ff. 

Candellori collection, 63 

Canina, L., 251 

Canino, Prince of, 63 

Canosa, 62 

Canova, A., 38 

Caracalla, mosaic of the Baths of, 


Caphtor, 232 
Capital Achaean, 249, 329 

^Eolian, 177 
Capitol, v. Rome 
Cappadocia, 105 
Carnuntum, 291 
Caroline of Naples, 20 
Carpi collection, 5 
Carrey, J., n 
Carthage, 285 
Cassas, L. F., 282 
Cassel collection, 23; head, 321 
Castellani collection, 102 
Catacombs, Rome, 80 ff. 
Caves, finds in, 210 f. 
Cavallari, 48 
Cecilia, St., 81, 83 
Cerro de los Santos, 285 
Cerveteri, 59, 63, 69, 234 
Cesi collection, 5 
Cesnola, L. P. di, 274 
Chaff aud, 211 
Chalkis, 234 
Chamonardi, J., 124 
Championnet, 19 
Champoiseau, 118, 120 
Champollion, J. F., 14, 85 
Chandler, R., 11 
Charioteer, Delphi, 153. 318 



Chedanne, L., 333 

Chelles, 210 

Cheramyes, Hera by, 188, 242 

Cherchel, 285 

Chigi collection, 6 

Chios, 242 

Chiusi, 60, 68 

Choiseul-Gouffier, Count, 29 

Christian archaeology, 80 

Christie, H., 211 

Cichorius, C., 196, 255 

Cilicia, 195 

Clamps, 328 

Clarac, Count, 51 

Clarke, E. D., 28, 32, 93 

Clarke, J. T., 92, 177 

Claubry, G. de, 134 

Claudius, Ap. Pulcher, 138 

Clazomenae, 235 

Clement XII, 7 

Clement XIV, 12 

Clerc, M., 176, 188 

Clermont-Ganneau, C. S., 275 

Cnidos, 100, 116, 201 ; Lesche, in 

Delphi, 152 

Cockerell, C. R., 33, 45, 49, 143 
Collignon, M., 78, 320 
Cologne, 288 
Columns, Egyptian, 230; wooden, 

220, 230 
Conca, 249 

Consalvi, Cardinal, 25 
Constantinople, 99, 100, 276 
Convert, H., 124, 149, 
Conze, A., 78, 79, n6flf., 147, 

166 ff., 206 ff., 290, 305, 310 
Cori, 252 
Corinth, 33, 245 
Cornelius, St., 82, 83 
Corneto, 60 

Cortona candelabrum, 250 
Coste, P., 272 
Courbaud, E., 255 
Couve, L., 124, 149 
Crete, 228 fL, 231, 247 
Creuzer, F., 57, 295 
Crimea, 107 ff. 
Croesus, 103 
Cromlech, 209 
Cult sites, 1 54 ff. 
Cumae, 73 
Curtius, E., no, 125 f., 134, 162, 

165 f., 196 

Cyprus, 54, 92, 223, 2746 
Cyrene, 102, 235 
Cyrus, tomb of, 272 

Daggers, Mycenaean, 222, 226 

Dahshur, 263 

Daidalos, 315, 316 

Damasus, 82, 83 

Damophon, 246, 314 

Dannecker, J. H., 44 

Daphnae (Defenneh), 236 

Darius, 272 

Daumet, P. J. H., 106 

Daveluy, A., 115 

David, P., 49 

Davis, Theodore, 263 

Dawkins, J., 10 

Debacq, F. J., 48 

Deir-el-Bahari, 259, 261 

Delattre, A. L., 284 

Delbet, J., 105 

Delbriick, R., 245, 252 

Dell, J., 333 

Delos, 117, 122, 146, 154 f., 204, 

Delphi, 147 f., 155, 175 

Lesche, 152 

Treasuries, 150 

Temple, 151 f., 317 
Demeter, Cnidos, 100 
Demierre, 123 
Demoulin, H., 142 
Dendera, 16, 86, 259 
Dennis, G., 102, 279 
Denon, V., 15, 22, 25 
Desaux, 14, 15 
Dethier, P., 100 
Development of artists, 320 
Diadumenos, 321 

Delos, 124 

Vaison, 102, 311 
Didymaion, 38, 186 

Seated figures, 101, 104, 113, 

122, 186 
Dieulafoy, Marcel and his wife 

Jane, 272 
Dilettanti, Society of, 10, n, 33, 

39, 103 
Diomede, Munich, 305 

Valentinelli, 318 
Dioscuri, Monte Cavallo, 3 
Dipylon style, 206 ff., 233 
Diskobolos, 306, 309 
Dobree, P. P., 27 
Daidalses, 316 
Dodona, 134 
Dodwell, E., 32 

Domaszewski, A. von, 255, 277 
Donaldson, T. L., 100, 134 
Donner, O., 160 



Doric and -dEgean style of arch, 329 

Dorpfeld, W., 38, 47, 126, 134, 
135, 140, 174, 198, 217 ff., 229, 
238 ff., 241, 244, 329, 331 

Doryphoros, 310, 320 

Doublet, G., 124 

Douris, 324 

Dragendorff, H., 199 

Drawings on bones, 2iof. 

Dresden Museum, 7, 300, 317 

Dressel, H., 333 

Droysen, J. G., 308 

Dubois, J. J., 52 

Dubrux, P., 107 

Dunn, F. von, 77, 254, 318, 334 

Dummler, F., 227, 235 

Dumont, A., 122 

Dumont d'Urville, J., 49 

Durrbach, F., 125 

Dutschke, H., 77 

Earle, M. L., 245 

Echo Hall, Olympia, 132 

Edfu, 16, 259 

Egypt, 13 ff., 165, 226, 227 ft., 

231, 261 ff. 
Egypt Exploration Fund, 104, 

261, 271 

Eirene and Plutos, 3 1 1 
Elateia, 146, 154 
Elche, 285 
Elephantine, 16 
Eleusinian Relief, 137 
Eleusis, 33, 1365., 155 f., 312 
Elgin, Lord, 28 ff., 31, 38 ff., 42 
Elyzies, 211 

English collectors, 7, 10 
Entasis, 33 

Ephesos, 102 ff., 113, 195, 203 
Epidauros Hieron, 138 ff., 157,313 
Epigonos, 317 
Epigraphy, 79, 337 
Epiktetos, 324 
Erbkam, G., 86 
Eretria, 141 
Erman, A., 260 
Esagila, Babylon, 269 
Este, 213 
Este collection, 5 
Etruria, 57 ff., 60 ff., 66 ff., 251 
Eubouleus, 138, 312 
Eumares, 243 
Euphranor, 306, 318 
Euphronios, 324 
Euripides, Mantua, 23 
Eusebius. St., 83 

Euthydikos, 243 
Euthymides, 324 
Eutychides, 308 
Evans, Arthur, 229 ff. 
Evstratiades, P., 136 
Exekias, 64 

Fabricius, E., 172, 177, 229 

Falerii, 251 

Falkener, E., 195 

Fara, 269 

Farnell, L. R., 313 

Farnese collection, 7, 102 

Fauvel, 52 

Fayum paintings, 264 

Fea, C., 62, 308 

Fedor, 28 

Fellows, C, 93 ff., 96, 97, 104, 189 

Female head, Scopas, 322 

Female statues, Acropolis, 242^ 


Feoli collection, 63 
Ferdinand of Naples, 20 
Festal sites, 154, 155 ff. 
Fiechter, E., 143 
Fiorelli, G., 159, 161 
Fisher, C. S., 267 
Flandria, E. N., 89, 272 
Flasch, A., 129, 317, 322 
Flaxman, J., 42 
Florence, 251 

Collections, 5, 7, 23, 69, 76 
Fond de Gaume, 2 1 1 
Foster, J., 33, 35 f., 49 
Foucart, P., 124, 148, 200, 313 
Fougdres, G., 124, 246, 312 
Fran9ois, A., 68 ff. 
Fran9ois Vase, 69, 280 
Frankfort, Romano - Germanic 

Commission, 288 f. 
Franks, A. W., 213 
Fresnel, F., 268 
Frick, O., loo 
Friedrich, C., 185 
Friedrichs, K., 78, 144, 302, 309, 


Friedrich III, Emperor, 168 

Friedrich Wilhelm IV, 62, 86 

Frohner, W., 118 

Furtwangler, A., 34, 78, 126, 129. 
134, 138, 143 ff., 223, 256, 

Gabii, 252 

Galatians, 105, 167, 308 

Gandy, J. P., 33, 186 



Ganymede, 308, 313 

Gardner, E. A., 236, 245 

Gardner, Percy, 323 

Gau, F. C., 21 

Gauckler, P., 284 

Gaul, 286 

Gauls, groups of, 6, 7, 23, 308 

Gaye, J., 303 

Gazara, 271 

Gell, W., 21, 33, 136, 1 86 

Geneva collection, 76 

Genoa, 6, 98 

Genre> 178) 238, 260, 296 

Geometric style, 206 ff., 212, 214 

Gerasa, 281 

Gerhard, E., 57 ff., 61 ff., 77, 80, 

US. 295 

Germain, St., Museum, 287 
" Germanicus," Louvre, 21 
Germany, 288 
Geser, 271 

Giant altar, Pergamon, 167 ff. 
Giant columns, 288 
Giolbashi, 97, i89ff. 
Girard, P., 188 
Girgenti, 249 
Giustiniani collection, 7 
Gizeh, 14, 15, 260, 262 
Glavinae, 213 
Gnaccarini, F., 73 
Goethe, J. W., 10, 44, 57 
Gold utensils, 218, 221, 225 
Gold wreath, Pergamon, 174 
Golgoi, 274 
Gordion, 280 
Gortyna, 228 
Gozzadini, Count, 213 
Graber, F., 134, 174 
Graf, B., 313 
Graf, P., 134 
Graillot, H., 249 
Graindor, P., 142 
Gregory XVI, 71, 72, 81 
Grimani collection, 5 
Gropius, G., 36 
Gsell, S., 284 
Gudea, 267 
Guillaume, E., 105 
Gymnasia, 133, 204 

Hadrian, 333, 334 
Hagia Triada, Crete, 231 
Halbherr, F., 228, 231 
Halicarnassos, 98 f., 113, 202, 313, 

Halil-Edhem-Bey, 277 

Haller von Hallerstein, K., 33 f., 


Hallstatt, 2i2ff. 
Haltern, 290 

Hamdi Bey, O., 175, 277, 278 
Hamilton, W., 42, 56 
Hamilton, W. R., 28 
Hansen, C., 53 
" Harpy Tomb," 94 f., 113 
Harris, W., 46 
Harrison, T., 28 
Hatshepsut, 261 
Hauran, 281 
Hauser, A., 117 
Hauser, F., 315 
Haussoullier, B., 148, 186 
Hauvette, A., 124 
Hawkins, R., 96 
Haydon, B. R., 39 ff., 42 
Haynes, J. H., 267 
Head, B. V., 78, 104 
Heberdey, R., 195 
Hecht, G., 141 
Hekatompedon, 240 ff . 
Helbig, W., 77, 114, 160, 248, 310 
Heliopolis. v. Baalbec 
Hellenism, 114 f., 120, 142, 171, 

176 f., 187, 201, 309 
Henzen, W., 80 
Hera, Polykleitos, 321 
Heracles, Lansdowne, 321 
Herakleion, Candia, 231 

Argos, 142!, 154 

Olympia, 127, 329 f. 

Samos, 187 
Herculaneum, 8 f., 18 f., 21, 56, 

ii4, 257 

Hermann, G., 27 

Ludovisi, 306 

Olympia, 51, 131, 132, 312 

Propylaios, 174, 315 
Hermogenes, 179 f., 252 
Herzog, R., 141 
Hettner, F., 288 
Heuzey, L., 55, 106 
Heydemann, H., 77 
Heyne, R., 180 
Hierapolis, 196, 202 f., 204 f. 
Hieron, vase painter, 325 
Hieron. v. Epidauros 
Hildebrand, H., 213 
Hildesheim, 258 
Hillah, 268 



Hiller von Gartringen, F., 180, 

197 ff. 

Hilprecht, H. V., 267 
Hippodamos, 201 f. 
Hirschfeld, G., 126, 166, 167, 179 
Hirschfeld, O., 291 
Hirt, A., 58, 295 
Hittites, 1 06 
Hittorff, J. I., 47 
Holleaux, M., 146 
Homeric art, 70, 92, 216, 221 f., 

225, 231 

Homolle, T. f 122 ff., 148 f., 314 
Houses, 124, 159 f., 173, 183, 220 f. 
Hiibner, E., 78 
Hiilsen, C., 80, 252 
Hiilsen, J., 184 
Humann, K., 166 ff., i8of., 196, 

270, 278 ff. 

Humboldt, A. von, 86 
Humboldt, W. von, 25, 57 
Hunt, P., 29 

Hypaethral temples, 37 f., 121, 186 
Hyperboreans, Roman, 57 
Hyrkanos, 281 

Idalion, 274, 275 

Idolino, 250 

Igel, 287, 288 

Iktinos, 37, 137 

Illahun, 261 

Imbros, 116 

" Immortals," Susa, 273 

Inghirami, F., 59 

Innocent X, 6 

Inscription of artists, 200 

Ionian art, 92, 237, 250, 286, 306 

Vases, 235 
Island stones, 228 
Istar, 269 
Ittar, 28 

Jacobsen, C., 200 

Jahn, (X, 67, 70, 77, 78, 115, 234, 

297. 300. 309 
arde, A., 125 
ason, 21 
atta, G., 78 
ericho, 271 
erusalem, 282 
oachim of Naples, 20 
ordan, 268 
ordan, H., 252 
oseph of Naples, 20 
uba II, 285 
udeich, W., 196 

judicial proceedings, 4 

ulius II, 5 

ulius III, 5 

ulius, L., 144 
Junius, F., 8 

Kabeiri, 120, 155 

Kaibel, G., 312 

Kairos, 309 

Kalamis, 152, 305, 306 

Kalat Shergat, 269 

Kalinka, E., 195 

Kalkmann, A.. 305 

Kallikrates, 265 

Kallimachos, 305, 306 

Kalokairnios, M., 228 

Kameiros, 102, 236 

Kanachos, 186 

Kapodistria, Count, 52 

Karapanos, K., I34f. 

Kardaki (Cadacchio), 328 

Karnak, 259, 261, 264 

Kavvadias, P., 138 f., 239 f., 244, 

246, 313, 314 

Kawerau, G., 133, 184, 240 
Keftiu, 231 

KekulS, R., 77, 79, 129, 179, 181 
Kellermann, O., 79 
Kephisodotos, 311 f., 316 
Ker Porter, 272 
Kern, O., 180 
Kertch, 107 
Kestner, A., 57, 6 1, 62 
Khorsabad, 90 
Kiepert, H., 103, 191 
Kieseritzky, G. von, 310 
Kinch, K. F., 200 
Kircher, A., 6 
Kirchhoff, A., 128, 234 
Kition, 274 
Klein, W., 324 
Klenze, L. von, 52 
Knackfuss, H., 184 
Knaffl, G. von, 190 
Knight, R. P., 39, 41, 42 
Knossos, 229, 230 
Knowles, W. W., 54 
Koes, G., 33 
Kohler, U M 228, 319 
Kolbe, W., 185 
Koldewey, R., 177 f., 248 f. 268, 

270, 282 
Kolotes, 129 
Kom-el-achmar, 87, 264 
Kom-esh-shukafa, 265 
Koraes, A., 27 



Korte, A., 280 
Korte, G., 280 
Kos, 141 f., 257 
Kragos, 192 
Kramer, G., 67 
Kremna, 194 
Krencker, D., 266, 282 
Kresilas, 309 
Kritios and Nesiotes, 309 
Krupp, F. A., 280 
Kuyunjik, 88 f., 90 
Kul Oba, 107 
Kumanudes, A., 222 
Kurion, 274 
Kyniskos, 320 
Kypselus, 69 

Laborde, Count A. de, 286 

Laborde, Count L. de, 54, 277, 282 

Lachish, 270 

Lambaesis, 284 

Lanciani, R., 252 

Lanckoronski, Count K., 193 

Lang, H., 275 

Lange, K., 144 

Lansdowne, Heracles, 323 

Laocoon, 5, 8, 330 

Lartet, E., 210, 211 

La Tene, 213, 214 

Lauersfort, 258 

Laugerie Basse, 211 

Layard, A. H., 89, 90, 91, 268, 269 

Leake, W. M., 32, 52, 134 

Lebas, P., 93 

Lebegue, A., 122 

Leda, 313 

Legrain, G., 264 

Leipzig, museum of casts, 300 

Lekatzas, 134 

Lemnian, 307, 317 

Lemnos, 116 

Lenormant, C., 136, 309 

Lenormant, F., 136, 248 

Leochares, 100, 313 

Leonardos, B., 135, 136 

Lepsius, R., 85 ff. 

Lesbos, 1 1 6, 178 

Lesche of the Cnidians, Delphi, 152 

" Leukothea," Munich, 311 

Library, Ephesos, 191 

Pergamon, 172 
Limes, 289 

Lindenschmit, L., 288 
Lindos, 200 
Linkh, J., 33 f., 49 
Lion Tomb, Cnidos, 101 

Lion group, Capitol, 4 

Lion Gate, Mycenae, 32 

Littmann, E., 266 f., 281 

Locri, 248 

Loftus, W. K., 266, 272 

London, v. British Museum 

Longperier, A. de, 92 

Loschcke, G., 129, 223, 236, 287, 

290, 305, 319 
Loubat, Count, 125 
Louis I of Bavaria, 34, 41, 45 
Louvre, v. Paris 
Lowy, E., 190 
Lubbock, Sir J., 210 
Ludovisi collection, 6, 24, 254 
Luitpold, Prince Regent, 143 
Luni, 251 

Lupke, T. von, 266 
Luschan, F. von, 270 
Lusieri, T., 28, 31 
Luxor, 261 
Luynes, Duke de, 48, 61, 76, 277, 


Lycia, 93 ff., 188 f., 205 
Lycian sarcophagus, Sidon, 275 
Lycosura, 246, 314 
Lyons, museum of casts, 300 

Macalister, R. A. Stewart, 271 
Macedonia, 106 
Madelaine, 210 
Madrid collection, 7 
Maenad Scopas, 313, 322 
Magnesia, 141, 175!, 179 f., 180, 


Mahmud Bey, 201 
Mainz Jupiter column, 287 

Central Museum, 288, 291 
Mantineia, 141, 246, 312 
Mantua collection, 33 
Marcellus, Vicomte de, 50 
Marchi, G., 81 
Marduk, 269 
Mariette, A., 259 ff. 
Marion, 274 
Market-places, 20, 174, 177, 180, 


Marsyas, Myron, 306, 309 
Martha, J., 78 
Marzabotto, 160, 213, 251 
Maspero, G. C., 260 f. 
Massalia, 286 
Mastabas, 87 
Mattei collection, 5 
Matz, F., 77, 79 


Mau, A., 162 ff. 

Mausoleum, 99 f., 313, 322 

Mayer, L., 93 

Mazois, F., 20 

Medici collection, 5, 7 

Medinet Habu, 261 

Medracen, 285 

Megalithic monuments, 209 

Megalopolis, 141, 245 

Megara, 245 

Megiddo, 271 

Meleager, 321 

Melos, 49 f., 114, 206 f. 

Memnon colossus, 16, 87 

Memphis, 86, 259 

Meneptah, 227 

Menes, 263 

Menhir, 209 

Menidi, 223 

Mentor brig, 30 

Mentuhotep, 261 

Mertens-Schaffhausen, S., 98 

Messa, 178, 181 

Metapontum, 48 

Metternich, Prince, 117 

Meyer, H., 295 

Micali, G., 59 

Michaelis, A., 78, 116, 147, 317 

Milani, L. A., 251 

Milchhofer, A., 228 f. 

Miletos, ii, 101, 179, 187, 204. 

See Didymaion. 
Miller, E., 106 
Millin, A. L., 58, 286 
Mineyko, S., 134 
Minos, 229 . 
Miot, 19 
Mnesikles, 331 
Modena collection, 23 
Mohl, J., 88 
Moltke, H. von, 292 
Mommsen, T., 80, 289 
Montalto collection, 5 
Montelius, O., 214 
Morelli, 303 

Morgan, J. de, 263, 273 
Mortillet, G. de, 210 
Mosaic, 285 
Mugheir, 267 
Miiller, K. O., 67, 77, 115, 147, 

296 f.. 336, 338 
Munich, museum of casts, 300 

Glyptothek, 25, 34, 45, 54, 311 

Collection, 7 

Muses reliefs, Mantineia, 312 
Mustoxydes, A., 144 

Mycenae, 32, in, 2i6ff., 221!., 

225 ff. 

Mycenaean style, 221 ff., 225 ff. 
Myra, 93, 191 
Myrina, 178 

Myron, 306, 307, 309, 318 
Mysteries, 155 f. 
Mytilene, 236 

Nagada, 263 
Nakshi, Rustam, 272 
Naples collection, 7 
Napoleon I, 13 ff. 

Musee Napol6on, 22 ff., 41 
Napoleon III, 105 f., no, 201, 213, 

252, 275, 289 
Naram-Sin, 273 
Naukratis, 235, 261 
Naville, .,261 
Naxos, 23, 242 

Sphinx in Delphi, 1 50 
Neandreia, 177 
Nebi Yunus, 88 
Nebuchadnezzar, 268 
Nemi, 250 
Nemrud-Dagh, 278 
Nennig, 288 
Nenot, H. P., 123, 124 
Nereid monument, 95 f., 191 
Neumagen, 287, 288 
Neuss, 288 

Newton, C. T., 99 ff., 104, no, 
1 1 6, 120, 1 86, 225, 274, 294, 
310, 312 

New York Museum, 274 
Nibby, A., 308 
Niebuhr, B. G., 26, 57 
Niebuhr, K., 272 
Niemann, G., 117, 189 f., 193 f., 


Nikaia, 203 
Nikandra, 123, 242 
Nike, Archermos, 123, 314 

Paionios, 128 f., 133, 312 

Samothrace, ii8f., 120 
Nikias, 339 
Nikopol, 1 08 
Nile, Vatican, 5 
Nimes, 286 
Nimrud, 90 f. 
Nineveh, 88, 91 
Ninmach, 269 
Niobe, 5 

Sipylos, 105, ill 

Niobe relief, St. Petersburg, 73, 75 
Nippur, 267 



Nissen, H., 161 

Noack, F., 137 

Nointel, Marquis, 10 

Noldeke, 268 

Norba, 252 

Northern Greek art, 107, 129, 305 

Numantia, 289 

Nymphaea, 185, 194, 284 

Nymph relief, Thasos, 106 

Nymphio, Karabel, 93, 105 

Obelisk, black, London, 91 

Oberaden, 290 

Odysseus paintings, 70 f., 163 

Ohnefalsch-Richter, M., 274 

Olympia, 52 f., 125 ff., 156, 304 

Oppert, J., 268 

Opramoas Heroon, 193 

Orange, 286 

Orchomenos, 216, 221 

Orient and Rome, 283 

Orsi, P., 228, 248 

Orvieto, 60 

Ostia, 72 

Overbeck, J., 256, 297, 310, 311 

Oxford collection, 10 

Oxyrhynchus, 321, 337 

Paccard, A., 54 
Paestum, 9, 249, 330 
Paionios, 128 ff., 130, 304, 312 
Palafitte, 212 
Palatitza, 106 
Palestine, 270 

Palestine Society, German, 271 
Palmyra, 10, 282 
Pamfili collection, 6 
Pamphylia, 193, 203 
Panofka, T., 57 f. 
Pantheon, 332 ff. 
Paphos, 274 

Papyrus finds, 264, 321, 337 
Paris, Cabinet des medailles, 22, 

Louvre, 21 f., 41, 50, 76, 92, 
106, 118, 120, 179, 257, 272, 

Societe des antiquaires, 287 

Tiberius altar, 292 
Paris, P., 124, 146, 285 
Pars, W., ii 
Parthenon sculptures, 28 ff., 33, 

37 f-. 39 f, 319 ff- 327 
Pasargadae, 272 
Paschalis I, 83 

Pasparakes, G., 228, 229 

Pasqui, A., 256, 335 

Paton, R., 141 

Paul III, 5 

Pausanias, 32, 130 f., 149, 151, 307 

Peiraeus, 201 

Peisistratos, 241, 244 

Peleus vase, London,,.327 

Pennelli, 74 

Pennethorne, J., 54 

Penrose, F. C., 54 

Pepy, 264 

Perdrizet, P., 149 

Pergamon, 141, 165, 166 ff., 202 f., 

204, 238, 308, 315 
Perge, 194 
Pernier, L., 231 
Perrot, G., 55, 105 
Persepolis, 272 
Perserschutt, 239 
Perseus, 306, 318 
Persia, 272 

Perugia, bronze chariot, 249 
Peters, J. P., 267 
Petersburg, St., 78, 109 
Petersen, E., 77, 190, 194 f., 248, 

249. 255, 314. 320 f., 335 
Petra, 277 
Petrie, Flinders, 236, 261 f., 263, 


Petworth, 312 
Phaestos, 231 
Pharis, 223 
Pharsalos, 106, 323 
Phidias, 31, 129, 307, 310, 311, 

317!, 319, 326, 327, 339 
Phigalia. v. Bassae 
Philae, 16, 86, 87 
Philadelphia, 281 
Philios, D., 137 
Philippeion, Olympia, 132 
Philippi, A., 255 
Philis, 106 
Phineus bowl, 235 
Phoenicia, 275 
Photography, 116, 120, 301 
Piette, E., 211 
Pigorini, L., 247 
Pile dwellings, 2 1 2 f . 
Pinara, 191 
Pisa, 68 

Piscatory, T., 54 
Pisidia, 194, 203 
Pittakes, K., 53 
Pius VI, 12 
Pius IX, 75, 82 



Place, V., 89 

Plans of festal sites, 155 f. 

Plato, 243, 247, 321 

Bust of, 314 
Pliny, 258, 307 
Pococke, R., 13 
Poggio, 2, 3 
Polychromy, sculpture, 46 f., 52, 

242, 243 

Polygnotos, 113, 152, 191, 326 f. 
Polykleitos the elder, 102, 124, 
142, 308, 310, 312, 315, 320 f., 

323. 337 

Polykleitos the younger, 140, 315 
Pomardi, S., 32 
Pompeii, 18 ff., 56 f., 68, 115, 

159 ff., 202, 256 ff. 
Pomtow, H., 148 
Pont du Card, 286 
Pontremoli, E., 186 
Poole, R. S., 78, 104 
Porcher, E. A., 102 
Poraacho, 107, 109 
Porson, R., 27 

Poseidon frieze, Munich, 255 
Pettier, E., 178 
Pourtales collection, 102 
Prachow, A., 144 
Prague collection, 7 
Praying Boy, 23, 308 
Praxias, 151, 306, 316 
Praxiteles, 131, 138, 246, 308, 

312 f., 316 

Prehistory, 115, 206 ff., 247 
Preuner, E., 153, 322 
Priene, n, 102, 112, 176, 181 f., 

196, 202, 204 
Prima Porta, no 
Prokesch-Osten, Baron, 53, 198 
Promis, C., 251 
Provence, 286 
Provincial art, 286 ff., 291 
Ptoi'on, 146, 154 
Puchstein, O., 170, 248 f., 279, 

282, 317, 330 
Pugilist, 254 

Pullan, R. P., 100, 102, 178, 182 
Purgold, K., 126 
Pyramids, 15, 87 f., 260 f., 262 
Pythagoras, 305, 318 
Pythios, 314 

Quatremdre de Quincy, A. C., 43 
Quibell, J. E., 263 f. 

Ra, 262 

Ramesseum, 86, 87 

Ramsay, W. M., 195, 280 

Rangabe, A. R., 142 

Raschdorff, O., 172 

Rassam, 268 

Rauscher, V., 335 

Rawlinson, G., 268 

Rawlinson, H. C., 272 

Rayet, O., 180, 182, 184, 186 

Regulini-Galassi, 71, in, 206 

Rehm, A., 185 

Reichel, W., 224 

Reinach, S., 124, 176, 178, 287 

Reinach, T., 316 

Reisch, E., 151, 316 

Reliefs, 257 

Remy, St., 286 

Renan, E., 275, 281 

Revett, N., n, 122, 181, 188 

Rey, G., 281 

Rhamnus, 33 

Rhodes, 54, 100, 102, 200, 225, 


Rhodiapolis, 193 

Rhoikos and Theodoros, 187, 188 
Richardson, R. B., 245 
Ridder, A. de, 78 
Rienzi, 4 

Riepenhausen, F. and J., 112 
Ritter, K., 189 
Riviere, Marquis de la, 49 
Robert, C., 79, 171, 321, 326 
Roberts, D., 277 
Rochette, R., 92, 297 
Rohden, H. von, 79 
Rome, 2 ff., 8 

Columbarium Condini, 72 \ 

Farnesina, 253 

Forum, 252 

Jupiter Temple, Capitol, 251 

Catacombs, 80 f. 

Arch of Constantino, 255 

Column of Marcus Aurelius, 255 

Mater Matuta, 252 

Temple of Neptune, 255 

Golden House of Nero, 9 

Palatine, no, 253 

House of Livia, in, 163 

Prima Porta, no 

Arch of Titus, 253 

Thermae of Titus, 9 

Column of Trajan, 255 

Ara Pads, 254, 334 f. 

Mosaic of Caracalla, 7 1 1 

River god, Monte Cavallo, 3 

Reliefs from Forum, 255 




Marcus Aurelius, 2, 3 

Marforio, 4 

Paintings of Odysseus, 70 

Pasquino, 4 

Antiquities, 2ff. 

Museums, 5 ff., 70, 72 f., 252 f. 
Capitol, 5, 7, 22, 25 
Vatican, 5, 7, 12 f., 22, 25 

Museum of casts, 300 
Rosa, P., no 
Rosellini, I., 85 
Rosetta stone, 17 
Ross, L., 53 f., 125, 142 f., 198, 

200, 274 

Rossi, G. B. de, 80 
Rothschild, E. de, 182, 257 
Rothschild, G. de, 182 
Rumohr, K. F. von, 303 
Ruvo, 62 

Saalburg, 289 

Safe-keeping of excavations, 175 

Sagalossos, 194 

Saitapharnes, 109 

Sakkara, 16, 259, 260 

Salis, A. von, 188 

Salmanassar II, 90 

Salzmann, A., 102, 236 

Samos, ii, 187 f., 236, 245 

Samothrace, 116, ii7f., 120, 154, 


Sanctuaries, 154 
Sardanapalus, 91 
Sardes, 279 
Sargon, 89, 92 
Sarzec, E. de, 267 
Satrap sarcophagus, Sidon, 275 
Sauer, B., 144 
Sauroktonos, 308 
Savignoni, L., 231 
Scandinavia, 210 
Scarabs, 225 
Schaffhausen, 211 
Scharf, G., 94, 97 
Schaubert, E., 53 
Scheil, P., 267 
Schiff, A., 199 
Schinkel, K. F., 52 
Schliemann, H., 71, 168, 215 ff., 

217, 219, 222, 238 
Schonborn, A., i89ff. 
Schone, R., 77, 161 f., 168 
Schrader, H., 171, 181, 242 
Schreiber, T., 77, 265, 305 

Schubart, J. H. C., 336 

Schuchhardt, K., 172, 174 

Schulter, A., 289 

Schultz, R. W., 245 

Schultz, B., 282 

Schumacher, G., 271 

Schiitte, K., 133 

Scopas, 100, 119, 246, 312, 322 

Scribe statue, Louvre, 260 

Selge, 194 

Selinus, 46 f., 48, 113, 249 

Sellin, E., 271 

Semper, G., 47, 112 

Senjirli, 270 f. 

Serapeum, Memphis, 259 

Serpent column, 99, 151 

Serradifalco, Duke, 48 

Sester, K., 278 

Shaftgraves, 221 

Shaw, T., 284 

Sicily, 45 ff., 48, 248 f. 

Side, 194 

Sidon, 275 

Sidyma, 192 

Sieglin, E., 141, 265 

Siemens, G. von, 185 

Signia, 252 

Sikyon, 141, 245 

Silanion, 314 

Sillyon, 194 

Silver utensils, 257 f. 

Sinai, 87 

Siphnos Treasury at Delphi, 150 

Sippar, 273 

Sixtus II, 8 1, 83 

Sixtus IV, 5 

Smintheion, 102, 178 

Smith, C., 104 

Smith, R. M., 102 

Smyrna, 93, 178 

Society for the Promotion of 

Hellenic Studies, 104 
Sogliano, A., 78 
Solutre, 210 

Sophocles, Lateran, 71, 113, 296 
Soteriades, G., 247 
Southern Russia, 107 f. 
Spain, 285 
Sparta, 245 
Spata, 223, 225 
Sphinx, Delphi, 15 
Spiegel thai, 279 
Spon, J., ii 

Spratt, T. A. B., 96, 178, 191 
Stackelberg, O. M. von, 33, 36 f., 

49, 57 f., 66, 144, 302, 323 



Stais, B., 143 

Stamatakes, P., 239 

Stark, 77, 311 

Stein, Baron, 299 

Stephani, L., 77, 78, 107, 311 

Stier, W., 47 

Stiller, H., 172 

Stillmann, W. J., 228 

Stone construction, 328 

Stolze, F., 272 

Strack, H., 110, 238 

Strangford, Lord, 310 

Strasburg, museum of casts, 300 

Stratford, Canning, 89, 98 

Stratford de Redcliffe, Lord, 99 

Straton I., 276 

Strzygowski, J., 283 

Stuart, J., n, 122 

Studniczka, F., 190, 242, 305, 318 

Subiaco youth, 305 

Sunium, n 

Susa, Persia, 272, 273 

Susa, Piemont, 292 

Syngros, 133, 153 

Syra, 117 

Syria, 280 ff. 

Tadius, 163 

Tanagra, 237 f. 

Tarentum, 327 

Tarral, C., 51 

Taylor, J. E., 267 

Tegea, 246, 312. 321 

Telephanes, 304, 306 

Tell-el-Amarna, 88, 225, 262 

Tell-el-Hesy, 270 

Tell-el-Mutesellin, 271 

Tell-Taannek, 271 

Telloh, 267 

Temple, old Italic, 250 f. 

Tenea, 53 

Tenos, 142 

Teos, 102, 179 

Termessos, 194 

Ternite, W., 21 

Terracina, 71 

Terra-cotta architectural slabs, 47, 

251, 280 

Terra-cotta reliefs, Campana, 72 f. 
Terremare, 212 
Tetaz, J. M., 54 

Texier, C., 92, 166, 179, 186, 272 
Thaingen, 211 
Thasos, 1 06, 116 
Theagenes, 245 

Theatre, 136, 140, 152, 173, 183. 
185 f., 194, 203 f., 238, 245, 

Thebes, Egypt, 16, 86, 87, 263 
Thera, 197 ff., 202 
Therasia, 199 
Thermos, 247 

Thersilion, Megalopolis, 245 
Thiersch, F., 25, 295 
Thiersch, H., 143 
Tholos, Epidauros, 1 39 f . 
Thomas, A., 180, 182, 184 
Thomas, F., 89, 268 
Thomsen, C. J., 209 
Thorn Extractor, 4, 22 
Thorvaldsen, A., 34, 62, 144 
Throne, Ludovisi, 254 
Thurioi, 201 
Thurmer, J. H., 60 
Tiber, Vatican, 5, 25 
Timgad, 284 
Timotheos, 100, 139, 313 
Tiryns, 32, 216 ff., 219 f., 230, 328 
Titeux, A., 55 
Tivoli, 252 
Tlos, 191 

Tocilesco, G. G., 292 
Tolentino, Peace of, 22 
Torlonia collection, 74 
Tombs, 94 f., 191, 192, 204 

Relief tombs, 205 

Ilissos, 322 
Torso, Belvedere, 5. 
Tournaire, A., 149, 154 
Townley, C., 42 
Tremaux, P., 193, 196 
Treu, G., 126, 131, 134, 313 
Triada Hagia, Crete, 231 
Trier, 287 

Museum, 288 

Triumphal arches, 284, 286 
Troy, 168,21 5, 218 ff., 220 ff., 328 f. 
Tsountas, C., 218. 223 
Tunis, 284 
Tunnel, Samos, 187 
Turin collection, 23 
Tyche of Antioche, 308 
Typhon pediment, 241 
Tyrannicides, 243, 309 

Ulrichs, H. N., 54, 147, 311 
Universities, archaeological chairs, 

299 f. 

Urlichs, L., 288 
Uthina, 285 



Vaison, 101, 310 
Valentinelli, G., 78 
Valle collection, 5 
Vaphio cups, 223 
Vases, 62 ff., 65, 68 f., 199, 206 ff., 
231, 234, 235, 274, 280, 290, 

297. 323 f- 325 
Veil, 60, 72 
Veil Pasha, 36 
Venice, bronze horses, 23 

Collection, 7 
Vergers, N. des, 68, 69 
Verona collection, 23 
Vestal, 254 

Vettii, house of, Pompeii, 256 
Veyries, A., 178 
Vienna Archaeological Institute, 

195. 291 

Village Sheik, 260 
Villanova, 213 

Villa rustica, Boscoreale, 256 
Visconti, E. Q., 12, 23 f., 25, 

41 f., 58, 295, 308 
Visconti, P. E., 75 
Vogue, M. de, 281 
Vollgraf, W., 245 
Volterra, 68 
Vulci, 62 ff., 69 

Wadi Haifa, 86 

Wagner, E., 141 

Wagner, M., 35, 37, 144 

Waldstein, C., 142, 257, 305, 321 

Warka, 267 

Wasserbillig, 288 

Weil, R. f 126 

Welcker, F. G., 45, 77, 113, 115, 

296 f., 299, 322, 326 
Wellington, Duke of, 25 

Wescher, K., 147 

Wheler, G., n 

Wickhoff, F., 255 

Wiegaud, T., 181 f., 184, 187, 241 

Wiesbaden Society, 288 

Wieseler, F., 77 

Wilberg, W., 181, 196, 199 

Wilhelm I, 126 

Wilhelm II, 255, 266, 268, 271, 282 

Wilkins, W., 32, 33, 45 

Wilpert, J., 84 

Wilski, P., 199 

Wilson, E. L., 277 

Winckelmann, J. J., 7f., 12, 24, 

125, 295, 308 
Winckler, H., 106 
Winter, F., 79, 313, 314, 327 
Wolf, F. A., 27 
Wolf, Capitol, 4, 250 
Wolters, P., 78, 199 
Wood, J. T., 103 f., 196 
Wood, R., 10, 282 
Worsase, J. J. A., 211 
Worsley, R., 28 
Wright, W., 106 
Wiirzburg Museum, 300 

Xanthos, 94 ff., 191. See Harpy 

and Nereid monuments. 
Xenophantos, 108 

Zahn, W., 21 

Zanth, L., 47 

Zeus cave, Crete, 229 

Zeus temple, Olympia, 128 ff. 

Zeus statue, 310 

Ziebarth, E., 185 

Ziggurat, 267, 269 

Zoega, G., 13 f., 58, 295, 302 




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